I. Speaker’s Notes: Any time hazardous materials are in use, spill prevention and control is an important program. An effective spill prevention program can prevent additional employee exposures to hazardous chemicals. Chemical spills, if released into the environment, can also affect the surrounding community. This training session will give details about spill control procedures—especially for those responsible for spill cleanup.
I. Background for the Trainer: If these regs are available, display them or show them to the class II. Speaker’s Notes: The OSHA HAZWOPER standard was born out of EPA regulations and is designed to cover workers who routinely deal with hazardous waste or hazardous material spill response. The SARA standard is designed to inform the surrounding community of the potential hazards posed by chemicals in use at industrial facilities. SARA also deals with the community response to releases of these materials.
I. Background for the Trainer: All employees must know whom to call in the event of a chemical spill. This should be in the emergency action plan, and it is a good idea to post these numbers in conspicuous locations. II. Speaker’s Notes: Proper containers are designed to help prevent spillage. Hazard Communication training is required for any employee using hazardous materials on the job. This training should include spill prevention and emergency actions. Many EPA regulations require secondary containment for large quantities of hazardous chemicals. By complying with these regulations, spills can be easily controlled and will be prevented from entering storm drains, public waterways, etc. Companies who want to be proactive should have only the amount of chemicals on hand necessary to conduct business.
I. Background for the Trainer: If your community fire service has a hazmat response team, use their expertise in developing your team and program. II. Speaker’s Notes: Make sure that storage is proper to avoid inadvertent leakage into public waterways and Public Owned Treatment Works (POTW). You should be trained to recognize—not necessarily clean—chemical spills. All spills should be reported to the spill response team so that they can make the determination relative to mitigation.
I. Background for the Trainer: If you have a plan available, show it to the class or hand out a copy to the attendees. II. Speaker’s Notes: You want to be ready for an emergency before it happens. Remember, Murphy’s Law is alive and well. Each individual team member role should be identified by procedure. These responsibilities should be identified by job role, not individual employee names. The chain of command should be clearly delineated by procedure and the Incident Commander should have full authority during spill response. All levels of the team should be adequately trained on all phases of emergency response. A means of communication during an emergency must be available at all times to team members. If you’re not trained to respond, you should evacuate the area of the emergency, if it is deemed safe to do so. Be sure you are familiar with the general layout of your facility and know the quickest evacuation route from your area.
I. Speaker’s Notes: The site must remain secure throughout the emergency to avoid possible involvement or contamination of such innocent bystanders as the media. Be sure you know the shortest evacuation routes from your area. Diagrams of the routes should be prominently displayed. If a hazardous material spill is to be dealt with by a response team, there must be procedures for decontamination of both personnel and equipment. Emergency medical treatment for chemical exposure. A method of alarming all personnel must be part of the emergency plan also and should be clearly communicated to everyone, prior to an emergency.
I. Speaker’s Notes: The IC directs all emergency response operations and serves as the liaison with appropriate officials. Sometimes a project team leader is used in lieu of an “Incident Commander.” Site safety officers recommend work stoppage if necessary, notify public emergency officials, and provide for emergency medical care on the site. Command post supervisors notify emergency support personnel when they are needed and assists the site safety officer when necessary. The rescue team is on standby, outside the spill area exclusion zone, partially dressed in protective gear, ready to respond as needed. Decon station officers perform emergency decontamination as directed. The medical team provides transportation and treatment of victims.
I. Speaker’s Notes: Communication personnel provide communication links for mutual aid and interact with local media to provide pertinent information relative to the emergency. Environmental scientists predict the immediate and future movement of hazardous materials, assess the effect on the surrounding environment, determine the probability of plume movement, estimate the expected concentration of hazardous substances in the surrounding community, and predict the exposure levels of people as well as the ecosystem. Hazardous chemical experts provide immediate advice to those on the scene in a chemical-related emergency. Firefighters respond to fires, rescue victims, and provide meteorological information required by environmental scientists. Public safety personnel such as police provide site control for access, crowds, and traffic. Public evacuation personnel such as the Red Cross or National Guard mobilize transit equipment and assist in evacuations. On-scene coordinator oversees federal response activities.
I. Speaker’s Notes: The title of team leader must be specifically identified in the written plan. For example, the leader may be the Incident Commander, project team leader, etc. This leader must have alternates for off-shift emergencies as well as times when the primary leader is away from the facility. The leader should have the final say in all events relative to the health and safety of response personnel. An effective response cannot be carried out without the appropriate emergency equipment. Anyone entering the site must be required to check in with the person leading the response. The leader cannot be second-guessed. Management, as well as employees, must follow whatever orders are provided by this leader.
I. Speaker’s Notes: On many occasions, outside personnel such as hazmat teams must be contacted for additional support or technical assistance. It is important to know whom to contact for agency assistance. Groups such as FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Association) routinely respond to serious emergencies that involve communities. Outside response officials must be made aware of the type of emergencies possible at a given site. Level of outside participation must be known and based on the needs of the initial response organization. Backup facilities such as fire stations and hospitals must be on standby during a serious evacuation and emergency response. Outside agencies and groups should be invited to participate in routine company training drills so that they can become familiar with emergency response requirements. There should be one person established as the site contact person so that all outside agency personnel will know whom to contact.
I. Background for the Trainer: If response equipment is available, have it available during this section of the presentation. II. Speaker’s Notes: An emergency is no time to try to be a hero. If you are not trained, do not respond. Anyone who spots a spill should call the spill response emergency number immediately. Site security should then notify the SRO to start the response process. The SRO will in turn contact the hazmat team to initiate mitigation. Joint decisions will then be made as to the level of support needed. This will be done on a case-by-case basis. Security will then notify medical if it is determined that they are needed for support.
I. Speaker’s Notes: Once the team is assembled, a determination must be made about the need for evacuation. The Incident Command System procedures are now initiated and the full-blown response is under way. The Incident Commander is now in charge, and all decisions must be based on the capabilities of the response team.
I. Speaker’s Notes: The cause of the incident must be determined to prevent recurrence. Mitigation techniques and long-term corrective actions are important measures in any emergency response. Lessons learned should be openly discussed with all team members, and a joint corrective action plan should be initiated. After each incident, there will always be some level of corrective action that can be implemented.
I. Background for the Trainer: If decon equipment is available, show it to the class during this section. II. Speaker’s Notes: Decon will always vary, depending on the level of response and what equipment and gear is disposable and what must be saved. All decon operators must be properly trained to avoid inadvertent contamination of support personnel. Different decon solutions are necessary for different types of chemicals. Check with your local hazmat teams to determine the different recipes for the solutions. Decon is not haphazard. It must be carefully planned to avoid confusion and cross-contamination. If decon is not performed, everyone and everything that response personnel touch, may need to be disposed of. It is not unheard of in a serious incident to have to dispose of entire ambulances because of contamination levels.
I. Speaker’s Notes: The effects that the contaminants have on the body are a huge determining factor. If clothing is badly contaminated, decon is essential, whereas if contact is incidental, the decon needs are minimal. This too is on a case-by-case basis. Decon needs will also vary on the basis of the level of protection used by the responder. Work function is important because responders may use tools and/or equipment that may require a more tedious method of decontamination. If materials are extremely volatile, contamination in the upper areas of the protective clothing pose a greater risk to the personnel and therefore must be handled with care. If a person leaves the contamination site to pick up additional tools, decon may not be needed at that time, but if a person leaves the area to change a cylinder, complete decontamination may be necessary.
I. Background for the Trainer: Hand out the quiz copies. Go over the questions verbally and have the employees write their answers on their quiz sheets.
Spill Prevention and Control Training by USMRA
Spill Prevention and Control
Hazardous Waste Operations and Emergency
–29 CFR 1910.120
–Covers spill response teams
Superfund Amendment and Reauthorization
Act (SARA), Title III
for large storage tanks
Prominently display emergency contact
Store only necessary amounts of chemicals
Preventing Spills (cont.)
Utilize local spill
response teams for
from storm drains, etc.
Report releases to
response team, regardless of quantity
Emergency Response Plans
Lines of authority
Emergency Response Plans (cont.)
Evacuation routes and procedures
Emergency medical treatment
Emergency Response Personnel
Incident Commander (IC)
Project team leader
Site safety officer
Command post supervisor
Decontamination station officers
24-hour medical team
Response Personnel (cont.)
Public safety personnel
Public evacuation personnel
The spill response leader must:
Be identified in written plan
Be backed up by alternates
Have the authority to resolve all disputes
Be authorized to purchase necessary supplies
Have control over activities of everyone
entering the site
Have the clear support of management
Arrange to interact as needed for guidance
Make arrangements with appropriate agencies
Alert the authorities to the types of emergencies
Determine resources and response time
Identify backup facilities
Provide appropriate training and information
Establish a site contact person
If an Incident Occurs
If not trained, evacuate
the area immediately
Call emergency number
Security will notify Senior
Response Official (SRO)
SRO will contact Hazmat Team
Security and SRO will determine
Security will notify medical re: incident
If an Incident Occurs (cont.)
Team determines evacuation needs
Team establishes the incident command
Respond only within the capabilities of
How was it
How can it
Implement follow-up corrective action
Determined on basis of type of incident
and level of protection necessary
Requires that operators on the team be
Uses several solutions for decon of equipment
Requires staging and setup for efficient decon
Is necessary to prevent cross-contamination of
workers and equipment
Factors for Appropriate Decon
Type of contaminant
Amount of contamination
Level of protection
Location of contamination
Reason for leaving the site
1. Using approved containers will reduce
the possibility of a chemical spill. True or False
2. Decon, a typical term used in spill response, is an
3. The ___________________________________________
is in charge of all activities related to a spill response.
4. If a spill response is deemed a success,
there is no need for post-incident response. True or False
5. The response leader should not be identified
in any procedures because that person may
change from time to time. True or False
6. Three typical members of an emergency response team
include ____________, __________ and __________.
7. Companies should not use outside agencies
for spill response because it makes
coordination difficult. True or False
8. Two duties of a spill response leader include
____________________ and ____________________.
9. If you have not been trained in spill
response, you should not try to mitigate
a hazardous material spill. True or False
10. Two factors for determining the appropriate level of
decontamination are ____________ and ___________.
1. True. Using appropriate containers is one way
to help prevent chemical spills.
2. Decon, a typical term used in spill response, is an
abbreviation for decontamination.
3. The incident commander is in charge of all activities
related to a spill response.
4. False. Regardless of the success of a response,
there should always be post incident response for
5. False. The response leader should always be identified
in written procedures to identify his or her authority.
Quiz Answers (cont.)
6. The typical members of an emergency response
team include incident commander, project team leader,
site safety officer, command post supervisor,
rescue team, decon station officers, medical team,
communication personnel, environmental scientist,
hazardous chemical expert, firefighters, public safety
personnel, public evacuation personnel, and on-scene
7. False. Companies should use outside personnel
when necessary to increase their ability to respond
to an incident.
Quiz Answers (cont.)
8. Duties of a spill response leader include identification
in the written plan, backed up by alternates, authority
to resolve issues, authorization to purchase supplies,
control activities of everyone at the site, and having the
support of management.
9. True. Only those adequately trained should be involved
in the actual response.
10. Factors for determining the appropriate level of
decontamination are type of contaminant, amount of
contamination, level of protection, work function,
location of contamination, and reason for leaving the site.