Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Forklift Operator Training
OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks

Developed by HMTRI through cooperative agreement
# 2 U...
Objectives of this training - At the end
of this session, you should be able to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Identify the hazards
invo...
OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training

1910.178 (l)
1915.120 (a)
1917.1 (a)(2)(xiv)
1918.1 (b)(10)
192...
Powered Industrial
Truck - Definition
• A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push,
pull, lift, stack or tier mat...
Performance-Oriented
Requirements
• The powered industrial truck operator
training requirements are performanceoriented to...
Operator Training
• Safe operations
– The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial
truck operator is competent t...
Training Program Implementation
• Trainees may operate a powered industrial
truck only:
– Under direct supervision of a pe...
Training Program Implementation
(continued)

Training shall consist of a combination of:
Formal instruction (e.g., lecture...
Training Program Implementation
(continued)

• Training and evaluation
shall be conducted by a
person with the
knowledge, ...
Training Program Content
• Operators shall receive initial training in
the following topics, except in topics
which the em...
Training Program Content (continued)
Truck-related topics
– Operating instructions,
warnings and
precautions
– Differences...
Training Program Content (continued)

Workplace-related topics
– Surface conditions
– Composition and stability
of loads
–...
Refresher Training and Evaluation
• Refresher training, including an evaluation
of the effectiveness of that training, sha...
Refresher Training and
Evaluation (continued)
• An evaluation of each powered
industrial truck operator’s performance
must...
Certification
• The employer shall certify that each
operator has been trained and
evaluated as required by the standard.
...
Appendix A - Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks

•
•
•
•
•
•
•

Definitions
General
Basic Principles
Stability Triangl...
Stability Triangle - Figure 1
B

Vehicle Center of
Gravity (Unloaded)

A

C

Center of Gravity
of Vehicle and
Maximum Load...
Stability Triangle - Figure 2
Load CG
Load CG
Vertical
Stability
Line
(Line of Action)

Combined CG

Combined CG
Truck CG
...
Effective Powered Industrial Truck Operator
Training Program

• Four major areas of concern must be
addressed:
– The gener...
Types of Powered Industrial Trucks
• There are many different types of powered
industrial trucks covered by the OSHA stand...
Unique Characteristics of Powered
Industrial Trucks

• Each type of powered industrial truck
has its own unique characteri...
A PIT is a PIT
NOT a CAR
 Controls are different from those of cars.
 Steer very differently than cars.
 Are used for d...
Components of a Forklift
Truck*

*One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks
23
Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks*

• The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered
industrial truc...
Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks
• Counterbalanced rider type, stand up
• Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down
• Cou...
Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks

26
Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine
Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)
27
Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine
Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires

28
Class V - Internal Combustion Engine
Trucks - Pneumatic Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)
29
Class V - Internal Combustion Engine
Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)

30
Pre-use Inspection
 Must be done at least daily or
at the beginning of each shift
 Check the power-plant
 Gas, Diesel o...
Performance Data
 Gross vehicle weight without a load will
always exceed the vehicle’s rated lifting
capacity
 Gross veh...
Load Stability
 NEVER EXCEED the rated load capacity
of your PIT
 Look for Impact or Capacity plate to find:
>machine wo...
Reduce your load if:
 The load is too tall, wide, oddly shaped or if
you are using attachments.
 A high lift is involved...
To Keep the Load Stable:
 Space your forks as far apart as possible.
 Make sure the load won’t shift while
traveling.
 ...
Load Capacity

 Attachments
 Batteries
 When in doubt consult your supervisor

36
Stability in Practice
 Your PIT and load become less stable in
any of the following situations:
– whenever the load is ra...
Center of Gravity
and Stability Triangle
Center of
Steering Axle

Center of
Gravity
Drive Tires
38
Center of Gravity Will Shift
 STATIC FORCES  DYNAMIC FORCES
are affected by:

a) load characteristics
b) lift height
c) ...
Counterbalance
 load is carried at front of vehicle and is
offset or counterbalanced by the weight
of the vehicle located...
Some Questions to Help Judge a Load:
 What is the rated load capacity of my truck?
 Is this load well within the capacit...
Some Questions to Help Judge a Load:
 What turns will I have to negotiate?
 Are there ramps, slopes, rough ground or
obs...
Principles of Internal Combustion
Fuel Type
Engine Starting Conditions
Refueling
Changing an LP Tank
Gasoline

43
Principles of Electric Battery Power
 Three Primary Voltage Types
 Recharging a Battery
– Trained Personnel ONLY
– SOPs
...
Maintenance of PITs
 If defective, take out of service
 Repair by authorized personnel only
 Repair parts as safe or sa...
Safe Parking Procedures
How and Where to Park?
Attended Parking
Unattended Parking
Parking on an incline

46
Lifting a Load
 Level the forks and slowly drive
forward until the load rests
against the mast.
 Do not slam a load into...
Lifting a Load
 If there is another load in front of yours, lift
without tilting.
 Reassess load stability.
 Look over ...
Carrying the Load
 Keep your vehicle under control at all times
 Keep forks close to floor
 Maintain safe distance (3 v...
Carrying the Load
 Stay within the vehicle lanes.
 Look over both shoulders before you back
up.
 Stop before raising or...
Carrying the Load
 Slow down and sound your horn at
intersections and places with limited view.
 Drive in reverse if you...
Carrying the Load
Never travel or turn with the load
elevated.
Never drive up to anyone standing in
front of a fixed obj...
Carrying the Load
 Never allow anyone to stand on your fork or
lift people without an approved platform.

 Never allow a...
Carrying the Load
 Surfaces you should avoid or be very careful on
or around include:
– Loose objects, bumps or uneven fl...
Putting Down a Load
 Square up and stop about 1 foot away from
the loading area
 Drive about 1/2 way into the unloading ...
Working with Stacks
The higher you go - the less stable
your PIT and load

56
Working with Stacks
 Remember these stacking rules:
– Set the top load squarely on the stack
– Never raise or lower a loa...
Traveling on Grades
 Stay well back from the edge
 Never turn around on the slope
 Drive with your load on the uphill
s...
Working on Docks
 DOCK WORK CHECK SHEET
 Check to make sure that wheels are chocked!
 Check the front support on a trai...
In Case of a Tip-over

Do not jump from the unit!
HOLD ON TIGHT
BRACE YOUR FEET
LEAN AWAY FROM THE TIP DIRECTION

60
Summary
• Operating a Powered Industrial Truck is a highly
skilled job that is dangerous if not done properly.
• You need ...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Forklift Operator Training by NIEHS

3,484

Published on

Published in: Business, Education
0 Comments
1 Like
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,484
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
14
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
0
Comments
0
Likes
1
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Adopted from the OSHA Forklift presentation www.osha.gov for FEMA warehouse forklift operator training
    The scope provisions of 1910.178(a), which are based on ANSI B56.1 - 1969, remain in effect and cover:
    ... fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines.
    It does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, farm vehicles, nor vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or over-the-road hauling.
    This scope covers general industry, construction and shipyards.
  • <number>
    Trainer Notes:
    State and federal agencies are deploying in support of hurricane relief efforts
    Environmental and occupational health hazards are a potential threat to deployed personnel
    Hurricane Katrina left the Louisiana and Mississippi coastlines in ruin. Up to 1 million people are without power, safe food, and safe water.
    Additional Training is required for specific operations involving, but not limited to:
    Confined Spaces
    Excavations
    Heavy Equipment operators
    Fall Protection
    Work Zone Safety
  • General Industry: 1910.178 is amended March 1, 1999) by revising paragraph (l) and adding Appendix A.
    Shipyard Employment: New section 1915.120 and Appendix A are added.
    Maritime and Construction Standards: [1915.120(a), 1917.1(a)(2)(xiv), 1918.1(b)(10), 1926.602(d)] refer back to 1910.178(l).
    Longshoring: Section 1918.1 is amended by adding new paragraph (b)(10) and Appendix A.
    OSHA’s Office of Training and Education wishes to acknowledge the following for contributing some of the graphics used in this presentation:
    Caterpillar Lift Trucks
    Mason Contractors Association of America
    Industrial Truck Association
    State of Utah Labor Commission - Occupational Safety & Health Division
    Steamship Trade Association of Baltimore
    Taylor Machine Works, Inc.
    UAW - Ford National Joint Committee on Health and Safety
    Appearance of products does not imply endorsement by the U.S. Department of Labor.
  • Appendix A provides non-mandatory guidance to assist employers in implementing the standard.
    This appendix does not add to, alter, or reduce the requirements of this section.
  • <number>
  • <number>
    Additional information on checklists may be found at the following link:
    http://www.osha.gov/dcsp/ote/trng-materials/pit/daily_pit_checklist.html
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • <number>
  • Transcript of "Forklift Operator Training by NIEHS"

    1. 1. Forklift Operator Training OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks Developed by HMTRI through cooperative agreement # 2 U45 ES006177-14 with NIEHS under the Worker Safety and Health Training Support Annex
    2. 2. Objectives of this training - At the end of this session, you should be able to: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Identify the hazards involved with Powered Industrial Trucks (PITs) Explain the different types of PITs Conduct a PIT visual inspection Pass the written test Demonstrate proficient operator skills on a forklift 2
    3. 3. OSHA 1910.178 Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training 1910.178 (l) 1915.120 (a) 1917.1 (a)(2)(xiv) 1918.1 (b)(10) 1926.602 (d)
    4. 4. Powered Industrial Truck - Definition • A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials. [American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) definition] • Excluded are vehicles used for earth moving and over-the-road hauling. • Commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks. • Can be powered through electric or combustion engines. 4
    5. 5. Performance-Oriented Requirements • The powered industrial truck operator training requirements are performanceoriented to permit employers to tailor a training program to the characteristics of their workplaces and the particular types of powered industrial trucks operated. 5
    6. 6. Operator Training • Safe operations – The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in the OSHA standard. – Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the required training (or previously received appropriate training). 6
    7. 7. Training Program Implementation • Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only: – Under direct supervision of a person who has the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and, – Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees. 7
    8. 8. Training Program Implementation (continued) Training shall consist of a combination of: Formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, written material), Practical training (demonstrations and exercises performed by the trainee), and Evaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplace 8
    9. 9. Training Program Implementation (continued) • Training and evaluation shall be conducted by a person with the knowledge, training and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence. 9
    10. 10. Training Program Content • Operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation in the employer’s workplace. – Truck-related topics – Workplace-related topics – The requirements of the standard 10
    11. 11. Training Program Content (continued) Truck-related topics – Operating instructions, warnings and precautions – Differences from automobile – Controls and instrumentation – Engine or motor operation – Steering and maneuvering – Visibility – Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, use – Vehicle capacity and stability – Vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform – Refueling/Charging/ Recharging batteries – Operating limitations – Other instructions, etc. 11
    12. 12. Training Program Content (continued) Workplace-related topics – Surface conditions – Composition and stability of loads – Load manipulation, stacking, unstacking – Pedestrian traffic – Narrow aisles and restricted areas – Operating in hazardous (classified) locations – Operating on ramps and sloped surfaces – Potentially hazardous environmental conditions – Operating in closed environments or other areas where poor ventilation or maintenance could cause carbon monoxide or diesel exhaust buildup 12
    13. 13. Refresher Training and Evaluation • Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely. • Refresher training required when: – Unsafe operation – Accident or near-miss – Evaluation indicates need – Different type of equipment introduced – Workplace condition changes 13
    14. 14. Refresher Training and Evaluation (continued) • An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator’s performance must be conducted: – After initial training, – After refresher training, and – At least once every three years 14
    15. 15. Certification • The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by the standard. • Certification shall include: – Name of operator – Date of training – Date of evaluation – Identity of person(s) performing the training or evaluation 15
    16. 16. Appendix A - Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks • • • • • • • Definitions General Basic Principles Stability Triangle Longitudinal Stability Lateral Stability Dynamic Stability 16
    17. 17. Stability Triangle - Figure 1 B Vehicle Center of Gravity (Unloaded) A C Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum Load (Theoretical) Notes: 1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the combined CG should never be at line B-C. 2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A and result in a truck that is less stable laterally. 17
    18. 18. Stability Triangle - Figure 2 Load CG Load CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Combined CG Combined CG Truck CG The vehicle is stable Truck CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) This vehicle is unstable and will continue to tip over 18
    19. 19. Effective Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training Program • Four major areas of concern must be addressed: – The general hazards that apply to the operation of all or most powered industrial trucks; – The hazards associated with the operation of particular types of trucks; – The hazards of workplaces generally; and, – The hazards of the particular workplace where the vehicle operates. 19
    20. 20. Types of Powered Industrial Trucks • There are many different types of powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard. • Commonly used types include: – High lift trucks, counterbalanced trucks, cantilever trucks, rider trucks, forklift trucks, high lift trucks, high lift platform trucks, low lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, pallet trucks, straddle trucks, reach rider trucks, high lift order picker trucks, motorized hand/rider trucks, and counterbalanced front/side loader lift trucks. • A single type of truck can only be described by calling it by all of its characteristics, (e.g., a high lift, counterbalanced, sit down rider truck). 20
    21. 21. Unique Characteristics of Powered Industrial Trucks • Each type of powered industrial truck has its own unique characteristics and some inherent hazards. • To be effective, training must address the unique characteristics of the type of vehicle the employee is being trained to operate. 21
    22. 22. A PIT is a PIT NOT a CAR  Controls are different from those of cars.  Steer very differently than cars.  Are used for different purposes than cars.  Steer from the rear, and have drive wheels in the front.  When turning, the rear end swings in a circle.  Front drive wheels support most of the load.  Less steering control when turning, especially if loaded.  Difficult to stop quickly and dangerous to swerve. 22
    23. 23. Components of a Forklift Truck* *One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks 23
    24. 24. Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks* • The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes. – – – – Class I - Electric motor rider trucks Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires) – Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires) – Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors – Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks * Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard. 24
    25. 25. Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks • Counterbalanced rider type, stand up • Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down • Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform) • Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sit-down (high and low platform) 25
    26. 26. Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks 26
    27. 27. Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires) 27
    28. 28. Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires 28
    29. 29. Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires) 29
    30. 30. Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires) 30
    31. 31. Pre-use Inspection  Must be done at least daily or at the beginning of each shift  Check the power-plant  Gas, Diesel or Propane Powered  Electric Powered  Check for damage and proper operation. 31
    32. 32. Performance Data  Gross vehicle weight without a load will always exceed the vehicle’s rated lifting capacity  Gross vehicle weight will normally be about 2 times the vehicle’s rated capacity  Weight distribution varies depending on load weight and position 32
    33. 33. Load Stability  NEVER EXCEED the rated load capacity of your PIT  Look for Impact or Capacity plate to find: >machine working capacity >gross vehicle weight >rated load center >capacity rating with attachment >tire data >attachment identification >maximum lift height 33
    34. 34. Reduce your load if:  The load is too tall, wide, oddly shaped or if you are using attachments.  A high lift is involved or if the route is rough.  The load can’t be centered on the pallet or carried close to your drive wheels.  You have to make tight turns or travel on a ramp or slope. 34
    35. 35. To Keep the Load Stable:  Space your forks as far apart as possible.  Make sure the load won’t shift while traveling.  Secure loose or slippery items.  Transfer loads on broken pallets to sound pallets before picking them up.  Wrap or strap loads made up of individual items. 35
    36. 36. Load Capacity  Attachments  Batteries  When in doubt consult your supervisor 36
    37. 37. Stability in Practice  Your PIT and load become less stable in any of the following situations: – whenever the load is raised – when you are turning – on slopes, either front to back or side to side – when tilting the load forward or backward, or side to side – on rough or uneven surfaces 37
    38. 38. Center of Gravity and Stability Triangle Center of Steering Axle Center of Gravity Drive Tires 38
    39. 39. Center of Gravity Will Shift  STATIC FORCES  DYNAMIC FORCES are affected by: a) load characteristics b) lift height c) amount of tilt d) tire condition are affected by: a) acceleration b) travel speeds c) braking d) surface condition 39
    40. 40. Counterbalance  load is carried at front of vehicle and is offset or counterbalanced by the weight of the vehicle located behind the drive tires which act as a pivot point  internal combustion-engine, steer axle, transmission, counterweight, and frame  electric powered battery, control panel, motors and pumps, steer axle, counterweight, and frame 40
    41. 41. Some Questions to Help Judge a Load:  What is the rated load capacity of my truck?  Is this load well within the capacity limits?  Will the shape of this load affect my stability?  Will the load affect my visibility?  Do I need to split up the load?  Do I need to drive in reverse?  What hazards are along the route? 41 ?
    42. 42. Some Questions to Help Judge a Load:  What turns will I have to negotiate?  Are there ramps, slopes, rough ground or obstacles?  What about the destination?  Can I get close enough?  Can I pull straight in?  Is the area free of overhead hazards like power lines, pipes or ventilation equipment? 42 ?
    43. 43. Principles of Internal Combustion Fuel Type Engine Starting Conditions Refueling Changing an LP Tank Gasoline 43
    44. 44. Principles of Electric Battery Power  Three Primary Voltage Types  Recharging a Battery – Trained Personnel ONLY – SOPs – PPE – Designated Areas ONLY 44
    45. 45. Maintenance of PITs  If defective, take out of service  Repair by authorized personnel only  Repair parts as safe or safer than original  Do not alter from manufacturer’s design  Repair in designated location 45
    46. 46. Safe Parking Procedures How and Where to Park? Attended Parking Unattended Parking Parking on an incline 46
    47. 47. Lifting a Load  Level the forks and slowly drive forward until the load rests against the mast.  Do not slam a load into the carriage.  Lift the load high enough to clear whatever is under it.  Assess the stability of the load.  Tilt the mast back slightly to a traveling position. 47
    48. 48. Lifting a Load  If there is another load in front of yours, lift without tilting.  Reassess load stability.  Look over both shoulders to make sure it is safe to move in reverse.  If there are no obstacles to the rear, back out slowly about one foot to insure the load will clear.  Back away to completely clear the load.  Lower load to travel and reassess load stability. 48
    49. 49. Carrying the Load  Keep your vehicle under control at all times  Keep forks close to floor  Maintain safe distance (3 vehicle lengths)  Examine surfaces - safety and strength  Safe speed - a brisk walking pace 49
    50. 50. Carrying the Load  Stay within the vehicle lanes.  Look over both shoulders before you back up.  Stop before raising or lowering loads.  Tilt the load slightly back with forks low.  Drive at a slow, steady pace.  Observe speed limits and controlled  Slow down for turns, sound your horn and stay near the inside corner. 50
    51. 51. Carrying the Load  Slow down and sound your horn at intersections and places with limited view.  Drive in reverse if your vision is obstructed by your load.  Yield to pedestrians - always!!! 51
    52. 52. Carrying the Load Never travel or turn with the load elevated. Never drive up to anyone standing in front of a fixed object. 52
    53. 53. Carrying the Load  Never allow anyone to stand on your fork or lift people without an approved platform.  Never allow anyone to walk or stand under your forks, whether the forks are loaded or empty. 53
    54. 54. Carrying the Load  Surfaces you should avoid or be very careful on or around include: – Loose objects, bumps or uneven floors – Rough surfaces – Wet, oily or icy surfaces – Railroad tracks and similar edges, which you should cross at a 45-degree angle whenever possible 54
    55. 55. Putting Down a Load  Square up and stop about 1 foot away from the loading area  Drive about 1/2 way into the unloading area  Lower the load, assess alignment, stability  Lower forks slightly  Look over both shoulders and back out slowly 55
    56. 56. Working with Stacks The higher you go - the less stable your PIT and load 56
    57. 57. Working with Stacks  Remember these stacking rules: – Set the top load squarely on the stack – Never raise or lower a load unless you fully stop – Never attempt to turn with your mast raised – Approach load straight on and back straight out – Make sure you have enough overhead clearance – Watch for electrical lines, pipes, fixtures, sprinklers 57
    58. 58. Traveling on Grades  Stay well back from the edge  Never turn around on the slope  Drive with your load on the uphill side!!! – When loaded, drive up slopes with your load in front and drive down slopes in reverse. – When the forks are empty, back up a slope and drive down it forward. 58
    59. 59. Working on Docks  DOCK WORK CHECK SHEET  Check to make sure that wheels are chocked!  Check the front support on a trailer to insure it won’t shift.  Check to make sure the train car or trailer brakes as set.  Check the dock locks.  Check the deck capacity.  Check combined vehicle and load weight.  Check dock plate condition and position. 59
    60. 60. In Case of a Tip-over Do not jump from the unit! HOLD ON TIGHT BRACE YOUR FEET LEAN AWAY FROM THE TIP DIRECTION 60
    61. 61. Summary • Operating a Powered Industrial Truck is a highly skilled job that is dangerous if not done properly. • You need to know all about your PIT and its operation including: – – – – – design and function controls and instruments pre-use inspection stability capacity and visibility 61

    ×