Comrade Web Accessibility 101
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An introduction to web accessibility - what it is, why it matters, and how you can get started.

An introduction to web accessibility - what it is, why it matters, and how you can get started.

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Comrade Web Accessibility 101 Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Web Accessibility 101What it is, why it matters,and how you can get started
  • 2. You need to plan a trip on BART. Which map would be more helpful? Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 2
  • 3. What if you tried planning the same trip on Google Maps? Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 3
  • 4. For millions of Americans, getting information on the Web is a challengeColor blindness isjust one of manyaccessibilitychallenges forpeople using theinternet. Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 4
  • 5. What is Web accessibility?In the World Wide Web, accessibility means havingequal access to web-based information and servicesregardless of physical or developmental abilities orimpairments.Source: Johns Hopkins University Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 5
  • 6. Why accessibility?It’s the right thing to do“The power of the Web is in its universality. Access by everyone regardless of disability is an essential aspect.” - Tim Berners-Lee, W3C Director and inventor of the World Wide Web Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 6
  • 7. Accessibility benefits everyoneIt’s the lawAccessibility is mandated by the federal government*, as well as many states,international governing bodies, educational institutions and nonprofits.It can help you reach a wider audience49.7 million Americans have disabilities.** As with most other Americans, theydepend more and more on the internet for information and transactions.It can improve overall usability and SEOBecause accessible websites are more intuitive, navigable and search enginefriendly, everyone wins—not just people with accessibility challenges.Its future-friendlyAccessible sites leverage the latest tech innovations across multiple platforms,and decouple content from formatting.*Section 508 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Act**Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Disability Status: 2000 - Census 2000 Brief Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 7
  • 8. Accessibility is key to baby boomers as they become more at risk of disability “The number of adults with a disability is likely to increase dramatically as the baby boomers enter into higher risk age groups over the next 20 years.” - Centers for Disease Control and PreventionPrevalence of disability by age* Total number With disability Percent with disability All ages 257,167,527 49,746,248 19.1 Ages 5 to 15 45,133,667 2,614,919 4.3 Ages 16 to 64 178,687,234 33,153,211 17.6 Ages 65 and over 33,346,626 13,978,118 43.0*Source: U.S. Census Bureau, Disability Status: 2000 - Census 2000 Brief Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 8
  • 9. An accessible website can be used by virtually anyoneCan your website be used by people with commondisabilities?• Blindness• Visual impairment• Deafness• Hearing impairment• Motor disability• Cognitive disabilitySource: WebAIM, “Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 9
  • 10. If you are visually impaired, you need assistive technology to use the WebIf you are blind:• You can’t see images, photos, graphics or videos.• You probably use a screen reader to listen to web pages.• You may use the Tab key to jump from link to link.• You probably don’t use a mouse.If you are visually impaired:• You may use a screen enlarger to view websites.• You can’t enlarge text in graphics without special software— and even with this software the text is pixelated.Source: WebAIM, “Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 10
  • 11. Accessibility challenges aren’t limited to what you can and can’t seeIf you are deaf or hearing impaired:• You may use assistive technology to convert audio into text.If you have a motor disability:• You may not be able to use a mouse.• You may rely on voice-activated software.If you have a cognitive disability:• Complex layouts or inconsistent navigation may be confusing.• You may have difficulty focusing on or comprehending lengthy sections of text.Source: WebAIM, “Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 11
  • 12. The World Wide Web Consortium is setting the standard for accessibilityWeb Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) areguidelines for making content accessible, primarily fordisabled users, but also for all user agents, includinghighly limited devices, such as mobile phones.WCAG are published by the World Wide WebConsortium’s Web Accessibility Initiative. The currentversion is 2.0, published on December 11, 2008.Source: Wikipedia Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 12
  • 13. Is your website perceivable, operable, understandable and robust?The POUR principles of Web accessibility:PerceivableAs a minimum requirement for accessibility people need to be able to see,hear, or touch Web content.OperableUsers should be able to find, navigate, and interact with Web content such asforms and menus using a range of input methods and assistive technologies.UnderstandableAll Web content should make sense and its behavior should be predictable.In addition any feedback provided about errors should be clear and helpful.RobustContent must be robust enough that it can be interpreted reliably by a widevariety of user agents, including assistive technologies.Sources: Paul Wallas, “POUR Principles of Accessibility,” W3C, “Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 13
  • 14. PerceivablePerceivable:• Provide text alternatives for any non-text content so that it can be changed into other forms people need, such as large print, braille, speech, symbols, or simpler language.• Provide alternatives for time-based media.• Create content that can be presented in different ways (for example, simpler layout) without losing information or structure.• Make it easier for users to see and hear content including separating foreground from background.Source: W3C, “Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 14
  • 15. Case study: Apple.comPerceivable:• Video is is closed captioning enabled.• Images are clearly labeled with helpful alt text. Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 15
  • 16. OperableOperable:• Make all functionality available from a keyboard.• Provide users enough time to read and use content.• Do not design content in a way that is known to cause seizures.• Provide ways to help users navigate, find content, and determine where they are.Source: W3C, “Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 16
  • 17. Case study: Couchsurfing.orgOperable:• All links on the page are available by “tabbing” on the keyboard. All 42 links on the page are available without requiring the use of a mouse. Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 17
  • 18. UnderstandableUnderstandable:• Make text content readable and understandable.• Make Web pages appear and operate in predictable ways.• Help users avoid and correct mistakes.Source: W3C, “Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 18
  • 19. Case Study: Screen ReaderUnderstandable:• Screen readers must account for every link on the page by signposting it with the audible alert “LINK” each time there is a link on the page. To experience a hypothetical site with a screen reader, visit: http://webaim.org/simulations/screenreader-sim.htm Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 19
  • 20. RobustRobust:• Maximize compatibility with current and future user agents, including assistive technologies.Source: W3C, “Introduction to Understanding WCAG 2.0” Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 20
  • 21. Case Study: Accessibility Evaluation ToolbarRobust• To prevent future enhancements from becoming inaccessible, tools like the Accessibility Evaluation Toolbar allow developers to run through myriad scenarios. To generate a list of HTML headings on a web page, visit: https://addons.mozilla.org/en- US/firefox/addon/accessibility-evaluation-toolb/ Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 21
  • 22. Next stepsWhat you can do to address Web accessibility:• Create accessibility awareness and expertise within your organization.• Evaluate your current Web properties for accessibility gaps.• Create a prioritized action plan to make your Web properties compliant with current accessibility standards.• Get started, tackling one project at a time. (We recommend starting with your home page.)• Support an ongoing effort to learn and evolve your Web properties as accessibility standards change. Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 22
  • 23. Sources and further readingSection 508 of the U.S. Rehabilitation Acthttp://www.section508.gov/Johns Hopkins University, Web accessibility micrositehttp://webaccessibility.jhu.edu/U.S. Census Bureau, Disability Status: 2000 - Census 2000 Briefhttp://www.census.gov/hhes/www/disability/disabstat2k.htmlWebAIM, “Considering the User Perspective: A Summary of Design Issues”http://webaim.org/articles/userperspective/Wikipedia, “Web Content Accessibility Guidelines”http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Web_Content_Accessibility_GuidelinesW3C, “Understanding WCAG 2.0”http://www.w3.org/TR/UNDERSTANDING-WCAG20/Overview.htmlCenters for Disease Control and Preventionhttp://www.cdc.gov/Features/dsAdultDisabilityCauses/Paul Wallas, “POUR Principles of Accessibility”http://www.paulwallas.com/anything-web/pour-principles-of-web-accessibility/ Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 23
  • 24. Brand DevelopmentResearch and AnalyticsDigital MarketingUser Experience DesignTechnologyComrade Inc.Oakland, CANew York, NYwww.comradeagency.com Page Introduction to Web Accessibility 24