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  • 1. The Age of Reform, 1890-1930
  • 2.
    • By 1900, the negative effects of the Industrial Revolution had become apparent. People started to notice the poor working and living conditions, the use of child labor, the unfair practices of huge monopolies, and the corruption of politicians all indicated that America was in need of a change.
  • 3.
    • Progressives wanted to:
    • restrict child labor,
    • improve sanitation,
    • reduce working hazards and long hours,
    • control and regulate monopolies,
    • help conserve the environment,
    • improve education,
    • ban alcohol,
    • and improve the voting process.
  • 4.
    • New York State Tenement House Law required fire escapes, lights in dark hallways, a window in each room
    • Pure Food and Drug Act prohibited sale of adulterated or fraudulently labeled foods and drugs
    • Meat Inspection Act enforced sanitary conditions in meatpacking plants
    • 16th Amendment authorized federal income tax  
    • Federal Child Labor Law barred products produced by children from interstate commerce
    • 18th Amendment prohibited sale and production of intoxicating liquors 
    • 19th Amendment   Gave women the right to vote 
  • 5.
    • “ Muckrakers” was a term for a group of progressives, mostly writers and journalists, who exposed the terrible conditions brought on by the Industrial Revolution
    • Ida Tarbell wrote articles for McClure’s Magazine about the corrupt practices of Rockefeller’s Standard Oil Company
    • Henry Demarest Lloyd wrote about the outrageous gap between the rich and the poor and warned that American society wouldn’t be ruined by poor classes but by the “barbarians from above”, referring to the wealthy tycoons.
    • Lincoln Steffens wrote articles with Ida Tarbell, showing the corruption of city politics
    • Upton Sinclair wrote “The Jungle” about the unsafe working conditions and the unsanitary meat packing industry
    • Jacob Riis wrote “How the Other Half Lives”, exposing the horrid living conditions of the poor families of New York
  • 6.
    • Roosevelt assumed Presidency after McKinley was assassinated by “anarchist” Leon Czolgolz
    • He wanted to start enforcing the Sherman Antitrust act of 1890- he brought suits against many of the major monopolies (oil, tobacco and beef) and the Supreme Court chose in favor of TR every time
    • He became famous for his emphasis on conservation- “teddy bear” named after him because he wouldn’t unnecessarily kill a bear
  • 7.
    • Taft was intended by Roosevelt to be his successor- Taft instituted more progressive reforms in four years than Roosevelt did in seven
    • Taft furthered conservation efforts, strengthened and enforced the Pure Food and Drug Act, set up the Department of Labor and heavily regulated corporate campaign funding
    • Many good ideas but was an ineffective politician- poor in leadership skills
  • 8.
    • Wilson won the presidency in 1912- the race was between Taft (R), Roosevelt (BM) and Eugene Debs (S)- who got 6% of the vote!
    • Wilson created the New Freedom program
      • Underwood Tariff reduced tariff rates
      • Centralized banking to back paper money with gold
      • Clayton Antitrust Act and Federal Trade Commission to regulate business practices
  • 9.
    • 17 th Amendment: Direct Election of Senators aimed to cut down corruption in politics
    • 18 th Amendment: Prohibition of Alcohol stemming from temperance movements
    • 19 th Amendment: Women gained the right to votes
  • 10.
    • Debs ran for president five times on the Socialist Party Ticket- got 6% of the vote in 1912!
    • Participated in the Pullman workers strike and advocated a huge worker’s union
    • Skilled in oratory, touched people with his speeches- once said “I believe in socialism because I believe in humanity.”
    • Goals for society: justice, fraternity, equality- would be gained by a revolution through the ballot
  • 11.  
  • 12.
    • Refused and exposed a bribe by a Republican Party Boss and gained a reputation for honesty
    • When elected to the Senate, his declared that he has to “protect the people” from the “selfish interests” of big business
    • Campaigned for Women’s Suffrage
    • Supported labor unions
    • Fought to regulate and downsize the power of corporations
  • 13.