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Gas Chromatography

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Introduction,History,Major Components working principle and procedure of Gas chromatography.

Introduction,History,Major Components working principle and procedure of Gas chromatography.

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  • The detector generates a voltage that isproportional to the amount of the substance. The signal from the detector is then displayed by a chartrecorder and/or fed into a computer.Modern gas chromatographs are connected to a computer which displays the peaks of all the substances in thesample. This is called the chromatogram.
  • It does interact less with the stationary phase, hence the retention time is shorter, but the quality of separation deteriorates.The trade-off is that the retention time increases proportionally to the column length. There is also a significant broadening of peaks observed, because of increased back diffusion inside the column.
  • Most detectors are relatively sensitive and do not need a lot of material

Transcript

  • 1. OUTLINES  CHROMATOGRAPHY  HISTORY  GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY  GAS CHROMATOGRAPH MAIN COMPONENTS  WORKING PRINCIPLE OF GC  PROCEDURE OF GC  FACTORS AFFECTING GC
  • 2. •Greek word “CHROMA” and “Graphein”. •Process of separation and analyzation of complex mixture
  • 3. It works on the basis of rate at which the types of components flow. As the mixture of various components enter the chromatograph we will observe that the different components of a mixture move/flow at different rate. This different rate of flowing is responsible for
  • 4. Mikhail Tswett Russian Botanist (1872-1919) John Martin British chemist 1910-2002
  • 5.  Gas chromatography is separation method. Gas chromatography is a chromatographic technique that can be used to separate volatile organic compounds. Gas Chromatography consists of two phases.  Mobile Phase  Stationary phase
  • 6. GAS CHROMATOGRAPH MAIN COMPONENETS: Carrier Gas Injection Port Column Oven Detector Sample
  • 7.  This is the mobile phase and should be inert gas(he, ar etc) INJECTION PORT  The injection port consist of rubber septum through which a syringe needle is inserted to inject the sample.
  • 8. COLUMN Column is the most important component where separation takes place. OVEN Oven is also an important component in which column is fitted.
  • 9. DETECTOR Detector is to indicate the presence and measure the amount of component eluted out from the column. SAMPLE The mixture of components which is to be analyzed.
  • 10. WORKING PRINCIPLE OF GC  It works on the principle that the organic compounds are separated due to differences in their partitioning behavior between Mobile phase and Stationary phase.  The mobile phase is comprised of inert gas. The stationary phase consists of packed column.
  • 11. PROCEDURE OF GC Sample is injected in column.  Oven heats the system to vaporize the sample and speed its passage through the column.  The different components of the sample will be separated by the column because each of the components “sticks” to the liquid coating that on the column packing differently.
  • 12.  When a substance leaves the column, it is sensed by a detector.  The detector generates the voltage that is proportional to the amount of the substance.  Chromatogram
  • 13. Temperature: T he higher the temperature, the more of the compound is in the gas phase. Carrier gas flow: If the carrier gas flow is high, the molecules do not have a chance to interact with the stationary phase.  Column length: The longer the column is the better the separation usually is.
  • 14. Amount of material injected: The injection of too much sample causes poor separation. Conclusion: High temperatures and high flow rates decrease the retention time, but also deteriorate the quality of the separation.
  • 15. PRESENTED BY: ALLAH WARAYO (12PG41) NOOR MUHAMMAD (12PG37) ABDUL KARIM (12PG34)
  • 16. Question or any Queries