Safe Materials Handling and
Machine Safety
Joe Nail

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

1
11/20/13
Introduction
 Handling Materials Safely




50 tons per one ton shipped.
Some is moved by machine and some by hand.
Wh...
Causes of Injuries
 25% of all injuries are related to material

handling.
 80% are to the lower back.
 Incorrect lifti...
Carelessness
 Be aware of your environment.

Hey Charlie! Did you see that
game last night?

Industrial Safety Lecture Fo...
Avoiding Workplace Injuries
 Stay in shape.

 Consider where you will walk.
 Don’t use your body if you don’t have to.
...
Rules for Lifting
 Get close to the load.
 Keep feet apart.
 Keep back straight.
 Bend your knees.
 Tuck your chin.

...
Hazards Associated with
Materials Handling
 Check your environment for sufficient

moving room
 Check for projecting obj...
Teamwork and Handling
Various Shapes and Sizes
 If an object seems to heavy to lift, it

probably is.
 When working with...
Examples of Lifting Equipment

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

9
11/20/13
Hand Tools and Accessories

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

10
11/20/13
Power Operated Hand Trucks

 Examples

of a “walkie” and a “rider” type
powered hand trucks
Industrial Safety Lecture Fou...
Powered Industrial trucks
 Trucks are usually classified by power

source.
 Electric Motors
 Internal Combustion Engine...
Standard Powered Industrial
Lift Truck

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

13
11/20/13
Straddle Truck

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

14
11/20/13
Order Picker Truck

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

15
11/20/13
Industrial Truck Safety
Popular Misconceptions
 “Anyone can drive a lift truck.”
 “They handle just like a car.”
 “They...
Industrial Truck Safety
Facts
 The center of gravity of a lift truck

changes.
 Most trucks are “rear steer.”
 Most tru...
Industrial Truck Safety
 What does OHSA say about powered

industrial truck training?
 OSHA regulations state that “only...
Training helps to Prevent Accidents!

Get the picture?
Industrial Safety Lecture Four

19
11/20/13
 Data

plate.

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

20
11/20/13
Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training

1910.178 (l)
1915.120 (a)
1917.1 (a)(2)(xiv)
1918.1 (b)(10)
1926.602 (d)
Disclaimer
 This

presentation is intended as a resource
for providing training on OSHA’s revised
powered industrial truc...
Acknowledgment
 OSHA’s

Office of Training and Education
wishes to acknowledge the following for
contributing some of the...
Powered Industrial
Truck - Definition
 A mobile,

power-propelled truck used to carry,
push, pull, lift, stack or tier ma...
Scope of Standard
 The

scope provisions of 1910.178(a), which are
based on ANSI B56.1 - 1969, remain in effect
and cover...
Scope of Standard (continued)
 For

marine terminal and longshoring
industries, all powered industrial trucks are
covered...
Reasons for New Standard
 Powered

industrial truck accidents cause
approximately 100 fatalities and 36,340
serious injur...
Additional Reasons for New
Standard
 Updated

consensus standards have been
published.
 OSHA has been petitioned to impr...
Forklift Fatalities, 1992-1996
120
86

1992

95

89

1993

114

1994

1995

1996

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job ...
Forklift Fatalities by Age Group
1992 -1996
12%
5%
21%

Under 20

3%

20 - 24
25 - 34
10%

35 - 44
45 - 54
56 - 64
65 & ov...
Industries Where Powered Industrial
Truck Accidents Occurred

Source: OSHA Fatality/Catastrophe Reports, complied by OSHA ...
Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and
Illnesses by Source, 1996

32

Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job Related Fataliti...
Background
 The

previous OSHA standards, while
requiring operator training, did not define
the type of training or autho...
Background (continued)
 American

National Standards Institute
(ANSI), in cooperation with ASME, has
revised its standard...
Background (continued)
 OSHA published

a proposed ruling on March
14, 1995 for General Industry, Shipyard,
Marine Termin...
Final Rule
 OSHA published

the final rule for
Powered Industrial Truck Operator
Training on December 1, 1998.
 The effe...
Fatalities/Injuries Potentially Averted
Annually by New Standard

37

Source: U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, Office of Re...
Performance-Oriented
Requirements
 The

powered industrial truck operator
training requirements are performanceoriented t...
Revised Operator Training
Requirements
 General

Industry: 1910.178 is amended by
revising paragraph (l) and adding Appen...
Operator Training
 Safe

operations

– The employer shall ensure that each powered
industrial truck operator is competent...
Training Program
Implementation
 Trainees

may operate a powered industrial
truck only:
– Under direct supervision of a p...
Training Program Implementation
(continued)
Training shall consist of a combination of:
Formal instruction (e.g., lecture,...
Training Program
Implementation (continued)
 Training

and
evaluation shall be
conducted by a
person with the
knowledge, ...
Training Program Content
 Operators

shall receive initial training in
the following topics, except in topics
which the e...
Training Program Content
(continued)

Truck-related topics

– Operating
instructions,
warnings and
precautions
– Differenc...
Training Program Content
(continued)

Workplace-related topics

– Surface conditions
– Composition and
stability of loads
...
Training Program Content
(continued)
 The

requirements of the OSHA standard
on powered industrial trucks must also be
in...
Refresher Training and
Evaluation
 Refresher

training, including an evaluation of
the effectiveness of that training, sh...
Refresher Training and
Evaluation (continued)
 An

evaluation of each powered industrial
truck operator’s performance mus...
Avoidance of Duplicative
Training
 If

an operator has previously received
training in a topic specified in this section,...
Certification
 The

employer shall certify that each
operator has been trained and evaluated
as required by the standard....
Dates
 The

employer shall ensure that operators of
powered industrial trucks are trained, as
appropriate, by the dates s...
Appendix A - Stability of Powered
Industrial Trucks
 Appendix A provides

non-mandatory
guidance to assist employers in
i...
Appendix A - Stability of Powered
Industrial Trucks
 Definitions
 General
 Basic

Principles
 Stability Triangle
 Lon...
Stability Triangle - Figure 1
B

Vehicle Center of
Gravity (Unloaded)

A

C

Center of Gravity
of Vehicle and
Maximum Load...
Stability Triangle - Figure 2
Load CG
Load CG
Vertical
Stability
Line
(Line of Action)

Combined CG

Combined CG
Truck CG
...
Effective Powered Industrial
Truck Operator Training Program
 Four

major areas of concern must be
addressed:
– The gener...
Types of Powered Industrial
Trucks
 There

are many different types of powered
industrial trucks covered by the OSHA
stan...
Unique Characteristics of
Powered Industrial Trucks
 Each

type of powered industrial truck has
its own unique characteri...
Components of a Forklift Truck*

*One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks
60
Classes of Commonly-Used
Powered Industrial Trucks*
 The

Industrial Truck Association has placed powered
industrial truc...
Class I - Electric Motor Rider
Trucks
 Counterbalanced

rider type, stand up
 Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down
 Co...
Class I - Electric Motor Rider
Trucks

63
Class I - Electric Motor Rider
Trucks
 Counterbalanced

Rider Type, StandUp

64
Class II - Electric Motor Narrow
Aisle Trucks
 High

lift straddle
 Order picker
 Reach type outrigger
 Side loaders, ...
Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle
Trucks

66
Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks

67
Class III - Electric Motor Hand or
Hand/Rider Trucks
 Low

lift platform
 Low lift walkie pallet
 Reach type outrigger
...
Class III - Electric Motor Hand
or Hand/Rider Trucks

69
Class III - Hand & Hand/Rider
Trucks

70
Class IV - Internal Combustion
Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid)
Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires)
71
Class IV - Internal Combustion
Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid)
Tires

72
Class V - Internal Combustion
Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires

Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)73
Class V - Internal Combustion
Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires)

74
Class VI - Electric & Internal
Combustion Engine Tractors

Sit-down rider
75
Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift
Trucks
– Straight-mast forklift

– Extended-reach forklift

All rough terrain forklift ...
Rough Terrain Straight Mast
Forklifts

77
Rough Terrain Extended-Reach
Forklifts

78
Some Types of Powered Industrial
Trucks Used in Maritime
The following types of vehicles are
covered by the OSHA standard ...
Powered Industrial Trucks Used
in Maritime

Container Handlers
80
Powered Industrial Trucks Used in
Maritime

Empty-Container Handler

81
Powered Industrial Trucks Used
in Maritime

Container Reach Stacker
82
Powered Industrial Trucks Used
in Maritime

Straddle Carriers
83
Powered Industrial Trucks Used
in Maritime

Yard Tractor

84
Dock Safety
 Painting of area.
 Trailer brakes and securing.
 People in the area.
 Perform daily check of truck.

Indu...
Dock Safety

Portable Docking Plate
Industrial Safety Lecture Four

86
11/20/13
Dock Safety

Dock Restraint Mechanism
Industrial Safety Lecture Four

87
11/20/13
Conveyors

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

88
11/20/13
Conveyors
 Powered type is most dangerous.
 Most people get hurt while working on

them.
 Most injuries involve fingers...
Hoists and
Cranes

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

90
11/20/13
Hoists and
Cranes

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

91
11/20/13
Hoists and Cranes
 Hoists and Cranes should be inspected

before use, every time.
 When cranes fail, it usually happens
...
Receiving and Storing
Materials

 Does this look safe to you?
Industrial Safety Lecture Four

93
11/20/13
When Storing Materials
 Place large, heavy packages on the bottom

and lighter ones on top.
 Never place materials where...
Corrosive and Flammable
Liquids
 Understand what it is that you are about

to move.
 Examine the containers to make sure...
Safety Guards

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

96
11/20/13
Safety Guards
 Are required to prevent accidents.
 Protect people, not the machine.
 Hazardous parts include point of

...
Moving Parts
Make
Guards
Necessary

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

98
11/20/13
Moving Parts
Make Guards
Necessary

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

99
11/20/13
Point of Operation Guard

 OSHA 29 CFR 1910.217
Industrial Safety Lecture Four

100
11/20/13
Fixed Guards

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

101
11/20/13
Fixed Guards
 Prevent entry into the

point of operation
 Do not move when the machine is in
operation.
 Example: Barri...
Interlocking Guards
 Used when a fixed guard cannot be

used.
 Connected to machine controls or power
source.
 Can be m...
Automatic Guards
 Push, pull, or sweep the operator’s

hands out of the danger zone.
 Example: Automatic Pull Backs

Ind...
Presence-sensing Guards
 No physical barrier.Create a sensing

area around the danger zone.
 May use magnetic fields, ra...
Power Transmission Guards
 Prevent pieces from flying out.
 Should be kept in place at all times while the

machine is r...
Other Safety Devices
 Machine

controls.
 Feeding and extracting tools.
 Ejectors.

Industrial Safety Lecture Four

107...
OSHA Lock Out/Tag Out
Procedures 29 CFR 1910.147
 Locking out has to do with the removal or

prevention of hazardous ener...
Control of Hazardous Energy
29 CFR 1910.147
The standard covers the servicing and
maintenance of machines and equipment
in...
Provisions Of The Standard
Requires employers to establish
procedures for isolating machines or
equipment from their sourc...
Employer Responsibilities
 Establish

energy control program
 Establish energy control procedures for
machines and equip...
Application Of The Standard
 An

employee is required to remove or
bypass a guard or other safety device
 An employee is...
Exceptions To The Standard
 Work

on cord and plug connected
electric equipment controlled by
unplugging of the equipment...
Exceptions To The Standard
 Hot

tap operations involving transmission
and distribution systems for substances
such as ga...
Minor Servicing Tasks
Employees performing minor tool changes
and adjustments that are routine, repetitive,
and integral t...
Definitions
 Authorized

employee: A person who locks
out or tags out machines or equipment in
order to perform servicing...
Definitions
 Energy

isolating device: The
mechanism that prevents the
transmission or release of energy and to
which loc...
Definitions
 Lockout:

The placement of a lockout
device on an energy isolating device to
ensure that the equipment being...
Definitions
 Tagout:

The placement of a tagout
device on an energy isolating device to
indicate the equipment being cont...
De-energizing Equipment
 Shut

down the machine or equipment
 Isolate the machine or equipment from the
energy sources
...
Stored Energy
 If

there is a possibility of
reaccumulation of stored energy to a
hazardous level, verification of
isolat...
Re-energizing Equipment
 Ensure

that machine or equipment
components are operationally intact
 Ensure that all employee...
Lockout/Tagout Requirements
 If

an energy isolating device is not
capable of being locked out, the
employer’s energy con...
Lockout Requirements
 After

January 1990, whenever
replacement, major repair, or
modification of a machine is performed,...
Device Requirements
 Durable:

Lockout and tagout devices must
withstand the environment to which they are
exposed for th...
Device Requirements
 Substantial:

Lockout and tagout
devices must be substantial enough to
minimize early or accidental ...
Tag Requirements
 Tags

as:
–
–
–
–
–

must also include a legend such

Do not start
Do not open
Do not close
Do not ener...
Periodic Inspections
 The

employer shall conduct a periodic
inspection of the energy control
procedure at least annually...
Periodic Inspections
 Shall

be conducted to correct any
deviations or inadequacies identified
 Where lockout is used, t...
Periodic Inspections
 Where

tagout is used, the inspection
shall include a review between the
inspector and each authori...
Periodic Inspections
 The

employer shall:

– Certify that the periodic inspections have been
performed
– Identify the ma...
Training and Communication
 Each

authorized employee shall receive
training in:
– Recognition of applicable hazardous
en...
Training and Communication
 Each

affected employee shall be instructed
in the purpose and use of the energy
control proc...
Training and Communication
 The

employer shall certify that
employee training has been
accomplished and is being kept up...
Group Lockout or Tagout
 Primary

responsibility is vested in an
authorized employee for a set number
of employees workin...
Outside Personnel


Whenever outside servicing personnel are
engaged in activities covered by
lockout/tagout, the on-site...
Tagout Tags

137
Lockout Device

138
Group Lockout

139
Tagout Tag

140
Lockout Signage

141
Review





















1. What is the best way to avoid hurting yourself when moving material?
2....
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Safe Materials Handling and Machine Safety Training by Elizabethtown KCTCS

  1. 1. Safe Materials Handling and Machine Safety Joe Nail Industrial Safety Lecture Four 1 11/20/13
  2. 2. Introduction  Handling Materials Safely    50 tons per one ton shipped. Some is moved by machine and some by hand. When handling material, technique is everything. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 2 11/20/13
  3. 3. Causes of Injuries  25% of all injuries are related to material handling.  80% are to the lower back.  Incorrect lifting causes most injuries.  Incorrect use of equipment. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 3 11/20/13
  4. 4. Carelessness  Be aware of your environment. Hey Charlie! Did you see that game last night? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 4 11/20/13
  5. 5. Avoiding Workplace Injuries  Stay in shape.  Consider where you will walk.  Don’t use your body if you don’t have to. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 5 11/20/13
  6. 6. Rules for Lifting  Get close to the load.  Keep feet apart.  Keep back straight.  Bend your knees.  Tuck your chin.  Grip the load with your palms. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 6 11/20/13
  7. 7. Hazards Associated with Materials Handling  Check your environment for sufficient moving room  Check for projecting objects, wear gloves.  Are materials secure?  Are chemicals to be moved? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 7 11/20/13
  8. 8. Teamwork and Handling Various Shapes and Sizes  If an object seems to heavy to lift, it probably is.  When working with others, communication is critical.  Your back should be kept straight when you carry objects.  Special lifting tools should be sought out and used for large objects.  Protect yourself when handling things. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 8 11/20/13
  9. 9. Examples of Lifting Equipment Industrial Safety Lecture Four 9 11/20/13
  10. 10. Hand Tools and Accessories Industrial Safety Lecture Four 10 11/20/13
  11. 11. Power Operated Hand Trucks  Examples of a “walkie” and a “rider” type powered hand trucks Industrial Safety Lecture Four 11 11/20/13
  12. 12. Powered Industrial trucks  Trucks are usually classified by power source.  Electric Motors  Internal Combustion Engine – Gasoline – Diesel – LP Liquefied Petroleum Industrial Safety Lecture Four 12 11/20/13
  13. 13. Standard Powered Industrial Lift Truck Industrial Safety Lecture Four 13 11/20/13
  14. 14. Straddle Truck Industrial Safety Lecture Four 14 11/20/13
  15. 15. Order Picker Truck Industrial Safety Lecture Four 15 11/20/13
  16. 16. Industrial Truck Safety Popular Misconceptions  “Anyone can drive a lift truck.”  “They handle just like a car.”  “They are easier to drive than a car.”  “You don’t need any training to safely drive a fork lift.” Industrial Safety Lecture Four 16 11/20/13
  17. 17. Industrial Truck Safety Facts  The center of gravity of a lift truck changes.  Most trucks are “rear steer.”  Most trucks have no suspension system.  It is NOT safe to alter the lift truck’s counterweight! Industrial Safety Lecture Four 17 11/20/13
  18. 18. Industrial Truck Safety  What does OHSA say about powered industrial truck training?  OSHA regulations state that “only trained and authorized operators shall be permitted to operate a powered industrial truck.”  But why? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 18 11/20/13
  19. 19. Training helps to Prevent Accidents! Get the picture? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 19 11/20/13
  20. 20.  Data plate. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 20 11/20/13
  21. 21. Powered Industrial Trucks Operator Training 1910.178 (l) 1915.120 (a) 1917.1 (a)(2)(xiv) 1918.1 (b)(10) 1926.602 (d)
  22. 22. Disclaimer  This presentation is intended as a resource for providing training on OSHA’s revised powered industrial truck operator standards. It is not a substitute for any of the provisions of the Occupational Safety and Health Act of 1970, or for any standards issued by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). It is also not a substitute for a powered industrial truck operator training program.22
  23. 23. Acknowledgment  OSHA’s Office of Training and Education wishes to acknowledge the following for contributing some of the graphics used in this presentation: – – – – Caterpillar Lift Trucks Mason Contractors Association of America Industrial Truck Association State of Utah Labor Commission - Occupational Safety & Health Division – Steamship Trade Association of Baltimore – Taylor Machine Works, Inc. – UAW - Ford National Joint Committee on Health and Safety  Appearance of products does not imply 23 endorsement by the U.S. Department of
  24. 24. Powered Industrial Truck - Definition  A mobile, power-propelled truck used to carry, push, pull, lift, stack or tier materials. [American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) definition]  Excluded are vehicles used for earth moving and over-the-road hauling.  Commonly known as forklifts, pallet trucks, rider trucks, forktrucks, or lifttrucks.  Can be powered through electric or combustion engines. 24
  25. 25. Scope of Standard  The scope provisions of 1910.178(a), which are based on ANSI B56.1 - 1969, remain in effect and cover: – ... fork trucks, tractors, platform lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, and other specialized industrial trucks powered by electric motors or internal combustion engines. – It does not apply to compressed air or nonflammable compressed gas-operated industrial trucks, farm vehicles, nor vehicles intended primarily for earth moving or overthe-road hauling.  This scope covers general industry, construction 25 and shipyards.
  26. 26. Scope of Standard (continued)  For marine terminal and longshoring industries, all powered industrial trucks are covered, no matter what specialized name they are given.  This includes, but is not limited to, straddle carriers, hustlers, toploaders, container reach stackers, and other vehicles that carry, push, pull, lift, or tier loads. 26
  27. 27. Reasons for New Standard  Powered industrial truck accidents cause approximately 100 fatalities and 36,340 serious injuries in general industry and construction annually.  It is estimated that 20 - 25% of the accidents are, at least in part, caused by inadequate training. 27
  28. 28. Additional Reasons for New Standard  Updated consensus standards have been published.  OSHA has been petitioned to improve the requirements for industrial truck training.  Advisory Committee on Construction Safety and Health has recommended improving the standard.  Resolutions have been introduced in the Senate and House urging OSHA to revise its outdated standard. 28
  29. 29. Forklift Fatalities, 1992-1996 120 86 1992 95 89 1993 114 1994 1995 1996 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job Related Fatalities Involving Forklifts 29
  30. 30. Forklift Fatalities by Age Group 1992 -1996 12% 5% 21% Under 20 3% 20 - 24 25 - 34 10% 35 - 44 45 - 54 56 - 64 65 & over 22% 27% Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics 30
  31. 31. Industries Where Powered Industrial Truck Accidents Occurred Source: OSHA Fatality/Catastrophe Reports, complied by OSHA Office of Electrical/Electronic and Mechanical Engineering Safety Standards. 31
  32. 32. Nonfatal Occupational Injuries and Illnesses by Source, 1996 32 Source: Bureau of Labor Statistics, Job Related Fatalities by Selected Characteristics, 1996.
  33. 33. Background  The previous OSHA standards, while requiring operator training, did not define the type of training or authorization required.  March 15, 1988 - Industrial Truck Association (ITA) petitioned OSHA for specific training requirements. 33
  34. 34. Background (continued)  American National Standards Institute (ANSI), in cooperation with ASME, has revised its standard 4 times, including current lifttruck technology and specific training topics. 34
  35. 35. Background (continued)  OSHA published a proposed ruling on March 14, 1995 for General Industry, Shipyard, Marine Terminals, and Longshoring regulations, adding specific training requirements.  On January 30, 1996, OSHA proposed a revision of the construction standards, mandating the development of an operator training program based on the prior knowledge and skills of the trainee and requiring a periodic evaluation. 35
  36. 36. Final Rule  OSHA published the final rule for Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training on December 1, 1998.  The effective date is March 1, 1999. Startup dates are included in paragraph (l)(7).  It applies to all industries except agricultural operations.  OSHA estimates that the new rule will prevent 11 deaths and 9,422 injuries per year. 36
  37. 37. Fatalities/Injuries Potentially Averted Annually by New Standard 37 Source: U.S. Department of Labor, OSHA, Office of Regulatory Analysis, 1997
  38. 38. Performance-Oriented Requirements  The powered industrial truck operator training requirements are performanceoriented to permit employers to tailor a training program to the characteristics of their workplaces and the particular types of powered industrial trucks operated. 38
  39. 39. Revised Operator Training Requirements  General Industry: 1910.178 is amended by revising paragraph (l) and adding Appendix A.  Shipyard Employment: New section 1915.120 and Appendix A are added.  Marine Terminals: Section 1917.1 is amended by adding new paragraph (a)(2)(xiv) and Appendix A.  Longshoring: Section 1918.1 is amended by adding new paragraph (b)(10) and Appendix A.  Construction: 1926.602 is amended by adding new paragraph (d) and Appendix A. 39
  40. 40. Operator Training  Safe operations – The employer shall ensure that each powered industrial truck operator is competent to operate a powered industrial truck safely, as demonstrated by successful completion of the training and evaluation specified in the OSHA standard. – Prior to permitting an employee to operate a powered industrial truck (except for training purposes), the employer shall ensure that each operator has successfully completed the 40 required training (or previously received
  41. 41. Training Program Implementation  Trainees may operate a powered industrial truck only: – Under direct supervision of a person who has the knowledge, training, and experience to train operators and evaluate their competence; and, – Where such operation does not endanger the trainee or other employees. 41
  42. 42. Training Program Implementation (continued) Training shall consist of a combination of: Formal instruction (e.g., lecture, discussion, interactive computer learning, written material), Practical training (demonstrations and exercises performed by the trainee), and Evaluation of the operator’s performance in the workplace 42
  43. 43. Training Program Implementation (continued)  Training and evaluation shall be conducted by a person with the knowledge, training and experience to train powered industrial truck operators and evaluate their competence. 43
  44. 44. Training Program Content  Operators shall receive initial training in the following topics, except in topics which the employer can demonstrate are not applicable to safe operation in the employer’s workplace. – Truck-related topics – Workplace-related topics – The requirements of the standard 44
  45. 45. Training Program Content (continued) Truck-related topics – Operating instructions, warnings and precautions – Differences from automobile – Controls and instrumentation – Engine or motor operation – Steering and maneuvering – Visibility – Fork and attachment adaptation, operation, use – Vehicle capacity and stability – Vehicle inspection and maintenance that the operator will be required to perform – Refueling/Charging/ Recharging batteries – Operating limitations 45 – Other instructions, etc.
  46. 46. Training Program Content (continued) Workplace-related topics – Surface conditions – Composition and stability of loads – Load manipulation, stacking, unstacking – Pedestrian traffic – Narrow aisles and restricted areas – Operating in hazardous (classified) locations – Operating on ramps and sloped surfaces – Potentially hazardous environmental conditions – Operating in closed environments or other areas where poor ventilation or maintenance could cause carbon monoxide or 46 diesel exhaust buildup
  47. 47. Training Program Content (continued)  The requirements of the OSHA standard on powered industrial trucks must also be included in the initial operator training program. 47
  48. 48. Refresher Training and Evaluation  Refresher training, including an evaluation of the effectiveness of that training, shall be conducted to ensure that the operator has the knowledge and skills needed to operate the powered industrial truck safely.  Refresher training required when: – – – – – Unsafe operation Accident or near-miss Evaluation indicates need Different type of equipment introduced Workplace condition changes 48
  49. 49. Refresher Training and Evaluation (continued)  An evaluation of each powered industrial truck operator’s performance must be conducted: – After initial training, – After refresher training, and – At least once every three years 49
  50. 50. Avoidance of Duplicative Training  If an operator has previously received training in a topic specified in this section, and the training is appropriate to the truck and working conditions encountered, additional training in that topic is not required if the operator has been evaluated and found competent to operate the truck safely. 50
  51. 51. Certification  The employer shall certify that each operator has been trained and evaluated as required by the standard.  Certification shall include: – – – – Name of operator Date of training Date of evaluation Identity of person(s) performing the training or evaluation 51
  52. 52. Dates  The employer shall ensure that operators of powered industrial trucks are trained, as appropriate, by the dates shown in the following table. If the employee was hired: The initial training and evaluation of that employee must be completed: Before December 1, 1999 By December 1, 1999 After December 1, 1999 Before the employee is assigned to operate a powered industrial truck. 52
  53. 53. Appendix A - Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks  Appendix A provides non-mandatory guidance to assist employers in implementing the standard.  This appendix does not add to, alter, or reduce the requirements of this section. 53
  54. 54. Appendix A - Stability of Powered Industrial Trucks  Definitions  General  Basic Principles  Stability Triangle  Longitudinal Stability  Lateral Stability  Dynamic Stability 54
  55. 55. Stability Triangle - Figure 1 B Vehicle Center of Gravity (Unloaded) A C Center of Gravity of Vehicle and Maximum Load (Theoretical) Notes: 1. When the vehicle is loaded, the combined center of gravity (CG) shifts toward line B-C. Theoretically the maximum load will result in the CG at the line B-C. In actual practice, the combined CG should never be at line B-C. 2. The addition of additional counterweight will cause the truck CG to shift toward point A and 55 result in a truck that is less stable laterally.
  56. 56. Stability Triangle - Figure 2 Load CG Load CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) Combined CG Combined CG Truck CG The vehicle is stable Truck CG Vertical Stability Line (Line of Action) This vehicle is unstable and 56 will continue to tip over
  57. 57. Effective Powered Industrial Truck Operator Training Program  Four major areas of concern must be addressed: – The general hazards that apply to the operation of all or most powered industrial trucks; – The hazards associated with the operation of particular types of trucks; – The hazards of workplaces generally; and, – The hazards of the particular workplace where 57 the vehicle operates.
  58. 58. Types of Powered Industrial Trucks  There are many different types of powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard.  Commonly used types include: – High lift trucks, counterbalanced trucks, cantilever trucks, rider trucks, forklift trucks, high lift trucks, high lift platform trucks, low lift trucks, motorized hand trucks, pallet trucks, straddle trucks, reach rider trucks, high lift order picker trucks, motorized hand/rider trucks, and counterbalanced front/side loader lift trucks.  A single type of truck can only be described 58 by calling it by all of its characteristics, (e.g.,
  59. 59. Unique Characteristics of Powered Industrial Trucks  Each type of powered industrial truck has its own unique characteristics and some inherent hazards.  To be effective, training must address the unique characteristics of the type of vehicle the employee is being trained to operate. 59
  60. 60. Components of a Forklift Truck* *One of the most common types of powered industrial trucks 60
  61. 61. Classes of Commonly-Used Powered Industrial Trucks*  The Industrial Truck Association has placed powered industrial trucks into 7 classes. – Class I - Electric motor rider trucks – Class II - Electric motor narrow aisle trucks – Class III - Electric motor hand trucks or hand/rider trucks – Class IV - Internal combustion engine trucks (solid/cushion tires) – Class V - Internal combustion engine trucks (pneumatic tires) – Class VI - Electric and internal combustion engine tractors * Note that this classification refers to commonly-used vehicles and does 61 not include all powered industrial trucks covered by the OSHA standard. – Class VII - Rough terrain forklift trucks
  62. 62. Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks  Counterbalanced rider type, stand up  Three wheel electric trucks, sit-down  Counterbalanced rider type, cushion tires, sit-down (high and low platform)  Counterbalanced rider, pneumatic tire, sitdown (high and low platform) 62
  63. 63. Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks 63
  64. 64. Class I - Electric Motor Rider Trucks  Counterbalanced Rider Type, StandUp 64
  65. 65. Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks  High lift straddle  Order picker  Reach type outrigger  Side loaders, turret trucks, swing mast and convertible turret/stock pickers  Low lift pallet and platform (rider) 65
  66. 66. Class II - Electric Motor Narrow Aisle Trucks 66
  67. 67. Class II - Narrow Aisle Trucks 67
  68. 68. Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks  Low lift platform  Low lift walkie pallet  Reach type outrigger  High lift straddle  High lift counterbalanced  Low lift walkie/rider pallet 68
  69. 69. Class III - Electric Motor Hand or Hand/Rider Trucks 69
  70. 70. Class III - Hand & Hand/Rider Trucks 70
  71. 71. Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires Fork, counterbalanced (cushion/solid tires) 71
  72. 72. Class IV - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Cushion (Solid) Tires 72
  73. 73. Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks - Pneumatic Tires Fork, counterbalanced (pneumatic tires)73
  74. 74. Class V - Internal Combustion Engine Trucks (Pneumatic Tires) 74
  75. 75. Class VI - Electric & Internal Combustion Engine Tractors Sit-down rider 75
  76. 76. Class VII - Rough Terrain Forklift Trucks – Straight-mast forklift – Extended-reach forklift All rough terrain forklift trucks 76
  77. 77. Rough Terrain Straight Mast Forklifts 77
  78. 78. Rough Terrain Extended-Reach Forklifts 78
  79. 79. Some Types of Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime The following types of vehicles are covered by the OSHA standard if the vehicles carry, push, pull, lift, or tier loads. – Container top – Sidehandlers handlers – Container reach stackers – Straddle carriers – Semi-tractors/ Utility vehicles – Combination vacuum lifts – Yard tractors 79
  80. 80. Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime Container Handlers 80
  81. 81. Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime Empty-Container Handler 81
  82. 82. Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime Container Reach Stacker 82
  83. 83. Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime Straddle Carriers 83
  84. 84. Powered Industrial Trucks Used in Maritime Yard Tractor 84
  85. 85. Dock Safety  Painting of area.  Trailer brakes and securing.  People in the area.  Perform daily check of truck. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 85 11/20/13
  86. 86. Dock Safety Portable Docking Plate Industrial Safety Lecture Four 86 11/20/13
  87. 87. Dock Safety Dock Restraint Mechanism Industrial Safety Lecture Four 87 11/20/13
  88. 88. Conveyors Industrial Safety Lecture Four 88 11/20/13
  89. 89. Conveyors  Powered type is most dangerous.  Most people get hurt while working on them.  Most injuries involve fingers, hands, and arms.  Accidents can be prevented if workers are careful to turn off the power and lock it out. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 89 11/20/13
  90. 90. Hoists and Cranes Industrial Safety Lecture Four 90 11/20/13
  91. 91. Hoists and Cranes Industrial Safety Lecture Four 91 11/20/13
  92. 92. Hoists and Cranes  Hoists and Cranes should be inspected before use, every time.  When cranes fail, it usually happens fast. fast  Tension on a sling is relative to total weight be lifted and angle of sling.  Never stand under a suspended load. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 92 11/20/13
  93. 93. Receiving and Storing Materials  Does this look safe to you? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 93 11/20/13
  94. 94. When Storing Materials  Place large, heavy packages on the bottom and lighter ones on top.  Never place materials where they can be tripped over or where someone could get hurt attempting to retrieve them.  When materials are moved to where you are working, they should be secured so they can’t fall on anyone.  Never block a traffic path or prop materials up against a wall where they might slide over and cause an accident. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 94 11/20/13
  95. 95. Corrosive and Flammable Liquids  Understand what it is that you are about to move.  Examine the containers to make sure they are sealed and properly labeled.  Make sure you are wearing all required PPE. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 95 11/20/13
  96. 96. Safety Guards Industrial Safety Lecture Four 96 11/20/13
  97. 97. Safety Guards  Are required to prevent accidents.  Protect people, not the machine.  Hazardous parts include point of operation components, control mechanisms, parts that transmit power, and parts that retain stored energy Industrial Safety Lecture Four 97 11/20/13
  98. 98. Moving Parts Make Guards Necessary Industrial Safety Lecture Four 98 11/20/13
  99. 99. Moving Parts Make Guards Necessary Industrial Safety Lecture Four 99 11/20/13
  100. 100. Point of Operation Guard  OSHA 29 CFR 1910.217 Industrial Safety Lecture Four 100 11/20/13
  101. 101. Fixed Guards Industrial Safety Lecture Four 101 11/20/13
  102. 102. Fixed Guards  Prevent entry into the point of operation  Do not move when the machine is in operation.  Example: Barrier Guard  Example: Enclosure Guard Industrial Safety Lecture Four 102 11/20/13
  103. 103. Interlocking Guards  Used when a fixed guard cannot be used.  Connected to machine controls or power source.  Can be mechanical, electrical, or pneumatic. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 103 11/20/13
  104. 104. Automatic Guards  Push, pull, or sweep the operator’s hands out of the danger zone.  Example: Automatic Pull Backs Industrial Safety Lecture Four 104 11/20/13
  105. 105. Presence-sensing Guards  No physical barrier.Create a sensing area around the danger zone.  May use magnetic fields, radio waves, or light waves.  Machinery must be able to stop instantaneously. instantaneously Industrial Safety Lecture Four 105 11/20/13
  106. 106. Power Transmission Guards  Prevent pieces from flying out.  Should be kept in place at all times while the machine is running.  Should only be removed for repair work. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 106 11/20/13
  107. 107. Other Safety Devices  Machine controls.  Feeding and extracting tools.  Ejectors. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 107 11/20/13
  108. 108. OSHA Lock Out/Tag Out Procedures 29 CFR 1910.147  Locking out has to do with the removal or prevention of hazardous energy.  Tag out is a communication technique that warns others of the machines repair work. Industrial Safety Lecture Four 108 11/20/13
  109. 109. Control of Hazardous Energy 29 CFR 1910.147 The standard covers the servicing and maintenance of machines and equipment in which the unexpected energization or start up of the machines or equipment , or release of stored energy could cause injury to employees. 109
  110. 110. Provisions Of The Standard Requires employers to establish procedures for isolating machines or equipment from their source of energy and affixing appropriate locks or tags to energy isolating devices 110
  111. 111. Employer Responsibilities  Establish energy control program  Establish energy control procedures for machines and equipment  Provide employee training  Conduct periodic inspections of the energy control program 111
  112. 112. Application Of The Standard  An employee is required to remove or bypass a guard or other safety device  An employee is required to place any part of their body in contact with the point of operation of the operational machine or piece of equipment  An employee is required to place any part of their body into a danger zone associated with a machine operating cycle 112
  113. 113. Exceptions To The Standard  Work on cord and plug connected electric equipment controlled by unplugging of the equipment - the plug is under exclusive control of the employee performing maintenance 113
  114. 114. Exceptions To The Standard  Hot tap operations involving transmission and distribution systems for substances such as gas, steam, water, or petroleum products 114
  115. 115. Minor Servicing Tasks Employees performing minor tool changes and adjustments that are routine, repetitive, and integral to the use of the equipment and that occur during normal operations are not covered by the lockout/tagout standard, provided the work is performed using alternative measures that provide effective protection. 115
  116. 116. Definitions  Authorized employee: A person who locks out or tags out machines or equipment in order to perform servicing or maintenance  Affected employee: A person whose job requires him to operate or use a machine or equipment on which servicing or maintenance is being performed under lockout or tagout 116
  117. 117. Definitions  Energy isolating device: The mechanism that prevents the transmission or release of energy and to which locks or tags are attached  Includes manually operated circuit breakers, disconnect switches, line valves, blocks, and others 117
  118. 118. Definitions  Lockout: The placement of a lockout device on an energy isolating device to ensure that the equipment being controlled cannot be operated until the lockout device is removed 118
  119. 119. Definitions  Tagout: The placement of a tagout device on an energy isolating device to indicate the equipment being controlled may not be operated until the tagout device is removed 119
  120. 120. De-energizing Equipment  Shut down the machine or equipment  Isolate the machine or equipment from the energy sources  Apply the lockout or tagout device(s) to the energy isolating device(s)  Safely release all potentially hazardous stored or residual energy  Verify the isolation of the machine or equipment prior to the start of servicing work 120
  121. 121. Stored Energy  If there is a possibility of reaccumulation of stored energy to a hazardous level, verification of isolation shall be continued until the possibility of such accumulation no longer exists 121
  122. 122. Re-energizing Equipment  Ensure that machine or equipment components are operationally intact  Ensure that all employees are safely positioned or removed from equipment  Ensure that lockout or tagout devices are removed from each energy isolation device by the employee who applied the device 122
  123. 123. Lockout/Tagout Requirements  If an energy isolating device is not capable of being locked out, the employer’s energy control program shall utilize a tagout system 123
  124. 124. Lockout Requirements  After January 1990, whenever replacement, major repair, or modification of a machine is performed, or whenever new machines or equipment are installed, they must be designed to accept a lockout device 124
  125. 125. Device Requirements  Durable: Lockout and tagout devices must withstand the environment to which they are exposed for the maximum duration  Standardized: Both lockout and tagout devices must be standardized according to either color, shape, or size  Tagout devices must also be standardized according to print and format 125
  126. 126. Device Requirements  Substantial: Lockout and tagout devices must be substantial enough to minimize early or accidental removal  Identifiable: Locks and tags must clearly identify the employee who applies them. 126
  127. 127. Tag Requirements  Tags as: – – – – – must also include a legend such Do not start Do not open Do not close Do not energize Do not operate 127
  128. 128. Periodic Inspections  The employer shall conduct a periodic inspection of the energy control procedure at least annually  Shall be performed by an authorized employee other than the person(s) utilizing the energy control procedure being inspected 128
  129. 129. Periodic Inspections  Shall be conducted to correct any deviations or inadequacies identified  Where lockout is used, the inspection shall include a review between the inspector and each authorized employee 129
  130. 130. Periodic Inspections  Where tagout is used, the inspection shall include a review between the inspector and each authorized and affected employees 130
  131. 131. Periodic Inspections  The employer shall: – Certify that the periodic inspections have been performed – Identify the machine or equipment on which energy control procedures were used  The employer shall also note: – The date of the inspection – The employees included in the inspection – The person performing the inspection 131
  132. 132. Training and Communication  Each authorized employee shall receive training in: – Recognition of applicable hazardous energy sources – Type and magnitude of the energy available in the workplace – Methods and means necessary for energy isolation and control 132
  133. 133. Training and Communication  Each affected employee shall be instructed in the purpose and use of the energy control procedure  All other employees shall be instructed about the prohibition relating to attempts to restart or reenergize machines or equipment which are locked out or tagged out 133
  134. 134. Training and Communication  The employer shall certify that employee training has been accomplished and is being kept up to date  Certification shall contain employee names and dates of training 134
  135. 135. Group Lockout or Tagout  Primary responsibility is vested in an authorized employee for a set number of employees working under the protection of a group lockout or tagout device  Each authorized employee shall affix a personal lockout or tagout device to the group lockout device 135
  136. 136. Outside Personnel  Whenever outside servicing personnel are engaged in activities covered by lockout/tagout, the on-site employer and the outside employer shall inform each other of their respective lockout or tagout procedures 136
  137. 137. Tagout Tags 137
  138. 138. Lockout Device 138
  139. 139. Group Lockout 139
  140. 140. Tagout Tag 140
  141. 141. Lockout Signage 141
  142. 142. Review                     1. What is the best way to avoid hurting yourself when moving material? 2. What is most dangerous when wearing gloves around rotating equipment? 3. Describe the best method for lifting. 4. What is the best way to carry a small box or carton? 5. What equipment can you use to move a barrel alone? 6. Describe how to handle moving a loaded hand truck down a ramp. 7. When is it permissible to ride on the platform of a moving truck? 8. What must be checked before entering a trailer on a shipping dock? 9. What is the best way to prevent accidents while working on conveyors? 10. What does the angle of a lifting sling have to do with the stress placed on it? 11. What is a pinch point? 12. What is meant by the term “point of operation”? 13. What word is used to mean a back and forth motion? 14. What is the correct spacing for a grinder wheel from the work rest? 15. What type of machine guard limits the operator’s access to the danger zone? 16. Which type of machine guard prevents access to the danger zone altogether? 17. What type of guard cannot be moved while the machine is running? 18. What type of guard, when removed, prevents the machine from running? 19. What type of guard physically pulls the operator out of the danger zone? 20. How fast should a machine stop when it is equipped with a presence sensing guard? Industrial Safety Lecture Four 142 11/20/13

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