Heat Stress Prevention Program Training by Washington State University

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  • By “hydration” we mean drinking enough water. If you become dehydrated, heat illness can occur.
    The most effective way for preventing heat stress is to steadily replenish the water that the body loses as sweat.
    Drinking a large amount of water all at once after sweating heavily for a long time is not as effective and can even be dangerous.
    About 1 quart every hour
    Cool liquids are better than ice cold
    Supply adequate water and encourage employees to drink regularly.
    Workers in restricted environments (sewers, etc.) should drink before entry and at regular intervals.
  • Note: Suitably cool water should be sixty degrees Fahrenheit or less. During hot weather, employees may require up to three gallons of water per day. With this water consumption comes a need to use the bathroom. Facilities need to be available and workers must be given the opportunity to use them as needed.
  • Heat Exhaustion starts with the accumulation of large quantities of blood in the skin in the body’s attempt to increase it’s cooling efficiency.
    This is normally due to temperature conditions the individual is not used to.
    There is a loss of circulating blood volume in the body which decreases the blood supply to the brain, increasing the likelihood of fainting.
  • The underlying cause of heat stroke is connected to the sudden inability to dissipate body heat through perspiration.
    This accounts for the excessive rise in body temperature and it’s the high fever which can cause permanent damage to internal organs, and can lead to death.
    When someone passes out from heat stroke, his or her brain is being cooked just as the colorless part of an egg turns white when it hits the griddle.
    Any cold liquid should be used to cool the victim.
    Once revived, the victim should be watched for more than an hour as his temperature can start to rise to high levels again.
  • Heat Stress Prevention Program Training by Washington State University

    1. 1. Heat Stress Prevention Program Training for Supervisors and Employees Environmental Health and Safety
    2. 2. Training Program Objectives Protect employees from outdoor heat hazards by: Identifying, evaluating and controlling potential risk factors Providing information and training to supervisors and employees Proper response to heat-related illnesses
    3. 3. When do employees need to be protected?  When the outdoor temperatures reach these action levels All other clothing 89 degrees Double-layer woven clothes including coveralls, jackets and sweatshirts 77 degrees Non-breathing clothes including vapor barrier clothing or PPE such as chemical resistant suits 52 degrees
    4. 4. When do employees need to be protected? When employees are assigned to work outdoors on a regular basis When there is a sudden and significant increase in temperature and employees have not had time to acclimate
    5. 5. Supervisor Responsibilities Implementing a written outdoor heat stress program* by following this training program Evaluating and controlling outdoor heat stress factors Training employees Encouraging frequent water consumption (one quart of water per employee per hour) Proper response to heat-related illness *Visit www.ehs.wsu.edu to access written program
    6. 6. Employee Responsibilities  Monitoring personal factors for heat- related illness  Frequently drinking water  Reporting signs and symptoms of heat- related illness to their supervisor
    7. 7. Environmental factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Direct sun, heat and humidity More direct sun = greater risk Limited air movement Low or no wind the greater the risk
    8. 8. Environmental factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Hot equipment Engines add more heat Heat reflected from the ground or objects Asphalt, rocks
    9. 9. Environmental factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Physical exertion What kind of work are you doing? How hard are you working? How long are you working?
    10. 10. Environmental factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Clothing and Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) Heavy clothing Multiple layers Dark colored clothing Protective clothing Vapor barrier clothing Chemical resistant suits Respiratory protection
    11. 11. Personal factors that contribute to the risk of heat-related illness Physical Factors Age Weight Degree of Physical Fitness Degree of Acclimatization Use of caffeine Smoking Use of alcohol Medical Condition It is difficult to predict just who will be affected and when, because individual susceptibility varies
    12. 12. Helpful tips for working in the heat Start and end the work shift early When possible, schedule strenuous work during the coolest part of the day Increase breaks if:  Conditions are very hot  Workload is heavy  Protective clothing limits cooling Take breaks in a shaded, cooler area Alternate heavy work with light work when possible Have a “Buddy System” to keep an eye on co- workers for symptoms of heat illness
    13. 13. Helpful tips for working in the heat Wear proper clothing  Light colored  Light weight  Natural fibers  Hat with a brim  Cooling vest may be helpful in some cases Work in the shade or out of direct sun when possible Avoid getting sunburned
    14. 14. Helpful tips for working in the heat Remove PPE and excess clothing during breaks
    15. 15. Helpful tips for working in the heat WATER CONSUMPTION It is important to drink small quantities of water throughout the day. One quart or more over the course of an hour may be necessary when the work environment is hot and you may be sweating more than usual. Supervisors are responsible for encouraging water consumption. Employees are responsible for monitoring their own personal factors for heat-related illness including consumption of water or other acceptable beverages to ensure hydration.
    16. 16. Helpful tips for working in the heat Proper hydration is key to preventing heat related illness DO Start work well hydrated Drink plenty of water throughout the day Consider sports drinks for electrolyte replacement when sweating a lot AVOID Drinking pop and other sugary drinks Drinking lots of coffee and tea Drinking alcohol Waiting for thirst before drinking water
    17. 17. You can get water from these sources: Drinking fountains Closeable containers with tap (provide individual cups) Bottled water Hydration packs Water should be suitably cool (60 degrees Fahrenheit or less) Worker wearing hydration pack Hydration pack Helpful tips for working in the heat
    18. 18. Helpful tips for working in the heat Acclimatization When people are not used to being in the heat they need to adjust (acclimate) to hot working conditions over a few days. In severe heat, gradually build up exposure time especially if work is strenuous. Eastern WA workers experience more heat and are better acclimated. Western WA workers experience heat less often and do not have the opportunity to acclimate. Pay special attention to: New employees People just back from being sick Anyone absent for more than weeks People who have just moved from a cooler climate Everyone during heat wave events
    19. 19. How the body controls heat When body core temperature rises: Blood flows to skin increase Sweating increases Heart rate increases to move blood and heat to the skin When this works well: Core temperature drops or stabilizes at a safe level
    20. 20. Causes of Heat Related Illness So much sweat is lost that Dehydration results The body cannot cool itself by sweating and the core temperature rises Salt loss causes heat cramps So much blood flow goes to the skin that other organs can not function properly The body is subject to more heat than it can cope with and heat exhaustion and heat stroke can occur
    21. 21. How to respond to a heat related illness Employees showing signs and symptoms of heat related illness are to:  Cease work and report their condition to their supervisor  Be relieved from duty and provided means to reduce body temperature Employees experiencing sunburn, heat rash or heat cramps will be monitored to determine whether medical attention is necessary 911 must be called if employees experience signs and symptoms of heat exhaustion or stroke Fill out an Incident Report for any heat related incident
    22. 22. HeatHeat Stress IllnessesStress Illnesses Heat RashHeat Rash Causes: Likely to occur in hot, humid environments where sweat is not easily removed from the surface of the skin by evaporation and the skin remains wet most of the time. Symptoms: The sweat ducts become plugged, and a skin rash soon appears. When the rash is extensive or when it is complicated by infection, prickly heat can be very uncomfortable and may reduce a worker's performance. Treatment: The worker can prevent this condition by resting in a cool place part of each day and by regularly bathing and drying the skin.
    23. 23. Heat Stress IllnessesHeat Stress Illnesses Heat CrampsHeat Cramps Causes: This normally happens after exercise. Most often to people who are not used to the heat, who sweat a lot or don’t drink enough fluids. Symptoms: Severe pain and cramps in legs and abdomen, fainting or dizziness, weakness, profuse sweating and headaches. Treatment: Increase fluid intake, rest and move to a cool place. Get medical attention if cramps persist
    24. 24. Heat Stress IllnessesHeat Stress Illnesses Heat ExhaustionHeat Exhaustion Causes: This is caused by the loss of body fluids and important salts due to overexposure to high temperatures and humidity. Usually one is exposed to heat for a prolonged amount of time and becomes dehydrated. Symptoms: Headache, nausea, fatigue, dizziness, skin is cool and pale, pupils become dilated. Victim is usually conscious but may faint, has a core temperature of over 102. Treatment: Call 911, provide EMS with directions to work site. Get to the shade, cool off, increase fluids, cold wet towels or ice, fan, elevate legs above heart, loosen clothing, don’t give any liquids containing alcohol or caffeine. If left untreated Heat Exhaustion can lead to HEATSTROKE.
    25. 25. Heat Stress IllnessesHeat Stress Illnesses Heat StrokeHeat Stroke Causes: Heat stroke is a medical emergency and a life threatening condition. It is caused by the failure of the heat-regulating mechanisms of the body, due to high heat and humidity. Symptoms: Headache, nausea, dizziness, skin is red, dry and very hot (sweating has ceased). Pulse is strong and rapid, small pupils, high fever of 105. May be disorientated, lose consciousness, possible convulsions. Treatment: Call 911, provide EMS with directions to worksite. Get the victim to a shady area, loosen clothing, apply cool or tepid water to the skin (i.e. spray the victim with cool water from a garden hose), fan the victim to promote sweating and evaporation, place ice packs under armpits and groins. DO NOT give medication to lower fever.
    26. 26. Remember – to prevent heat illness: Drink water frequently !! Know the signs and symptoms of heat related illnesses and take them seriously Consider sports drinks when sweating a lot Avoid alcohol, caffeinated drinks, and heavy meals before or during work Acclimate Wear appropriate clothing Take regular breaks in a cool area Keep an eye on your buddy!
    27. 27. Additional Resources Contact Environmental Health and Safety for heat stress consultation and training at www.ehs.wsu.edu or 335-3041.

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