Objectives of this course
• To become qualified to operate a forklift
(aka forktruck or Powered Industrial Truck)
Learn the rules for safe operation
How to avoid forktruck accidents
How to prevent high maintenance cost
Verify your understand of what you learned
with a quiz
tru ruc ipo
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Im f tr
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Causes of Accidents
Causes of Fatalities
• This program is not designed to "teach"
employees how to operate a forklift.
• It is intended only to confirm the safety
aspects of forklift operation for those
people already familiar with its operation.
Who Can Use A Lift Truck?
“Only trained and authorized personnel
shall be permitted to operate forklifts.”
• Phase 1: Classroom instruction & quiz
• Phase 2: Observation of the trainee operating a
truck by a person experienced in forklift operation
Notes about Phase 2:
– training must not endanger the trainee or other
– the observation must be completed on each truck the
employee will be assigned to operate.
Refresher training is required when . . .
• The operator has been observed operating in an
• The operator is involved in an incident or nearmiss
• The operator is assigned to operate a different type
• A condition in the workplace changes in a manner
that could affect safe operation of the truck.
• At least every 3 years.
HIGH ACCIDENT &
Are usually results of :
• Safety rule violations
• Near misses
• Lack of inspections
• Modifications or additions to forklifts must
be approved, in writing, by the manufacturer
• Name plates must reflect all front-end
• Nameplates must be in place and legible
General Requirements (cont.)
• Truck shall not be used around flammable
vapors or hazardous concentrations of metal
dust unless they are designated as a DY,
EE, or EX
• Attention should be paid to carbon
monoxide (CO) levels in work areas where
truck are operating
• There will be several weights stenciled on
• The weights listed will be with the uprights
vertical and the center of gravity of the
load at various distances from the
4350# with load center 24” from backrest
2490 cap when load center
is 20” from backrest
2190 cap when load center
is 30” from backrest
The higher the lift,
the lower the capacity
Movement of the stability triangle
2. Truck is loaded or
stopped, no load
3. Truck is loaded on
right side or turning left
5. Truck is loaded and
4. Truck is lifting a load with the
loaded on left mast titled back
Key points about the stability triangle
• If you get outside the stability triangle, the truck
could turn over
• No quick stops or turns
• Keep load low
• Inch slowly when load is lifted for deposit
• Keep loads stable on forks so they don’t shift
• Creep when carrying containers of liquid
• Tilt back no more than necessary
SURVIVING A TIP-OVER
Hold on to steering wheel tightly
Brace feet with wide stance
Lean away from the tip direction
• Due to rear-end steering,
operators must slow down
in order to watch the tail
swing and the tips of the
forks at the same time.
• You can’t do this if your
driving too fast.
What’s wrong in this picture?
Load is way
Load height is
O.K. if stopped
to stack, right?
Driver not at the
• When a forklift is
not in use, the forks
must be grounded
• Under no circumstances
should anyone be allowed
under raised forks,
whether loaded or empty.
• This includes fingers &
ELEVATION OF FORKS
• When traveling on level surfaces the forks
should never be raised more than about 4”
from the floor or ground.
• When on unlevel surfaces, the forks
should not be raised any higher than
necessary to clear the ground.
• Forklifts shall be examined before being placed
• Trucks must be inspected at the end of each
shift when used around-the-clock
• Trucks used intermittently must be inspected at
the beginning of each day that the truck is used
• Daily inspections shall be retained for 45 days
• Monthly inspections shall be retained for at
least 13 months.
The inspection must at least include the
A. Leaks (water, fuel, hydraulic
B. Tire damage and adequate
C. Faulty operation of controls
D. Brake condition (service and emergency
E. Proper steering
F. Proper accessory operation (horn, lights,
ignition switch, etc.)
G. Proper operation of lift/tilt mechanisms
H. Defects in forks
I. Battery charging
J. Fuel connections/gauges
K. Battery plug connection (if it’s
Checking the oil
Add or Low
Be on a level
surface to check
the oil. Like on
a concrete pad or
From low to full could
be 1 Qt. to 1 gallon.
Put a little in and check
level. Keep doing that.
DO NOT OVERFILL
• Any maintenance problems should be
brought to the attention of supervision so
that appropriate repairs can be made.
• Forklifts in an unsafe
condition should never be
COUNCIL SAYS . . .
• The most serious defect is BRAKE
DAMAGE TO FORKLIFT
• If the forklift is damaged in any way or
develops any kind of mechanical problem
while being used it must be immediately
reported to your supervisor.
• Do not park a defective forklift without
tagging it out & telling your supervisor.
OSHA SAYS . . .
• Only trained and/or qualified persons
should make repairs to forklifts.
• When one forklift is following another, the
following forklift should maintain a
distance of three (3) trucks behind the
• Although the forklifts can be stopped in a
short distance, the load cannot stop as fast.
• A quick stop may cause the forklift to
loose the load or tip forward.
USE OF HORN
• The horn should be used to warn
pedestrians that you are approaching
• The horn should also be sounded upon
entering a building or rounding a blind
• Sound the horn and look in direction of
travel BEFORE backing
USE OF HORN (cont.)
• It is especially important to sound the horn when
entering or leaving buildings where employees
may be walking across the path of the forklift.
• Also, be especially careful when entering a
building from outside as your eyes will not be
adjusted to the lower light.
• Horns should never be used to startle fellow
• The definition of an
– when you are not
within clear view of the
– when you are more
than twenty five feet
(25) feet away from it.
UNATTENDED FORKLIFT (cont.)
So. . .If the forklift is unattended, you
• shut down the engine
• fully ground the forks
• neutralized the controls
• set the emergency brake, and
• not parked on an incline (unless
chocks are used)
UNATTENDED FORKLIFT (cont.)
• If you get off of the forklift but
do not leave it unattended then
– Lower the forks to the ground,
– Neutralize the controls and
– Set the emergency brake
– Chock wheels if on an incline
CIRCUMSTANCES. . .
• Should a forklift
be allowed to lift
any more than its
STABILITY OF LOAD &
• Loads should be stable. Remember
that shop floors have rough places
and so does the yard.
• Loads should be balanced, secure
and stable so there is no possibility
of loosing the load during transit.
• Keep the load
as much as
• 10% grade is when a slope changes 10
feet in height in a 100 feet of distance.
• When going up or down an incline of
10 percent grade or more while loaded,
keep the load uphill.
• In other words, go up the grade in
forward and come down the grade in
• When crossing railroad tracks, the truck
should cross the tracks diagonally (at an
• No parking within 8 ft. of the center of the
• Whether loaded or unloaded, do not
run over any avoidable objects such
as beam, pipe, loose items, etc. as
tire damage and possible tipping
• Also, avoid any wet spots on shop
floors as this will effect braking
ability and steering control.
• When unable to
see in front of you
because of a large
load, you should
or have a spotter.
• Employees should never be allowed
to be lifted on the forks unless the
proper personnel basket is used.
• Safety platform must be firmly
secured to the lifting carriage and/or
• Means shall be provided whereby
personnel on the platform can shut
off power to the truck.
• Under no circumstances
should anyone be on a
forklift except the
operator (unless a safe
place is provided)
• This is the operator’s
• Always watch for overhead
clearance such as piping,
• Never get any closer to an
electrical line than 20 feet.
• Travel should be smooth,
slow, cautious and the
operator must always
look in the direction of
• The mast should be tilted
slightly back, when
possible, while traveling
with a load.
• Forklifts must never
be driven up to
someone standing in
front of a bench or
other fixed object.
• Arms and legs should
never be outside the
confines of the
forklift cab or
• Never pass another
forklift going in the same
direction while in the
• Pedestrians always have
the right of way.
MANEUVERING & STACKING
• Do not combine
forks and depositing
load all at one time.
• The procedure
should be as follows:
1. Drive up to the place
you intend to deposit
or pick up load and
2. Raise or lower forks
and tilt forward or
back to deposit or pick
3. Creep forward and deposit
or pick up load.
4. Adjust forks and tilt.
5. Look to direction of travel.
6. Slowly begin travel.
• While handling material, report any
damage to the material immediately
to your supervisor.
• The damaged material may take
time to replace and the quicker the
damage is reported, the quicker it
can be fixed or re-ordered.
DAMAGE REPORTING (cont.)
• Report any damage to property
immediately. This includes damage
The forktruck, or
Other equipment, etc.
• Name plates on bottles & scrubbers - do
not allow them to be damaged.
• Screwed fittings - do not allow the bottle
to rest on these fittings or let the bottle
roll over on these fittings
• Use caution so that flange faces are not
• To accomplish this, the bottles may have
to be suspended under the forks using
chokers rather than sitting on the forks.
HANDLING VESSELS (cont.)
• It is the operator’s
responsibility to figure
out how to avoid
damage to these
vessels or any other
• During refueling the engine must be
• Forklift must be parked away from
any hot work or heat producing
• No smoking.
• If propane fuel is used, return empty
tank to the proper place.
• When parking the forklift be sure it
is not blocking
Electrical panels , or
WHEN PARKING (cont.)
Shut the engine down,
Set the handbrake,
Ground and level
• Neutralize controls,
• Chock wheels if on an
MOUNTING AND DISMOUNTING
• Do not “jump” off the forklift
• Use handrails and take your time
(maintain 3-point contact at all times)
• If the anti-skid surfaces get worn down anti-skid tape can be put on them.
FINALLY . . .
Take care of the machine
Operate at a safe speed
Obey all the rules