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  1. 1. The Age of Political Extremes
  2. 2. <ul><li>In a socialist system, the means of production are owned AND operated by the public or the government </li></ul><ul><li>Products and services are then redistributed evenly </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists believe that a country’s wealth shouldn’t be owned by a small minority of people </li></ul><ul><li>Socialists also don’t believe in private property, they think that everything should be shared among the collective, or community </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Currently, no country has achieved a successful socialist state that adheres to true socialist principles. </li></ul><ul><li>Most countries (even Communist ones) have adopted some form of capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>Capitalism is based on private ownership, a free market and competition for products and services </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><ul><li>A system of government in which the state plans and controls the economy through a single party. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The party maintains power by claiming to make progress toward a higher social order in which all goods are equally shared by the people. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Some people think that communism is the economic stage after a country goes though a socialist stage </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Karl Marx wrote the Communist Manifesto, saying that the failure of capitalism is inevitable and that a country goes through different stages and ends in communism </li></ul><ul><li>Marx also said that the exploited working class will rise up and overthrow capitalism and then gain ownership of the means of production </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>In 1917, the Bolsheviks overthrew the monarchy in Russia and set up a Communist state in Russia –it ends in 1989 </li></ul><ul><li>In 1949, Chinese Revolutionaries overthrew the Nationalist government and set up a Communist state in China –China is still “Communist” but has allowed some capitalism </li></ul><ul><li>In 1958, revolutionaries under Fidel Castro overthrew the government and set up a Communist state in Cuba –Cuba is still Communist today </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>A political belief arguing that a nation has the right to declare itself an independent state, usually based on ethnicity and a common history </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists think that every person in the nation should speak the same language, have the same heritage and practice the same culture </li></ul><ul><li>Nationalists think that a person’s ethnicity is their most defining characteristic </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Authoritarian governments demand strict obedience by their citizens and often suppress individual expression and thought </li></ul><ul><li>Some authoritarian governments allow for minimal personal freedoms and can also have trouble in mobilizing and controlling the entire population </li></ul><ul><li>Authoritarian governments may lack a specific ideology, meaning the only agenda they have is to control the citizens </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Totalitarian governments regulate every aspect of nation, both public and private </li></ul><ul><li>One leader becomes the figurehead for the entire country </li></ul><ul><li>The government maintains control by using a secret police, propaganda and a personality cult for the one leader </li></ul><ul><li>Totalitarianism is considered a more extreme stage of authoritarianism </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>In a fascist political system, the needs of the individual are considered less important than the needs of the country </li></ul><ul><li>Fascists take the idea of nationalism to an extreme and think that everything should serve the country </li></ul><ul><li>Fascism also preaches intolerance of people who are “different”: different races, religions, ethnicities, languages, cultures </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>In 1940s Italy, Benito Mussolini set up a fascist state by relying on censorship and oppression of dissent </li></ul><ul><li>In 1930s Germany, Adolf Hitler set up a fascist state by relying combining nationalism with totalitarianism </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Considered a “western” ideology that emphasizes individual liberty and equality </li></ul><ul><li>Liberalism supports freedom of speech and thought, along with open and free elections and a market economy (meaning people buying and selling things by their own free will without too much government regulation) </li></ul><ul><li>Examples (present day): United States, Britain, Canada, Western Europe </li></ul>