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Hot Work Permit Program Safety Training by UNC Hot Work Permit Program Safety Training by UNC Presentation Transcript

  • ONLINE SELF-STUDY UNC Hot Work Permit Program Safety Training
  • Course Objectives 1) Be able to identify the general hazards associated with Hot Work Activities 2) Be able to explain the procedures involved in the UNC Hot Work Permitting System. 3) Be able to explain the roles of personnel for the Hot Work Permit System including: the Hot Work Operator, Permit Authorizing Individual, and the Fire Watch.
  • Course Objectives 4) Be able to explain the difference between a designated hot work area, a controlled hot work area, and an area where hot work is not permitted under any circumstances. 5) Understand Contractor Responsibilities, Mutual Responsibility, and the importance of individual initiative to halt work operations when workplace conditions develop that could pose a hazard.
  • Hot Work Definitions Hot WorkDefinitions
  • Hot Work Definitions Hot Work Defined as “work involving burning, welding, or similar operation that is capable of initiating fires or explosions”.  Hot work also includes other activities with the potential to create a source of ignition such as cutting, brazing, grinding, soldering, or hot riveting.  The OSHA hot work standard 29 CFR 1910.251-257, defines practices that should be implemented during the performance of hot work. This standard covers the safety requirements of the different types of welding processes. In addition, refer to the UNC-CH IMAC Safety Manual for Welding and Cutting Safety
  • Hot Work Definitions Hot Work Hot work also includes other activities with the potential to create a source of ignition and process applications that produce sparks, flame, or heat. Hot work is a familiar routine activity at most industrial facilities. But because hot work tools are highly portable source of ignition, improperly conducted hot work is a major cause of fires and explosions which have resulted in extensive property damage, serious personnel injury, and worker deaths.
  • Hot Work Definitions Hot WorkOperatoris the Departmental employee who is qualified and authorized by management to perform hot work such as welding, brazing, soldering, and other associated work tasks.
  • Hot Work Definitions  Permit Authorizing Individual (PAI) is the Departmental employee who is trained and authorized to issue a hot work permit by management.  The Fire Watch is the Department employee who is trained in hot work safety and monitors the hot work area for changing conditions, watches for fires and extinguishes them if possible.
  • Hot Work Definitions Designated Area is a permanent location approved for routine hot work operations made safe by removal of all possible sources of combustion that could be ignited by the hot work tool.  Above: Illustrations of two Designated Areas at one of the UNC Energy Services Maintenance Shops. Combustible materials have been removed to make this a safe
  • Hot Work Definitions Controlled Area is a work area in which safe conditions for hot work exist or where safe conditions can be created by moving or protecting combustibles.  A hot work permit is required in a controlled area.  An example of a controlled area is in a campus building construction area where welding must take place and the work area has been made safe by removing all combustibles and implementing the requirements of the hot work permit in order to make it safe.
  • Hot Work Definitions Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location is a location which hot work is prohibited. Fires and explosions caused by improperly conducted hot work can have deadly consequences. In the last decade their have been numerous worker injuries and deaths in general industry that have resulted from not following proper hot
  • Hot Work Definitions Welding Blanket is a heat-resistant fabric designed to be placed in the vicinity of a hot work operation. Intended for use in horizontal applications with light to moderate exposures such as that resulting from chipping, grinding, heat treating, sand blasting, and light horizontal welding. Designed to protect machinery and prevent ignition of combustibles such as wood that are located adjacent to the underside of the blanket. They are made from different materials such as fiberglass, Silica, and other fire resistant materials. Above Illustration: Courtesy of Northern Tool & Equipment Company
  • Hot Work Definitions Welding Curtain is heat-resistant fabric designed to be placed in the vicinity of a hot work operation. Intended for use in vertical application with light to moderate exposures such as that resulting from chipping, grinding, heat treating, and light horizontal welding. Designed to prevent sparks from escaping a welding area. An illustration of a welding curtain is provided below. Above Illustration: Courtesy of UNC Energy Services CoGeneration Facility Maintenance Shop
  • Hot Work Definitions Welding Pads are heat-resistant fabric designed to be placed directly under a hot work operation such as welding or cutting. Welding pads are intended for use horizontal applications with severe exposures such as that resulting from molten substances of heavy horizontal welding. Welding pads are designed to prevent the ignition of combustibles that are located adjacent to the underside of the pad.
  • Hot Work Hazards Hot WorkHazards
  • Hot Work Hazards Fire Hazard: Molten metal, sparks, slag, and hot work surfaces can cause fire or explosion if precautionary measures are not followed.
  • Hot Work Hazards Flying sparks are the main cause of fires and explosions in welding and cutting. Sparks can travel up to 35 feet from the work area. Sparks and molten metal can travel greater distances when falling. Sparks can pass through or become lodged in cracks, clothing, pipe holes, and other small openings in floors, walls, or partitions which can cause fires to start.
  • Hot Work Hazards Combustible Materials are anything that is combustible or flammable and is susceptible to ignition by cutting and welding. The most common materials likely to become involved in fire are those of combustible building construction such as the following: 1. Floors, partitions, and roofs 2. Wood, paper, textiles, plastics, chemicals, and flammable liquids and gases, and dusts. 3. Ground cover such as grass and brush.
  • Hot Work Hazards Explosion Hazard Welding and cutting can cause explosions in spaces containing flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or combustible dusts, and tanks and vessels that contain or have held flammable substances.  Above Courtesy U.S. CSB, Tanks involved in the 2006 accident that killed three workers
  • Hot Work Hazards Physical and Health Hazards There are many hazards to the hot work operator (i.e. welder) associated with hot work such as:  Burns,  Sparks,  Electric shock hazards,  Optical (UV) radiation,  Inhalation of welding fumes. Engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and safe work practices safeguards the welder from many physical and health hazards.
  • Hot Work Hazards Can you Identify Some of the Hazards in the following Illustrations?
  • Hot Work Hazards What Hazards Exist in the below illustrations?
  • Hot Work Hazards What Hazards Exist?  Eyehazards (UV optical radiation and burn hazards) to the eyes.  Skinburnhazards from the welder and hot surfaces.  Electrical hazards (for above electric welding processes); notice that the work area is dry and free from water and moisture at the welding work area.  Slip, Trip, andFall hazards from welding hoses and shop equipment.  Inhalation(respiratory) hazards of welding fumes and smoke generated from welding processes when inadequate ventilation is used as illustrated in the top left picture. Notice that in the right picture there is less
  • Hot Work Hazards What Hazards Exist in the below illustration?
  • Hot Work Hazards What hazards exist?  Eyehazards: Impact hazards from flying chips and debris, hot slag, and sparks.  Inhalation(respiratory) hazards of dusts generated when grinding on metal surface coatings.  Fire& IgnitionHazard(s) from flying sparks that could ignite combustible materials in the work area. Sparks can travel up to 35’ and ignite
  • Hot Work Hazards Summary Hot workcan be dangerous because the tools used are highly portable sources of ignition that can be introduced into areas where ignition sources do not usually exist.  Sparks, flame, orheat can travel great distances by various means and ignite combustibles in other areas far away from the hot work.  There are also explosion, fire, and physical and health hazards associated with hot work as previously reviewed.  The goal of hot worksafety practices is to avoid bringing sparks, flame, or heat produced by the tool into contact with a source of fuel.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements; Hot Work Locations
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations  Hot work is allowed in two types of locations: 1) Designated area is a permanent location approved for routine hot work operations made safe by removal of all possible sources of ignition that could be ignited by the hot work tool. 2) Controlled Area is one in which safe conditions for hot work exist or where safe conditions can be created by moving or protecting combustibles.  Non permissible location: Hot work is never permitted in certain types of locations where safe conditions do not exist and cannot be
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations Designated Area is a permanent location approved for routine hot work operations made safe by removal of all possible sources of combustion that could be ignited by the hot work tool.  Above: Illustrations of two Designated Areas at one of the UNC Energy Services Maintenance Shops. Combustible materials have been removed to make this a safe
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations Designated Area:  An example, is the Welding Shop or Maintenance Shop (as illustrated below) where all combustibles have been removed.  A Hot Work Permit is not required in a Designated Hot Work Area.  Above: Illustration of UNC Art Lab Welding Area, which is considered a Designated Area. A hot
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations Controlled Area is one in which safe conditions for hot work exist or where safe conditions can be created by moving or protecting combustibles.  An example of a controlled area is in a campus building construction area where welding must take place and the work area has been made safe by removing all combustibles and implementing the requirements of the hot work permit in order to make it safe.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations In a Controlled Area, a Hot WorkPermit must be obtained by the hot work operator. The permit must be obtained from the Departmental designated Permit Authorizing Individual (PAI) before the hot work can proceed in a controlled area. The permit includes a checklist of precautions, each of which must be considered and then implemented if the PAI determines that is applicable to the specific situation, such as: ensuring fire protection equipment is available in the work area, controlling potential and existing fuel sources, and posting a fire watch when required.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Locations Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location: Hot work shall not be permitted in the following areas: (1) In areas not authorized by Management. (2) In sprinklered buildings where sprinklers are impaired. (3) In the presence of explosive atmospheres (i.e., where mixtures of flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or dust with air exist). (4) In the presence of uncleaned or improperly prepared equipment, drums, tanks, or other containers that have previously contained flammable materials that could develop explosive atmospheres. (5) In areas with an accumulation of combustible dusts that could develop explosive atmospheres.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Hot workis prohibited:  In, on, or near tanks, vessels, or containers that contain or have contained flammable substances.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Location Examples Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location Examples:  Fuel/Fuel Oil Storage Tanks Hot work is not allowed in, on, or near fuel and fuel oil storage tanks such as illustrated below:
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Location Examples Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location Examples:  Fuel/Fuel Oil Storage Tanks Hot work is not allowed in, on, or near fuel and fuel oil storage tanks such as illustrated below:
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Location Examples Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location Examples:  Fuel/Fuel Oil Storage Tanks Hot work is not allowed in, on, or near fuel and fuel oil storage tanks such as illustrated below:
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Hot Work Location Examples Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location Examples: DIESEL FUEL NO SMOKING MATCHES OR OPEN FLAMES The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill Department of Environment, Health & Safety 1120 Estes Drive Ext., CB# 1650 Chapel Hill, North Carolina 27599
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Non- Permissible Area(s)/Location Examples: For hot work in the vicinity of any potential hazardous location, the atmosphere must be tested for atmospheric hazards including flammable gasses using a combustible gas indicator by a trained PAI or EHS before commencing hot work. Contact EHS at 962-5507 before commencing any hot work in a potentially hazardous location.
  •  Hot Work Permit Program Requirements
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Analyze the Hazards- Prior to initiation of hot work, perform a hazard assessment that identifies: 1) The scope of the work, 2) Potential hazards, 3) Methods of hazard control.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements After analyzing the hazards, see if there is any possibility of Hot WorkAlternatives. An alternative hot work method is termed “Cold Work”. 1) Can the job be completed with cold work? An example of cold work is performing repairs with another method instead of using a heat producing tool. If yes, a hot work permit is not required. 2) Can hot work be performed in a designated area (e.g. maintenance or welding shop). If yes, then a hot work permit is not required. 3) Is the proposed work to be performed in a non- permissible area? HOT WORK AND PERMIT ARE NOT AUTHORIZED in a non-
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Here is an example of a decision flow that can be utilized to help determine if a hot workpermit is needed or not.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements YES NO YES NO YES YES YES NO YES NO 1. Is there an acceptable alternative to hot work?? Yes, Complete job with Cold Work. No hot work permit is needed.? 2. Can hot workbe performed in a designated area (e.g. Maintenance Shop)? Yes, Examine designated area, then complete hot work there. No hot work permit is needed.? 3. Is the proposed workto be performed in a non-designated area (e.g. NOT in a Maintenance Shop)?? Yes, Obtain a written hot work permit.? 4. Is the proposed workto be performed in a non-permissible area? YES, Hot Work and Permit are Not Authorized in a non-permissible area No, Obtain a written hot work permit to work in a Controlled Area.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements  If it is decided that a hot work permit is required for a job task, the Hot WorkPermit must be obtained by the hot work operator from the Permit Authorizing Individual (PAI).  The PAI is designated by management before the hot work can proceed in a controlled area.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements  The Hot WorkPermit includes a checklist of precautions, each of which must be considered and then implemented if the PAI determines that it is applicable to the specific situation.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements UNC Hot WorkPermit: Click on the below Hot Work Permit
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements  Fire Protection Equipment: All required fire protection, detection, and extinguishing equipment must be available, in service, and fully operable. Examples of equipment that needs to be considered include: - Fire extinguishers - Fire Sprinklers, - Hose stream, pales of water available? - Proximity to the fire alarm.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Fuel sources: fuel sources within 35’ from hot work are easily ignited, so within this area:  Combustible materials must be removed or shielded.  The floor must be swept clean of combustible materials.  The absence of hazardous atmospheres and/or flammable materials must be verified, steps must be taken to ensure that none are introduced, and adequate ventilation must be assured.  Combustible floors must be covered with damp
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Fuel sources (cont’d): fuel sources within 35’ from hot work are easily ignited, so within this area:  Openings or cracks in walls, floors, or ducts through which sparks might travel and ignite combustibles in other locations must be covered. Conveyer systems must be shut down.  Fire resistant tarps must be suspended beneath overhead work.  If hot work is done on one side of a wall, partition, ceiling, or roof, precautions shall be taken to prevent ignition of combustibles on the other side by relocating the combustibles.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Fuel sources (cont’d): If relocation is impractical, combustibles shall be protected by a approved welding curtain, welding blanket, welding pad, or equivalent rated ANSI/FM 4950.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Fuel sources (cont’d):  If it is impractical to relocate combustibles, a Fire Watch must be provided on the side opposite from where work is being performed.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements A Fire Watch is needed when there is a chance that fire might develop from combustible materials. A fire watch is needed if combustible materials are located: 1) Closer than 35’ from the hot work. 2) More than 35’ away from the hot work but might be easily ignited by sparks. 3) Walls or floor openings within 35’ expose combustible materials in adjacent areas including concealed areas spaces in walls and floors. 4) Adjacent to the opposite side of partitions,
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements The Fire Watch monitors the hot work area for changing conditions and watches for fires, and extinguishes them if possible. The Fire Watch shall be familiar with the facilities and procedures for sounding the fire alarm and contacting the Fire Department in the event of an emergency.  Note: When changing conditions are observed by anyone– whether the fire watch, hot work operator, PAI, or any other employee– that person should immediately halt the hot work on
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Remember, Fire Watches must: 1. Have fire extinguishing equipment readily available and be trained in its use. 2. Be familiar with facilities for sounding an alarm and contacting the Fire Department in the event of a fire. 3. Watch for fires in all exposed areas. 4. Try to extinguish fires only when obviously within the capability of equipment available, or otherwise sound the alarm. 5. Be maintained for at least a half-hour after completion of welding or cutting operations to detect and extinguish possible smoldering fires.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements ContractorResponsibilities: The designated departmental PAI should supervise outside contractors that are planning to engage in hot work activities. The departmental PAI informs contractors about site-specific hazards including the presence of flammable materials at the work site.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Mutual Responsibility: Management, contractors, the PAI, the fire watch, and the hot work operators shall recognize their mutual responsibility for safety in hot work operations.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements Individual Employee Responsibilities: Any employee that observes changing unsafe condition associated with hot work activities must use individual initiative to report the unsafe condition(s).  Each employee has the right to halt hot work operations when new conditions develop that could pose a hazard to employees.  An example of changing conditions might be the introduction of a flammable substance into the hot work area.
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study #1: Welding and cutting can cause explosions in spaces containing flammable gases, vapors, liquids, or combustible dusts, and tanks and vessels that contain or have held flammable substances.  Above Courtesy U.S. CSB, Tanks involved in the 2006 accident that killed three workers
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study # 1: Explosion: Previous Slide Photo & Below Information, Courtesy: U.S. CSB,  Tanks involved in the 2006 accident that killed three workers . On June 5, 2006, contract workers were installing a new pipe between two oil tanks at a rural oilfield when sparks from a welding torch ignited flammable hydrocarbon vapor venting from one of the tanks. That tank and another nearby tank exploded, killing three workers who were standing above the tanks and seriously injuring a fourth. All of the tanks were interconnected by piping and one of the tanks contained crude oil, the source of the vapor that fueled the explosions. The workers had not performed combustible gas monitoring prior to or during the hot work instead relying on the unsafe and unreliable practice of using a lit torch to check one of the tanks for flammable vapor.  Workers did not empty or isolate the tank that contained crude oil prior to initiating hot work activities.  Neither the contract company nor the parent company required written hot work permits. The contractor company did not provide hot work
  • Hot Work Permit Program Case Studies Case Study # 2: Explosion: Below Information and Photo, Courtesy: U.S. CSB, A.V. Thomas Produce Atwater, California, March 31, 2009 2 Workers Severely Burned  Two employees at A.V. Thomas Produce were using an oxygen-acetylene torch to loosen a fitting on an old fuel tank, which the company hoped to refurbish for field storage of diesel fuel. The workers, however, were unaware that the tank contained residual hydrocarbon liquid and vapor from an unknown prior use. The tank was not cleaned or purged before work began. Shortly after applying heat to the tank, an explosion occurred, blowing the end of the vessel off. Both employees were airlifted to a regional burn center, where they were treated for burns covering 30 to 50% of their bodies.  The facility had no formal hot work program, and no permit was issued for the hot work being performed. No combustible gas testing was performed prior to commencement of the hot work; the company did not have a policy that required it. In addition, many workers were mono-lingual Spanish speakers and had not been
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study # 2: Explosion: Below Photo, Courtesy: U.S. CSB, Exterior and interior views of the fuel tank involved in the hot work accident at A.V. Thomas Produce.
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study # 3: Explosion: Below Information and Photo, Courtesy: U.S. CSB, Bethune Point WastewaterPlant Daytona Beach, Florida, January 11, 2006 2 Workers Killed, 1 Critically Injured  Two workers were killed and another critically injured in an explosion involving a methanol storage tank at a municipal wastewater treatment facility in Daytona Beach, Florida. The explosion occurred while the three workers were cutting a metal roof located directly above the tank vent. Sparks showered from the cutting torch and ignited methanol vapor escaping from the vent, creating a fireball on top of the tank. A corroded and ineffective flame arrester15 on the vent allowed the fire to propagate through the device, igniting methanol vapors and air inside the tank, resulting in an explosion.  Daytona Beach public employees were not covered by OSHA standards, which is typical for local and state governments in a number of jurisdictions. The city had no formal permitting system for hot work or non-routine maintenance activities, and workers had not received any training on methanol hazards in the previous 10 years. Combustible gas monitoring was not performed or required.
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study #4: Fire at a University Library  Courtesy: (NFPA 51Bstandard - Significant Hot Work Incidents)  University Library. Workers were using an acetylene torch to remove old heating ducts in a utility shaft between the 20th and 21st stories of the tower of a 27-story university library building. Flying sparks fell through a vent and ignited papers stacked against the vent in a storage room on the 20th floor. Apparently the fire burned 20 to 30 minutes before discovery.  There was no fire protection in the upper stories, except for portable fire extinguishers, and fire fighters had to connect to the standpipes in the 3rd and 4th stories and pull hose lines up the enclosed stairways to the 20th and 21st stories. They finally controlled the fire in 2.5 hrs, but damage extended to 4 stories when fire spread by way of nonfirestopped utility shafts and elevator shafts. The work was being done by two air-conditioning installation workers, on contract. They had not investigated the possibility of combustible material being in contact with the old
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study #5: Fire in Warehouse Facility  Courtesy: (NFPA 51Bstandard - Significant Hot Work Incidents)  Warehouse Facility. While an arc welder was being used on the second floor, sparks dropped through an opening to cardboard boxes below and the boxes ignited. There was no fire watch on the first floor, and when the fire was discovered 15 minutes later, employees could not put it out. They finally called the fire department but were too late to save the two-story building of ordinary construction. The total loss was $1.6 million.
  • Hot Work Accident Case Studies Case Study #6:  LumberMill. Workers had shut down one of several sprinkler systems in the plant to remove branch lines to facilitate removal of a conveyer. While workers were cutting bolts from the conveyer with welding equipment, some of the sparks passed through cracks in the floor and landed in sawdust accumulations below. Smoldering occurred for 3 hours without being noticed by the maintenance employees, who were the only people in the plant. Meanwhile, the area in the region of the cutting operations, but not the floor below, had been washed down and visited regularly at ½-hour intervals.  When the fire was finally noticed, some time was spent in trying to extinguish it before the fire department was called. By the time the fire department arrived, it was too late to save the lumber storage and stacker buildings. Destruction caused a total loss of $1.25 million.
  • Hot Work Permit Program Training Summary
  • Hot Work Permit Program Requirements- Summary In Summary:  Hot work activities creates various health and physical hazards. The goal of the hot work permit program is to prevent heat sources from coming into contact with fuel sources in order to prevent the possibility of fires and explosions that could result in injury, death, and loss of property.  Hot work is allowed in 2 types of locations. Designated area is a permanent location (such as a Welding or Maintenance Shop) approved for routine hot work operations. A Designated area has been made safe by removal of all possible ignition sources.  A Controlled Area is an out of shop location which safe conditions exist or where safe conditions can be created by moving or protecting combustibles.  A Hot Work Operator must obtain a Hot Work Permit from the Departmental Permit Authorizing Individual before performing hot work in a Controlled Area.  A Fire Watch must be posted when hot work is performed in a location where other than a minor fire might develop.  A Non-Permissible Location is a hazardous location such as a tank that holds flammable chemicals. No Hot Work is allowed in this type of work environment.  It is critical that proper planning and communication be implemented by all involved in planning work involving hot work to reduce the possibility of injury, death, and
  • Conclusion In conclusion, everyone involved with hot work needs to understand and follow proper safety procedures to prevent accidents associated with hot work activities.
  • References Used and Additional Hot Work Information  REFERENCES:  National Fire Protection Agency 51B, Standard for Fire Prevention during Welding, Cutting and Other Hot Work.  American National Standards Institute, Standard: Z49.1:2005, Safety in Welding, Cutting, and Allied Processes  US Chemical Safety Board: www.csb.gov  American Welding Society, Safety and Health Fact Sheets  OSHA General Industry Standard, Subpart Q, 1910.251- 1910. 255, Welding, Cutting, and Brazing  U.S. Army Corps of Engineers , Safety and Health Manual , Section 10 Welding and Cutting  Washington State Department of Labor and Industries, Hexavalent Chromium (chrome 6) Training on the hazards of hexavalent chromium in the workplace