Speaker Notes Sanitation: The Foundation of Food Safety module focuses on the importance of sanitation to prevent foodborne illness and food allergic reactions. Cleaning and sanitizing is a critical process and the foundation of food safety in any food operation.
This module was developed by the Minnesota Department of Agriculture with expertise and resources from the Hennepin County Environmental Health, Minnesota Department of Health and the University of Minnesota Extension Service. The Retail Meat and Poultry Processing Training Modules were produced under a cooperative agreement with the United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety Inspection Service. Food safety regulators, trainers and representatives from the food industry provided input on the final product at prior training sessions showcasing the Retail Meat and Poultry Processing Training Modules. Photos you will see in this module were taken at Lunds, Edina, MN. Note: Rules and regulations cited may be specific to the Minnesota Food Code. These may differ for you, if you adhere to other standards and regulations.
Administer Pretest: Before we start the Sanitation: The Foundation of Food Safety training session, let’s see how much you already know. I’ll be giving you a test before the training and the same test after the training. The results will show what you already know and what you have learned during the presentation. Note: Make 2 copies of the Sanitation pretest/posttest for each student. Copy on different colored paper to separate the pretest and the posttest. Ask participants to circle the word pretest. Pretest/posttest is found on the CD (Sanitation folder).
Review topics in slide. Ask question: Any thing else that you hoped would be covered in this session today?
At the end of this session you should be able to: Discuss the importance of sanitation and why it is essential in preventing foodborne illness. Explain the difference between cleaning and sanitizing. Perform the 5 steps of cleaning and sanitizing correctly. Define biofilms and explain the relationship of cleaning and sanitizing to prevent biofilms. Select appropriate cleaners and sanitizers. Practice safety recommendations to avoid the hazards of cleaners and sanitizers. List 2 ways to monitor effective sanitation.
What is “Sanitation”? - A formal definition is ‘The process of creating conditions that promote the safe production of food’. This is rather a broad definition. Sanitation can cover many different aspects of an operation – from employee practices to maintenance of the building and facilities, and cleaning procedures. Support Material: Sanitation Support/Background Information Minnesota Food Code Specifications , page 2
The broad term ‘Sanitation’ can be divided into two components. GRPs stands for Good Retail Practices. These are the basic requirements to ensure production of wholesome food including employee practices, buildings/facilities, equipment/utensils and production and process controls. For example the GRP for employee practices should include policies for hair restraints, clean clothing, jewelry, fingernails, etc. A GRP for buildings and facilities should cover construction and maintenance of floors, walls and ceilings. SSOPs stands for Sanitation Standard Operating Procedures. They are the specific steps taken to perform the sanitation tasks including the details of your sanitation procedures and frequency or how often to clean.
Why is Sanitation important? Many cases of foodborne illness are associated with sanitation problems. Contaminated equipment, including food contact surfaces that have not been properly cleaned and sanitized is one of the 5 major risk factors contributing to foodborne illness. The complete sanitation process will reduce the numbers of bacteria and viruses that could be present on equipment and utensils and cause a wide variety of foodborne illnesses. Proper sanitation is essential to safe food handling including programs such as HACCP. HACCP stands for Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points. It is a system where food safety risks are analyzed at all stages of storage, processing and display. Once the risks or hazards are identified, controls must be put in place to reduce or eliminate the risk. Some state or local regulations require certain food operations to have a written HACCP plan, such as for smoking and curing of meats or vacuum packaging of food. Question: How does your HACCP plan address sanitation? Food equipment that is not properly cleaned and sanitized can leave spoilage bacteria that can cause poor quality product and reduce the shelf life Control of food allergens is an emerging risk in food processing. If a food contact surface is not properly cleaned in between handling different kinds of foods, food proteins can be carried over to the next food, possibly causing an allergic reaction in the person that eats it. (called cross-contamination). We’ll talk about food allergens in the next slide.
Food allergens are truly the newest food safety hazard. It is a protein in some foods that cause allergic reactions in some people. There are eight food groups that are the cause of 90% of food allergic reactions. Those 8 food groups are milk, eggs, peanuts, tree nuts, wheat, soy, fish, and shellfish. Question: Do you use any of these food products?
Identifying allergenic ingredients is a first step. It is critical that food labels contain a complete list of ingredients that declare all allergens. It is the cleaning/washing step that remove the proteins that are the cause of food allergic reaction. An example of where allergen cross contact might occur is when using a slicker to slice turkey after slicing bologna, which contains soy or non-fat dried milk and not cleaning and sanitizing the slicer between uses. Support Materials: Allergen Facts: Food Allergen Inspection Check Points Fact Sheet Food Ingredients and Allergies Retail Labeling Guidelines
Cleaning and sanitizing is really a multiple step process. The 5 steps are: Pre-cleaning – scraping and rinsing surfaces to remove excess and loose food;. Washing – using detergent solutions to remove stuck on food; Rinsing – to remove the food and detergent solutions; Sanitizing – this kills attached surviving bacteria and viruses; and Air Drying – on the sink drain boards or for large equipment – in place. Each of these steps must be done – in this order – for the process to be effective.
Note: This slide in the PowerPoint presentation shows each step in the process. You will need to click the mouse to advance to the next step as you reinforce the key points of the process below. With scraping or other pre-cleaning – the more food residues removed ahead of time, the wash water will stay clean. Washing – using a detergent solution to loosen and remove food and other soils – use a detergent that best meets your needs. Rinsing – this is an important step to remove any remaining food or detergents. Sanitizing – a critical step to remove the bacteria or viruses that may still be present on the equipment. Air Drying – this step is critical to allow chemical sanitizers to evaporate off the surface and also to be sure that re-contamination does not occur. There can be NO shortcuts in this process - each step must be done and done in the proper order.
Where do these sanitation operations occur? Equipment sinks are used for washing small equipment and utensils. The 3 or 4 compartments along with drain boards will provide a space for each of the steps to be conducted. The sink compartments must be large enough to accommodate the equipment you have to clean. Drain boards on the sink are required for air drying utensils and smaller equipment. Be sure that sinks are kept free of other items such as chemicals, towels, etc. Some equipment is too large or not easily movable and can not be put into a sink. Items that would be cleaned in place might include parts of meat saws, grinders, slicers, etc. Even though these items are not placed in the sink, all 5 steps previously discussed still need to be done. Mechanical dish machines can also be used. They require specific operating procedures depending on the type of machine, sanitizing method, etc. Support Materials: Minnesota Food Code Specifications Safe Sanitizing, Minnesota Food Code Fact Sheet Sanitation Support Reference Information, page 3
While cleaning and sanitizing is a multiple step process, there are two of those steps that are especially critical: Cleaning and Sanitizing. As already discussed, the cleaning step is the chemical and physical process of removing dirt, food, or other soils from surfaces. The sanitizing step is the step that results in removing or killing microbes that might remain on surfaces. These two steps are two completely separate operations; you must clean a surface before sanitizing can be effective. Each step is important, for different reasons, in achieving food safety.
Remember - CLEANING or washing is the process of removing the food or soil. A clean surface is needed so that the bacteria or viruses will be killed by the action of the sanitizer. If a sanitizer is applied to a surface that has not been ‘cleaned’ – its action will not be effective against the microbes. While microbes are killed in the sanitizing step, food allergens are controlled at the cleaning/washing step.
There are several different types of cleaning agents. Each type has a specific function– what’s right for one use may not be right for another. Choose a product that fits your needs. Soaps and detergents are general purpose cleaners while heavy duty detergents are often used in dish washing machines. Abrasive cleaners contain a gritty material that helps to scour off grease and heavy soil. Acid cleaners are used to de-lime equipment such as sinks, dish machines, and ice machines. Degreasers are often used on equipment, floors and walls where there is a heavy grease buildup. You must use the proper type of cleaner in correct proportions for each cleaning task. There are some disadvantages with some types of cleaners; they may react with some types of surfaces. For example, highly alkaline detergents shouldn’t be used on aluminum pans or cooler walls because they will pit the surface.
In the cleaning or washing step, there are several points that ensure success. The proper strength of the detergent wash solution – be sure to use enough to loosen stuck on foods and cut through the grease. Too much could harm employees or leave residues. The temperature of the detergent solution – detergents may not perform properly if the solution is too cool. Contact time of the solution with the food contact surface. Mechanical action or scrubbing helps move dirt and microbes to the drain. Be sure to change the wash solutions when they become dirty. Use clean cloths and brushes. Following these steps will result in a clean surface!
A hidden hazard in sanitation is something called a biofilm. It is a very thin, not visible layer of food and bacteria that can build up on a surface They can form on food contact surfaces over a long period of time when those surfaces have not been properly cleaned. Once biofilms have formed, cleaners and sanitizers can no longer reach the actual surface that needs to be cleaned. Support Material: Biofilm Fact Sheet
There are two methods of sanitizing that are commonly used in retail operations. Hot Water or Chemical Sanitizers. When using hot water as a sanitizer, a booster heater must be used to maintain the proper temperature. In a three compartment sink, the sanitizing water temperature must be maintained at 170°F. When using a hot water sanitizing dish machine, you must follow the specifications on the data plate of the individual machine. Thermometers or temperature strips must be used to ensure the proper temperatures are achieved. If using chemical sanitizers, there are several types and many things that must be taken into consideration.
You should choose a chemical sanitizer that meets the needs of or conditions at your operation. Chlorine, Iodine, Quaternary Ammonia, and Acid-Detergents are the more common types used in retail operations. There are other types. There are benefits to each type of chemical sanitizer. The one you choose for your operation should be based on your water quality including factors such as hardness and pH, types of surfaces you are sanitizing. You should also keep in mind that different chemical sanitizers are more effective than others on different kinds of bacteria or viruses. Also, each type of chemical requires a different type of test kit; be sure you have the right kind. Activity 1: (Chemical Sanitizers – Several Types) Select 2 or 3 participants from the class and have them each prepare a “proper” sanitizing solution using a chlorine sanitizer. Have available several mixing containers, clean water, a chlorine solution and several options for measuring chlorine (measuring spoons, portion cups, mixing cups). Have test strips available to check the concentration and see if it is correct. Optional Activity: See Sanitation activity section. Can You Identify the Sanitizers matching quiz. Print and distribute copies of quiz to participants. Allow 3 to 5 minutes to complete. Review answers and comments found on the answer key. Support Materials: Sanitation Support/Reference Materials, page 2—Detergents and their Properties and Sanitizing and their Properties
The second critical step in the sanitation process is sanitizing. Again, there are several points that will ensure success. A completely clean surface is essential prior to beginning the sanitizing process. Change the sanitizing solutions as often as necessary to keep clean and effective. Maintain the sanitizing solutions at the proper strength. A test kit must be available and used often to be sure the chemical is being used at the proper strength. Question: How often do you test your sanitizer solution? The temperature of water is specific to the type of sanitizer being used. For example, water that is too hot can cause chlorine to evaporate from the solution. Allow the equipment and utensils to remain in the sanitizing solution for enough time. The proper time will vary depending on the sanitizer that is being used. THE KEY IS THAT YOU MUST FOLLOW THE LABEL USE INSTRUCTIONS for the sanitizer you use. Many of the above items will vary depending on the type or brand of chemical being used.
All chemicals must be used according to the label directions. A chemical sanitizer must be labeled and approved for use on food contact surfaces. For example store brands of bleach are often not labeled for use on food preparation surfaces or in commercial operations. Sanitizers approved for use in commercial operations must have an EPA registration number on the label. The label on each product will give specific instructions for proper use and handling including information on water temperature and rates to use. Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) contain information on proper use, storage, and emergency procedures for each specific chemical. MSDSs must be available at each facility and employees must be trained so they understand the information.
Chemical safety is an area that can be overlooked. Be sure employees are knowledgeable about the chemical products they use. For example, different chemicals must not be mixed together. Hazardous reactions will occur that might cause injury or illness to employees or customers. A common example of a hazardous reaction is when a chemical containing chlorine and ammonia are mixed, dangerous gases can be produced. In other situations, mixing of chemicals can decrease the effectiveness of either product.
Chemical dispensing systems are very popular. These systems automatically measure and dispense cleaning and sanitizing chemicals into sinks or through hoses in ‘clean in place’ systems When directly plumbed to water supply lines, these systems must have adequate backflow protection, either through a backflow prevention device, or an air gap, to ensure that the chemical can not be back-siphoned into the water supply system. A vacuum breaker is not an adequate backflow prevention device. While these systems can be time savers and result in efficient chemical use, they must be properly managed and frequently monitored to assure proper operation. You must still use a chemical test kit to monitor the concentration of the sanitizer. Question: Does anyone use a chemical dispensing system? How do you know it’s working and dispensing the proper amount of sanitizer?
In addition to ensuring that the cleaning and sanitizing procedures are done completely and properly, how often these operations are done also affects food safety. There are several factors that determine the required frequency of cleaning: Time. When used with potentially hazardous foods, equipment and food contact surfaces must be cleaned throughout the day at least once every four (4) hours. For example, meat slicers, grinders, cutting boards, and meat saws, must be disassembled, cleaned, and sanitized every 4 hours. Temperature - An exception is when equipment is used and stored in a refrigerated room that is maintained at 41°F or less, it would not have to be cleaned every 4 hours. However, the equipment must still be cleaned and sanitized at least every 24 hours. When there is a change in foods being processed, cleaning and sanitizing may also be required; for example after a cutting board is used for raw chicken before cutting vegetables. Also, check the ingredient labels on products that may contain allergens; a slicer used for bologna containing soy needs to be cleaned before use with a non-soy containing turkey product. Raw meat products must be processed in an order so that those that cause the most contamination (poultry) are cut after other species (beef, pork). Finally, cleaning and sanitizing should be done anytime contamination may have occurred – this could be from an environmental source or from employees. Activity 2: (Frequency of Cleaning) Provide small squares of paper in 2 different colors to each class participant. Conduct a quiz on the subject as suggested below. Ask participants to hold up a certain color paper if they agree with the statement or another color if they disagree with the statement. Suggested Agree/Disagree Questions: A meat grinder must be cleaned and sanitized daily if it is located in the meat cooler. (Agree) A slicer in a deli operation must only be cleaned and sanitized daily. (Disagree) A chicken stir-fry mix is being prepared; the cutting board used to prepare the chicken for cooking must be cleaned and sanitized after cutting the vegetables. (Disagree) A chicken stir-fry mix is being prepared; the cutting board used to prepare the chicken for cooking must be cleaned and sanitized before cutting the vegetables. (Agree) Cleaning the slicer every 4 hours will assist in controlling cross contact of soy allergen that may be present in one type of lunchmeat but not in another. (Disagree) In a meat department, raw chicken should be cut first thing in the morning, then no additional clean up would need to occur as other species of meat are cut up before lunch. (Disagree) Cleaning the slicer by spraying with a sanitizer solution and wiping with a clean rag is adequate sanitation throughout the day. (Disagree) It would be okay to wait until the end of the day to clean a prep table if boxes of food that were just received were set on top of it. (Disagree) An employee that is preparing a vegetable tray sneezes into her hand and continues to cut up vegetables. Her supervisor has to remind here to go and wash her hands. Is that the only food safety issue that needs to be addressed? (Disagree) The meat cutting room has a cooling unit and the temperature usually runs about 50F. They can still conduct a full clean up on equipment once a day. (Disagree)
So whose job is it? Sanitation is everyone’s responsibility! And training is critical; employees can’t do what they don’t know! Training for new employees should include basics and topics unique to each job. Tell them how to do it and show them how to do it. Training for current employees should be on-going. Topics should include changes in policies and procedures and re-enforcement of previous training. Training requires understanding and support from management. They need to address training needs as they observe employees in their day to day work and they need to be a good example themselves. Question: What kind of training did you get on cleaning and sanitizing?
Developing written procedures for your sanitation program can help to make training easier. Activity 3: (Developing SSOPs) Developing SSOPs Directions: Have class participants make a list of equipment and areas they would need to clean in their facility. Have them write down cleaning procedures for how to clean one of these items. When they are completed, have group discussion on what they included and steps they wrote down on the procedures. Review the following key concepts: Written SSOPs should include the following: Detailed procedures for cleaning and sanitizing – the necessary steps in the process including the reasoning for doing it that way. A checklist of equipment that needs to be cleaned including how often it needs to be done, twice daily, daily, etc. Instructions on how to break down and re-assemble equipment. Equipment can not be fully cleaned if not completely taken apart. Procedures and a schedule for cleaning non-food contact surfaces of equipment and facilities. Examples of this might be shelving, sinks, inside surfaces of coolers, rails, cooling units, overhead pipes, light fixtures, floors, walls, ceiling and carts. Instructions for the use, labeling, and safe handling of chemicals, especially sanitizers. These would be most basic items to include in written sanitation standard operating procedures.
Additional items that could be included in SSOPs are: Employee practices such as requirements for employee illness reporting, handwashing, and hygienic practices including clothing, smoking, eating, and hair covering. Steps for storing and preparing food including, monitoring temperatures and procedures to prevent cross contamination. Pest control procedures include monitoring, trapping, elimination of access to building and to food. . Maintenance of the facility and grounds including storage of equipment, waste removal, maintenance of parking lots, and weed control.
Once SSOPs have been developed, it is important to follow up to ensure that the procedures are being followed and that items are being done correctly or adequately. We call this monitoring. Managers and supervisors should do a walk through inspection of the operation – “inspect what you expect”. They should supervise daily routines and point out when corrections are needed but also reinforce good habits and practices. Look at equipment to be sure it has been adequately cleaned before it is sanitized. They should verify work done against the master cleaning schedule Supervisors should watch employees to be sure they are washing their hands properly and when required. Employees can do ‘monitoring’ as they go by using the test kit to check sanitizer strength. Another tool that can be used to monitor the effectiveness of the cleaning and sanitizing activities is called a bioluminator. This tool will show when a surface has not been cleaned properly. Another monitoring tool might be to conduct swab tests to check for bacteria. Questions: What environmental sampling tool do you use to make sure your sanitation program is working? Does anyone conduct swab tests? How often? Support Material: Bioluminescence: An Introduction
Monitoring means nothing if you do nothing with the information. Use your checklist and write down what you find and keep records to document your actions. Check to see if employees are following procedures - if they are not following procedures find out why. Evaluate how effective your cleaning procedures are. When problems are found, solve the problem and retrain the employees with the proper procedures. Encourage employee feedback to improve procedures. Communication and follow-up are key to effective monitoring. Support Materials: Sanitation Checklist
Another key to monitoring is to take corrective action. If an item on the checklist is noted as missed or poorly done, you must make sure it is corrected. Tell the employee what is wrong, and how they need to correct it. For example, if food residue is found on a piece of equipment, show them the problem and be sure they know how to re-clean and then sanitize. A manager or supervisor should then re-check to be sure it is satisfactory and write down that it was corrected. An additional space on the checklist can be used to indicate that corrections were made.
When sanitation procedures are not done properly, there are many possible effects. At a minimum, it can result in reduced shelf life or a poor quality product. But, the results can be more serious. A customer could become ill. It is estimated that there are 76 million cases of foodborne illnesses in the US every year – more than 325,000 are hospitalized and 5,000 die! Other consequences of poor sanitation include: Medical claims or lawsuits against the company. If bacteria are found in the food, it might need to be recalled. The government could impose fines or take court action. All of this leads to bad publicity for the store; customers lose confidence and shop somewhere else. It could even cost you your job. Your reputation and the stores’ are on the line!
Sanitation is a foundation of food safety. Cleaning and sanitizing are part of a multiple step process; but each is a critical step in itself. A clean surface is needed so that the bacteria will be killed by the action of the sanitizer. The food allergens are eliminated in the cleaning step. Develop SSOPs - written procedures for your sanitation program will ensure good sanitation results, assist with consistency and can help to make training easier. Monitoring sanitation procedures and effectiveness is critical to identifying sanitation failures. In the long run, a well planned sanitation program can save you money, but more importantly it protects the health and well being of your customers.
Are there any questions?? (Answer questions.) I have a couple of questions for you: What information was new today? How will you apply what you learned today? Administer Posttest: Now it’s time to take the posttest. Let’s see what you have learned during the presentation. Note: Distribute a copy of the Sanitation pretest/posttest to each student. Ask participants to circle the word posttest. Pretest/posttest is found on the CD (Sanitation folder) and in the Sanitation Activity section.
THE FOUNDATION OF FOOD SAFETYTHE FOUNDATION OF FOOD SAFETY
Retail Meat & Poultry ProcessingRetail Meat & Poultry Processing
Training ModulesTraining Modules
Developed under a cooperative agreement with theDeveloped under a cooperative agreement with the
United States Department of AgricultureUnited States Department of Agriculture
Food Safety and Inspection ServiceFood Safety and Inspection Service
Developed byDeveloped by
Minnesota Department of AgricultureMinnesota Department of Agriculture
Dairy and Food Inspection Division,Dairy and Food Inspection Division,
Hennepin County Environmental HealthHennepin County Environmental Health
Minnesota Department of HealthMinnesota Department of Health
University of MinnesotaUniversity of Minnesota
September 2004September 2004
• What is sanitation?What is sanitation?
• Good Retail PracticesGood Retail Practices
• Sanitation StandardSanitation Standard
Operation ProceduresOperation Procedures
• Foodborne illnessFoodborne illness
• Food allergensFood allergens
• 5 step cleaning and5 step cleaning and
sanitizing processsanitizing process
• Difference betweenDifference between
cleaning and sanitizingcleaning and sanitizing
• Types of cleanersTypes of cleaners
• Biofilm—a hiddenBiofilm—a hidden
• Hot water sanitizingHot water sanitizing
• Chemical sanitizingChemical sanitizing
• Factors affectingFactors affecting
sanitizing processsanitizing process
• Chemical safetyChemical safety
• Who’s job is it?Who’s job is it?
• Developing writtenDeveloping written
• Monitoring sanitationMonitoring sanitation
• Corrective actionCorrective action
• Results of poorResults of poor
Learning ObjectivesLearning Objectives
1.1. Discuss the importance of sanitation and why it isDiscuss the importance of sanitation and why it is
essential in preventing foodborne illness.essential in preventing foodborne illness.
2.2. Explain the difference between cleaning andExplain the difference between cleaning and
3.3. Perform the 5 steps of cleaning and sanitizingPerform the 5 steps of cleaning and sanitizing
4.4. Define biofilms and explain the relationship ofDefine biofilms and explain the relationship of
cleaning and sanitizing to prevent biofilms.cleaning and sanitizing to prevent biofilms.
5.5. Select appropriate cleaners and sanitizers.Select appropriate cleaners and sanitizers.
6.6. Practice safety recommendations to avoid thePractice safety recommendations to avoid the
hazards of cleaners and sanitizers.hazards of cleaners and sanitizers.
7.7. List 2 ways to monitor effective sanitation.List 2 ways to monitor effective sanitation.
What is “Sanitation”?What is “Sanitation”?
The process of creating conditions that
promote the safe production of food
Sanitation BasicsSanitation Basics
• GRPs – Good Retail PracticesGRPs – Good Retail Practices
The basic requirements to ensure productionThe basic requirements to ensure production
of wholesome food including employeeof wholesome food including employee
practices, buildings/facilities,practices, buildings/facilities,
equipment/utensils, and production/processequipment/utensils, and production/process
• SSOPs –Sanitation Standard OperatingSSOPs –Sanitation Standard Operating
The specific steps taken to perform sanitationThe specific steps taken to perform sanitation
tasks including the details of your sanitationtasks including the details of your sanitation
procedures and frequency.procedures and frequency.
Why is Sanitation so important?Why is Sanitation so important?
Many cases of foodborne illness areMany cases of foodborne illness are
associated with sanitation problems.associated with sanitation problems.
• The complete sanitation process will reduceThe complete sanitation process will reduce
bacteria and viruses that cause foodbornebacteria and viruses that cause foodborne
• Essential to programs such as HACCP.Essential to programs such as HACCP.
• Ensures quality and consistency of foodEnsures quality and consistency of food
• Controls allergen cross-contaminationControls allergen cross-contamination..
A Hidden Hazard: Food AllergensA Hidden Hazard: Food Allergens
• Proteins someProteins some
foods causefoods cause
allergic reactionsallergic reactions
• Eight food groupsEight food groups
cause 90% of foodcause 90% of food
allergic reactionsallergic reactions
• Milk, eggs, peanuts,Milk, eggs, peanuts,
tree nuts, wheat,tree nuts, wheat,
soy, fish, shellfishsoy, fish, shellfish
A Hidden Hazard: Food AllergensA Hidden Hazard: Food Allergens
• Foods must beFoods must be
labeled accuratelylabeled accurately
• Effective cleaningEffective cleaning
procedures eliminateprocedures eliminate
residues that causeresidues that cause
food allergiesfood allergies
Cleaning and SanitizingCleaning and Sanitizing
Multiple Step ProcessMultiple Step Process
1.1. Pre-cleaning – Scrape and rinse toPre-cleaning – Scrape and rinse to
remove loose food.remove loose food.
2.2. Wash - Use detergent solutions toWash - Use detergent solutions to
remove stuck-on food.remove stuck-on food.
3.3. Rinse to remove food and detergent.Rinse to remove food and detergent.
4.4. Sanitize to kill attached survivingSanitize to kill attached surviving
bacteria and viruses.bacteria and viruses.
5.5. Air Dry.Air Dry.
Where to wash?
• Equipment sinkEquipment sink
• Clean in PlaceClean in Place
• Mechanical DishMechanical Dish
Two Critical ComponentsTwo Critical Components
the chemical and physical processthe chemical and physical process
of removing dirt, food, or soil fromof removing dirt, food, or soil from
results in removing or killingresults in removing or killing
bacteria and virusesbacteria and viruses
Why Clean?Why Clean?
A clean surface is
needed so that the
bacteria will be killed
by the action of the
sanitizer and the food
Types of CleanersTypes of Cleaners
Each type has a specific function – choose anEach type has a specific function – choose an
appropriate product for your needsappropriate product for your needs
Heavy Duty Detergent
Cleaning ProcessCleaning Process
• Proper strength of the detergentProper strength of the detergent
• Temperature of the detergent solutionTemperature of the detergent solution
• Contact time of the solution with theContact time of the solution with the
food contact surfacefood contact surface
• Mechanical Action/ScrubbingMechanical Action/Scrubbing
Success depends upon:Success depends upon:
Control of these 4 steps willControl of these 4 steps will
result in aresult in a cleanclean surface!surface!
A Hidden Hazard: BiofilmsA Hidden Hazard: Biofilms
• Biofilms can form over a long period ofBiofilms can form over a long period of
time as a result of poor cleaningtime as a result of poor cleaning
• They prevent cleaners and sanitizersThey prevent cleaners and sanitizers
from effectively reaching all surfacesfrom effectively reaching all surfaces..
A thin, not visible, layer of food andA thin, not visible, layer of food and
bacteria that has built up on a surface.bacteria that has built up on a surface.
• Hot WaterHot Water
Must maintain appropriate waterMust maintain appropriate water
Several different typesSeveral different types
Sanitizing ProcessSanitizing Process
• A clean surfaceA clean surface
• Clean sanitizing solutionClean sanitizing solution
• Proper strength of sanitizing solutionProper strength of sanitizing solution
• Proper water temperatureProper water temperature
• Sufficient contact time for effectivenessSufficient contact time for effectiveness
Success depends on:Success depends on:
Chemicals: Read the LabelChemicals: Read the Label
• Sanitizer must beSanitizer must be
approved for use onapproved for use on
food contact surfaces.food contact surfaces.
• Use proper waterUse proper water
temperature and rate astemperature and rate as
stated on the label.stated on the label.
Chemicals must be usedChemicals must be used
according to label directionsaccording to label directions
Chemical SafetyChemical Safety
DO NOT MIX CHEMICALS!DO NOT MIX CHEMICALS!
• Hazardous reactions willHazardous reactions will
• Cause injury or illness toCause injury or illness to
employees or consumersemployees or consumers
• May decrease effectiveness ofMay decrease effectiveness of
either producteither product
Chemical Dispensing SystemsChemical Dispensing Systems
• Automatically measureAutomatically measure
cleaning and sanitizingcleaning and sanitizing
• Must have adequateMust have adequate
backflow protectionbackflow protection
• Must still monitorMust still monitor
sanitizer concentrationsanitizer concentration
Frequency of Cleaning & SanitizingFrequency of Cleaning & Sanitizing
Is determined by many factors like:Is determined by many factors like:
• Temperature in the work areaTemperature in the work area
• Change in foods being processedChange in foods being processed
Raw to ready-to-eatRaw to ready-to-eat
Allergen to non-allergenAllergen to non-allergen
Different meat speciesDifferent meat species
Who’s job is it?Who’s job is it?
• Employee trainingEmployee training
should include theshould include the
basics of sanitation.basics of sanitation.
• Training requiresTraining requires
understanding andunderstanding and
support fromsupport from
Sanitation is everyone’s responsibility!
Developing SSOP’sDeveloping SSOP’s
Written ProceduresWritten Procedures
• Detailed procedures for cleaning andDetailed procedures for cleaning and
• A checklist of equipment to be cleaned andA checklist of equipment to be cleaned and
the frequency to be cleaned.the frequency to be cleaned.
• Steps for the tear-down and re-assembly ofSteps for the tear-down and re-assembly of
• Procedures and schedule for cleaning non-Procedures and schedule for cleaning non-
food contact surfaces and facilities.food contact surfaces and facilities.
• Instructions for use of sanitation chemicals.Instructions for use of sanitation chemicals.
More SSOPsMore SSOPs
• Employee practicesEmployee practices
• Steps for preparing and storing foodsSteps for preparing and storing foods
» Monitoring temperaturesMonitoring temperatures
» Preventing cross contaminationPreventing cross contamination
• Pest ControlPest Control
• Facility and Grounds MaintenanceFacility and Grounds Maintenance
Monitoring SanitationMonitoring Sanitation
• Do a ‘walk through’Do a ‘walk through’
of the facilityof the facility
• LOOK - see thatLOOK - see that
equipment isequipment is cleanclean
• Watch employeeWatch employee
• Use test strips toUse test strips to
check sanitizercheck sanitizer
• Use a bioluminatorUse a bioluminator
or other toolor other tool
Results of MonitoringResults of Monitoring
• Use a check list andUse a check list and
write down what youwrite down what you
• Are employeesAre employees
• How effective areHow effective are
your cleaningyour cleaning
• Use your results toUse your results to
solve or preventsolve or prevent
problems and re-problems and re-
Corrective ActionCorrective Action
• When an item on the check list isWhen an item on the check list is
missed or poorly done, make suremissed or poorly done, make sure
it is corrected.it is corrected.
• Be sure to re-check and then writeBe sure to re-check and then write
down that it was corrected.down that it was corrected.
Results of Poor SanitationResults of Poor Sanitation
Reduced shelf lifeReduced shelf life
Poor quality productPoor quality product
Customer illnessesCustomer illnesses
Medical claims, lawsuitsMedical claims, lawsuits
Food recallsFood recalls
Fines or other regulatory actionFines or other regulatory action
Bad publicityBad publicity
Loss of customersLoss of customers
Loss of your jobLoss of your job
SANITATION IS A FOUNDATION OFSANITATION IS A FOUNDATION OF
FOOD SAFETYFOOD SAFETY
• Cleaning and sanitizing is a multipleCleaning and sanitizing is a multiple
step processstep process
• Differences between cleaning andDifferences between cleaning and
• Develop written SSOPsDevelop written SSOPs
• Monitoring is critical to identifyingMonitoring is critical to identifying
sanitation failuressanitation failures
• Do you have any questions?Do you have any questions?
• What information was new?What information was new?
• How will you apply what youHow will you apply what you
learned today?learned today?