The last definition is really at the heart of geography. Maps are the tools of geographers: If something can be mapped, it’s geography.
1. Chapter 1:Chapter 1:
The World of GeographyThe World of Geography
2. Chapter 1:Chapter 1:
What is Geography?What is Geography?
**It is the study of our earth; ourIt is the study of our earth; our
*Anything that can be mapped!*Anything that can be mapped!
3. *Geography mixes up the physical*Geography mixes up the physical
and human aspects of our worldand human aspects of our world
into one field of study.into one field of study.
*Geography shows the*Geography shows the
relationship between people andrelationship between people and
the environment.the environment.
4. What is a geographer?What is a geographer?
• Someone whoSomeone who
analyzes theanalyzes the
Earth from manyEarth from many
points of view.points of view.
5. The Five Themes of GeographyThe Five Themes of Geography
• There are five ways to look at the earthThere are five ways to look at the earth
• When geographers work, they areWhen geographers work, they are
guided by two basic questions:guided by two basic questions:
1)1) Where are things located?Where are things located?
2)2) Why are they there?Why are they there?
To find these answers, geographers useTo find these answers, geographers use
five themes to organize informationfive themes to organize information
Things that geographers study:Things that geographers study:
• plant lifeplant life
• how the Earth and its people affect eachhow the Earth and its people affect each
7. The Five Themes:The Five Themes:
1)1) Location – Geographers begin to study a placeLocation – Geographers begin to study a place
by finding where it is, or its location.by finding where it is, or its location.
2)2) Place – Geographers study the physical andPlace – Geographers study the physical and
human features of a location.human features of a location.
3)3) Human-Environment Interaction –Human-Environment Interaction –
Geographers study how people affect or shapeGeographers study how people affect or shape
physical characteristics of their naturalphysical characteristics of their natural
surroundings and how does their surroundingssurroundings and how does their surroundings
(environment) affect them?(environment) affect them?
8. 4)4) Movement – Helps explain how people,Movement – Helps explain how people,
goods, and ideas get from one place togoods, and ideas get from one place to
5)5) Regions – Geographers compare theRegions – Geographers compare the
climate, land, population, or history ofclimate, land, population, or history of
one place to another.one place to another.
• There are two ways to think aboutThere are two ways to think about
1.1. absolute location – describes theabsolute location – describes the
place’s exact position on the Earth.place’s exact position on the Earth.
2.2. relative location – explains where arelative location – explains where a
place is by describing places near it.place is by describing places near it.
• This includes a location’s physical andThis includes a location’s physical and
human features.human features.
– To describe physical features, you might sayTo describe physical features, you might say
that the climate is hot or cold or that the landthat the climate is hot or cold or that the land
is hilly.is hilly.
– To describe human features, you mightTo describe human features, you might
discuss how many people live there, whatdiscuss how many people live there, what
types of work they do, or what they do for fun.types of work they do, or what they do for fun.
11. Human-Environment InteractionHuman-Environment Interaction
• How do people adjust to and change theirHow do people adjust to and change their
environment? How does the environmentenvironment? How does the environment
adjust to and change the people?adjust to and change the people?
• Geographers also use interaction to studyGeographers also use interaction to study
the consequences of people’s actions.the consequences of people’s actions.
• Explains how people, goods, and ideasExplains how people, goods, and ideas
move from one place to another.move from one place to another.
• Helps geographers understand culturalHelps geographers understand cultural
• A region has a unifying characteristic, likeA region has a unifying characteristic, like
climate, land, population, or history.climate, land, population, or history.
• On maps, geographers use color andOn maps, geographers use color and
shape or special symbols to show regions.shape or special symbols to show regions.
14. The Geographer’s ToolsThe Geographer’s Tools
• Globes and Maps:Globes and Maps:
– As people explored the Earth, theyAs people explored the Earth, they
collected information about it.collected information about it.
– Mapmakers wanted to present thisMapmakers wanted to present this
information correctly.information correctly.
– The best way was to put it on a globe, aThe best way was to put it on a globe, a
round ball that represented the Earth.round ball that represented the Earth.
15. – Because globes are not practical orBecause globes are not practical or
easy to use to carry, flat maps wereeasy to use to carry, flat maps were
– However, the earth is round and a mapHowever, the earth is round and a map
is flat.is flat.
– Mapmakers had to find ways to makeMapmakers had to find ways to make
maps accurate.maps accurate.
16. How Latitude and Longitude FormHow Latitude and Longitude Form
the Global Gridthe Global Grid
17. The HemispheresThe Hemispheres
18. Globes and MapsGlobes and Maps
• The most accurate way to presentThe most accurate way to present
information on the islands, continents, andinformation on the islands, continents, and
bodies of water of the world is to put it allbodies of water of the world is to put it all
on aon a globeglobe, a round ball like the Earth, a round ball like the Earth
• The only difference between a globe andThe only difference between a globe and
the Earth itself is thethe Earth itself is the scalescale, or size,, or size,
represented on the globe.represented on the globe.
19. • Globes have a disadvantage: They cannotGlobes have a disadvantage: They cannot
be complete enough to be useful and atbe complete enough to be useful and at
the same time be small enough to bethe same time be small enough to be
• Therefore, people invented flat maps.Therefore, people invented flat maps.
20. • Maps try to show the Earth, which isMaps try to show the Earth, which is
round, on a flat surface.round, on a flat surface.
• This causesThis causes distortiondistortion, or a change in, or a change in
accuracy of the shapes and distances ofaccuracy of the shapes and distances of
• It is impossible to show the Earth on a flatIt is impossible to show the Earth on a flat
surface without some distortion.surface without some distortion.
21. • In 1569, a geographer
named Gerardus Mercator
created a flat map to help
sailors navigate long
journeys across the globe.
• The Mercator projection, or
method of putting a map of
the Earth onto a flat piece of
paper, is used by nearly all
• The Mercator projection is a
conformal map, meaning
that it shows correct
shapes, but not true
distances or sizes.
• There are many types of
other projections of the
Getting It All On the MapGetting It All On the Map
The World: Mercator Projection
22. There are many ways to show a globe
on a flat map. The interrupted
projection map, on the left, shows
real sizes and shapes of continents.
The equal area map , below left,
shows size accurately. The Peters
projection, below, shows land and
oceans areas and correct directions
The World: Three ProjectionsThe World: Three Projections
23. The World: A RobinsonThe World: A Robinson
ProjectionProjection ARCTIC OCEAN
24. The Parts of a MapThe Parts of a Map
Compass RoseCompass Rose
• A compass rose is a model of a compass. It tellsA compass rose is a model of a compass. It tells
the cardinal directions, which are north, south,the cardinal directions, which are north, south,
east, and west.east, and west.
• The scale on a map tells you the relativeThe scale on a map tells you the relative
distance on the map to the real world. Fordistance on the map to the real world. For
example, a map’s scale may tell you that oneexample, a map’s scale may tell you that one
inch on the map equals one mile in the realinch on the map equals one mile in the real
• The key, or legend, on a map explains whatThe key, or legend, on a map explains what
the symbols on a map represent, such asthe symbols on a map represent, such as
triangles representing trees.triangles representing trees.
• Some maps use a grid of parallels andSome maps use a grid of parallels and
meridians. On a map of a small area, lettersmeridians. On a map of a small area, letters
and numbers are often used to help you findand numbers are often used to help you find
your location.your location.
26. Types Of MapsTypes Of Maps
• Physical map- seePhysical map- see
the landforms andthe landforms and
bodies of water.bodies of water.
• Political map-Political map-
features on thefeatures on the
earth surface. Thisearth surface. This
may include cities,may include cities,
states, provincesstates, provinces
• Thematic map-showThematic map-show
climate vegetation,climate vegetation,
natural resources,natural resources,
population densitypopulation density
and economicand economic
• Flow map- movementFlow map- movement
of people, goods,of people, goods,