Section 350 of FY 99 Defense Authorization Act required a review of DAPS by the Department of Defense. DoD delegated DLA to do the study which hired a firm called KPMG. KPMG finished the study of DAPS in February 1999 and found, among other things, that All DAPS Functions were appropriate for transfer to other governmental or commercial entities. Based on recommendations from DAPS and DLA, competitive sourcing was chosen using the A-76 process. However, other alternatives were being considered such as: Privatization – using a Prime Vendor approach A-76 Direct conversion to private sector for facilities with less than 10 people Waive the A-76 process – issue a solicitation for commercial sources A-76 was the best outcome – it was the only way DAPS employees would be given an opportunity to compete and keep their jobs. Congress was notified in August of 1999 about the A-76 competition for 260 sites and 1400 employees. Today, due to downsizing and a number of VERA/SIP offerings, there are currently 1368 employees in DAPS, 919 under the study – which is 67% There are now 219 out of 259 facilities under study – which is 85% of total This affects 41% of total DAPS business
Inventory on hand An Improved Customer Relationship One dedicated customer-care representative
Bureau of Workers Comp
PA Training for Health & Safety
2. What is Ergonomics?
Ergonomics is the science of fitting jobs to people.
Ergonomics encompasses the body of knowledge
about physical abilities and limitations, as well as
other human characteristics, that are relevant to
Ergonomic design is the application of this body
of knowledge to the design of the workplace (work
tasks, equipment, environment) for safe and
efficient use by workers.
Good ergonomic design makes the most efficient use
of worker capabilities while ensuring that job
demands do not exceed those capabilities.
3. Ergonomic Hazard Identification
Do not ignore signs, symptoms and hazards!
Make recommendations for control of hazards
4. Musculoskeletal Disorders
Musculoskeletal disorders, or MSDs, are
injuries or illnesses to soft body tissue
5. Joints, Muscles, Tendons, etc.
6. Musculoskeletal Disorders
MSDs do not include injuries caused by
slips, trips, falls or other similar accidents.
MSDs can differ in severity from mild,
periodic symptoms to severe, chronic
and debilitating conditions.
7. MSDs – Signs & Symptoms
•Loss of Color
9. MSDs-Carpal Tunnel Syndrome
• Carpal Tunnel – a tunnel
in the wrist through
which the median nerve
and nine digital flexor
• Formed by the wrist
bones and a dense transcarpal ligament.
• Continued and repetitive
pressure on the median
nerve in the carpal
tunnel can cause CTS.
10. MSDs-How CTS Develops
1. Swelling or thickening of the carpal tendon starts.
2. The tunnel begins to close.
3. This exerts pressure on the median nerve.
4. Feel pain/discomfort.
11. MSDs-Prevention of CTS
• If you do the same tasks with your hands over
and over, try not to bend, extend or twist your
hands for long periods.
• Don’t work with your arms too close or too
far from your body.
• Don’t rest your wrists on hard surfaces for
• Switch hands during work tasks, if possible.
12. MSDs-Prevention of CTS
• Take regular breaks from repeated hand
movements to give your hands and wrists time
• Don’t sit or stand in the same position all day.
• Ensure your chair is adjusted so that your
forearms are level with your keyboard and
you don’t have to flex your wrists to type.
13. MSDs-Common Causes of
• Heavy lifting from above
• Heavy lifting from below
• Twisting while
• Bending over at the waist
• Carrying objects to one
14. MSDs-Protecting your Back
Avoid bending at the waist.
Squat down with your back
straight and knees bent.
Grasp the object.
Bring it close to your body.
Let your thigh muscles do
15. MSDs-Protecting your Back
Shift your weight slightly.
Use proper footwear with cushioned insoles.
Avoid high heels.
Proper posture when standing:
shoulders not rolled forward, stomach area is
pulled in, small of the back is straight, hips not
Which one gives the
best support if you do a
lot of walking/standing?
17. MSDs-Protecting your Back
Use an adjustable chair
with lower back support.
Keep knees in line with the
hip joints or slightly lower.
Sit with the lower back
firmly against the chair
Shift elevation of the legs
during prolonged sitting.
Avoid crossing your legs.
Any ergonomic issues?
If prolonged sitting, back
will hurt without support.
18. MSDs-Protecting your Back
• Lie on your side with your knees slightly bent.
• Use a pillow to elevate your head, keeping it in
line with your back.
• If you sleep on your back, place a pillow under
your knees to relieve lower back stress and
promote proper alignment.
Awkward position-could cause
ergonomic issues if in the position for
19. MSDs-Joint Disorders
• Joints include many structures, such as
tendons, muscles, nerves and bones.
• Inflammation may be caused by joint damage
or repetitive, heavy use.
• With inadequate repair, cartilage thinning
may lead to osteoarthritis.
20. MSDs-Joint Disorders
• Repetitive or prolonged stair- or ladder-climbing,
kneeling or squatting, standing, carrying heavy
loads and jumping are work tasks that may be
associated with lower-extremity joint loading.
• Mechanical stresses associated with certain tasks
can cause degenerative joint disease.
• Degenerative joint disease can occur even after
relatively low loads on joints if the forces are
applied recklessly and repetitively.
21. MSD Risk FactorsAwkward Postures
Static = nonmoving
Dynamic = body in motion
Stress increases if any weight is
added by tools or other objects.
▪ Body condition
▪ Range of motion
22. MSD Risk Factors-Avoid:
• Twisting at the waist
• Rolling shoulders
• Leaning forward
• Bending at the waist
24. MSD Risk Factors
Force & Exertion = Forceful exertions place higher
loads on the muscles, tendons, ligaments and joints.
•Weight of load or tool
•Bulkiness of load or tool
•Speed of movement
25. MSD Risk Factors
•Place heavier material above the knees and below
•Use team lifting.
•Use mechanical devices such as tool supports,
platforms lifts, barrel lifts, air lifts and hoists.
•Reduce required force by using carts, trolleys,
pallet jacks, conveyors and tracked lifts.
26. MSD Risk Factors
Reduce Force and Exertion by Reducing:
• Weight of the object
• Weight of the container
• Load in the container
• Size of the container
• Quantity per container
27. MSD Risk Factors –
• Grip type
• Surface and grip area shape
28. MSD Risk Factors –
Hazards = Damage to Nerves and Blood Vessels
External Compression – sharp edges concentrate
forces on a small area of the anatomy resulting in
high, localized pressure.
• Internal Compression – nerves, vessels and other
soft tissues may be internally compressed under
High velocity or acceleration of movement
Swelling of injured tissue
29. MSD Risk Factors –
Tools and Work Practice
Tools with short
handles (such as pliers
and paint scrapers)
Leaning the side of the
elbow on a hard
Carrying heavy loads
on the shoulder
Long periods of
30. Ergonomic Tools
31. MSD Risk Factors –
• Cold environments
compromise muscle efficiency.
• Possible vascular and
• Workers with cold-desensitized
fingers may grasp loads with
more force than necessary
thereby exposing muscles, soft
tissues and joints to increased
• Alcohol, nicotine, caffeine and
some medication increases
MSD risks from cold
33. MSD Risk Factors - Lighting
Hazards of too much
or not enough light:
• Awkward postures
• Muscle fatigue
• Eye strain
• Mental fatigue
34. Life Factors - Exercise
Proper exercise means:
• Improved health
• Stronger body
• Improved endurance
• Reduced stress
• Better range of
35. Life Factors – Effects of Smoking
Carbon monoxide in
Poor general health
36. Life Factors-Medication
Medication has the
potential to increase
the risk of MSDs if it:
Lowers or raises normal
Changes sense of
Affects blood circulation
37. Ergonomic Controls-Engineering
38. Ergonomic Controls-Engineering
• Are the preferred method for controlling
• Make physical changes to tasks
• Act on the source of the hazard
• Control employee exposure
• Do not require “self-protective” action
39. Ergonomic Workstations
40. Ergonomic Controls-Administrative
Administrative controls = procedures
and methods that significantly reduce daily
exposure to WMSD hazards by altering the
way in which work is performed.
• Employee Rotation
• Job task enlargement
• Adjustment of work place
• Redesign of work methods
• Alternative tasks
• Rest breaks
41. Ergonomic Controls Work Practice Controls
Work Practice Controls:
• Are behavior-based controls that change the manner in
which a job is performed
• Procedures for safe and proper work that are
understood and followed by managers, supervisors and
• Examples of work practice controls for WMSD hazards
Safe work techniques and procedures
Conditioning period for new or reassigned employees
Training in the recognition of ergonomic hazards
Training in work techniques that reduce MSD hazard
42. Sitting Posture
• Use a straight chair with support for your lower
spinal curve. You can use a small cushion or rolled
up towel behind your back to maintain
proper curve .
• Check the seat’s height.
• Adjust your seat so that your knees are slightly
lower than your hips.
• If the seat’s height is not adjustable, use a
footrest if necessary.
• Keep your feet flat; avoid crossing your legs.
• Keep your ankles and elbows at right angles.
43. Sitting Posture
• Sit close to your desk so you don’t have to
• If you do bend, bend from your hips.
• Position your work or chair so you can look
forward rather than down.
• Use a document holder or move your computer
screen so the top of it is at eye level.
• Shift your position frequently to prevent strain.
• Take a break or do stretching exercises
44. Ergonomic Chair
45. Prevent, Prevent, Prevent!
• The bottom line: prevent accidents and
injuries from occurring!
• Ensuring your workstation is ergonomically
designed is one method to prevent injuries.
• All employees need to have a basic
understanding of ergonomics and should
report any ergonomic hazards to their
46. Exercises – Knee Kiss
• Pull one leg to your chest, grasp with both hands
and hold for a count of five.
• Repeat with the opposite leg.
47. Exercises - Windmill
•Place your feet apart on the floor.
•Bend over and touch your right
hand to your left foot, with your left
•Repeat with opposite arm.
48. Exercises – Back Relaxer
• Bend down between your knees for as long as
• Return to upright position, straighten and relax.
49. Exercises – Pectoral Stretch
• Grasp your hands behind your neck and
your elbows back as far as you can.
• Return to starting position, then drop your
arms and relax.
50. Exercises –
Middle/Upper Back Stretch
• Raise your right arm and grasp it below the
elbow with your left hand.
• Gently pull your right elbow toward your left
shoulder as you feel the stretch.
• Hold for five seconds.
• Repeat with left arm.
51. Exercises – Side Stretch
• Interlace your fingers and lift your arms over your
head, keeping your elbows straight.
• Press your arms backward as far as you can.
• Slowly lean to the left and then to the right until
you can feel the stretching.
52. Exercises – Finger Stretch
• With palms down, spread your fingers apart
as far as you can.
• Hold for the count of five.
• Relax and then repeat.
53. Exercises – Shoulder Roll
• Slowly roll your shoulders forward five times in a
circular motion using your full range of motion.
• Then roll your shoulders backward five times
with the same circular motion.
• Repetitive motion tasks can lead to MusculoSkeletal Disorders (MSDs).
• Maintain correct posture while
• Stretch to “limber up” muscles before and after
• Take regular breaks.
• Exercise regularly.
• Ensure your workstation is set up to be
• Ensure lighting in your work area is adequate.
• Report ergonomic hazards or symptoms to