Styles, strategies and tactics approaches to teaching
STYLES, STRATEGIES AND TACTICS APPROACHES TO TEACHING.<br />Presented by- TORSKAR AMITA ANIL<br />M.Ed.2010-2011<br />School of education<br />Pondicherry university<br />
Teaching strategy:meaning:<br /><ul><li>The term strategy is has been used popularly in the case of battle or war. According to B.O.Smith teaching strategy refers to a pattern of teaching acts that serves to attain certain outcomes.
An teaching strategy is a purposefully conceived and determined plan of action.
Teaching strategy is very much important for smoothed transaction of curriculum.</li></li></ul><li>Definition:<br />According to strasser(1964);<br />Teaching strategy is generalized plan for a lesson or lessons which includes structure, desired learner behavior, in terms of the goals of instruction, and an outline of tactics necessary to implement the strategy.<br />
AIMS OF TEACHING STATEGIES<br />Ensuring that certain learnings will be acquired in as brief a time as possible.<br />Inducing students to engage in exchange of ideas.<br />Minimizing the number of wrong responses as the students attempt to learn a concept, principle etc.<br />Ensuring the attainment of certain content objectives.<br />
PRICIPLES OF TEACHING STRATEGY BUILDING.<br />Principle of selection.<br />Principle of motivation.<br />Principle of maxims of teaching.<br />Principle of variety.<br />Principle of correlation with environment.<br />Principle of feedback<br />Principle of individual difference.<br />Principle of child’s all round development.<br />
Lecture<br />Case Method<br />Discussion<br />Cooperative Learning<br />Distance Learning<br />"The Role Playing Process”<br />Different teaching strategies<br />
Different teaching strategies<br />Lecture<br />The advantages of the lecture approach are that it provides a way to communicate a large amount of information to many listeners, maximizes instructor control and is non-threatening to students. The disadvantages are that lecturing minimizes feedback from students, assumes an unrealistic level of student understanding and comprehension, and often disengages students from the learning process causing information to be quickly forgotten.<br />The following recommendations can help make the lecture approach more effective (Cashin, 1990): <br />1. Fit the lecture to the audience <br />2. Focus your topic - remember you cannot cover everything in one lecture <br />3. Prepare an outline that includes 5-9 major points you want to cover in one lecture <br />4. Organize your points for clarity <br />5. Select appropriate examples or illustrations <br />6. Present more than one side of an issue and be sensitive to other perspectives <br />7. Repeat points when necessary <br />8. Be aware of your audience - notice their feedback <br />9. Be enthusiastic -<br />
Case Method<br />Providing an opportunity for students to apply what they learn in the classroom to real-life experiences has proven to be an effective way of both disseminating and integrating knowledge.<br /> The case method is an instructional strategy that engages students in active discussion about issues and problems inherent in practical application.<br /> The case study approach works well in cooperative learning or role playing environments to stimulate critical thinking and awareness of multiple perspectives. <br />
"The Role Playing Process: <br />Make sure the students define a situation that is relevant and important to them--for example, a situation in which they may be offered a drug. Get details such as the setting and number and types of people involved. <br />Set the stage by arranging furniture, indicating where 'doors' might be located. <br />Prepare the audience by giving them specific questions to be prepared to answer at the conclusion of the role play.<br /> Examples: <br />(a) Would this work in real life? <br />(b) How would you have handled the situation? <br />There are numerous ways to select participants. Discuss ideas. <br />Begin the role play, stopping it if it is unrealistic, going nowhere, or has accomplished its purpose. <br />Ask questions of the participants and audience. <br />Reenact the role play, if necessary, using a variation of the situation, new participants, feedback provided to improve a skill. . . <br />
Distance Learning<br />. Distance learning is not a new concept. We have all experienced learning outside of a structured classroom setting through television, correspondence courses, etc.<br />Distance learning is defined as 'any form of teaching and learning in which the teacher and learner are not in the same place at the same time' (Gilbert, 1995). <br />It has made it possible for learning experiences to be extended beyond the confines of the traditional classroom. Distance learning technologies take many forms such as computer simulations, interactive collaboration/discussion, and the creation of virtual learning environments connecting regions or nations. Components of distance learning such as email, and interactive software have also been useful additions to the educational setting.<br />
Cooperative Learning:<br />Cooperative Learning is a systematic pedagogical strategy that encourages small groups of students to work together for the achievement of a common goal. The term 'Collaborative Learning' is often used as a synonym for cooperative learning.<br />It stress the importance of faculty and student involvement in the learning process<br />When integrating cooperative or collaborative learning strategies into a course, careful planning and preparation are essential. <br />Understanding how to form groups, ensure positive interdependence, maintain individual accountability, resolve group conflict, develop appropriate assignments and grading criteria, and manage active learning environments are critical to the achievement of a successful cooperative learning experience.<br />
Discussion<br />For motivating students to think.<br />For reviewing area already dealt with.<br />For promoting better comprehension.<br />Demonstration<br /><ul><li>For showing manipulative operations of any equipment.
For explaining a process.</li></ul>Programmed Instruction<br /><ul><li>For enabling the student to learn at his own space.
For immediate feedback.</li></li></ul><li>TACTICS<br />the dictionary meaning of tactic is skillful use of available means to achieve an objective.<br />It is the condition necessary for effective strategy.<br />These conditions are;<br />MOTIVE- student has to want something.<br />CUE or STIMULUS- the student has to notice something.<br />RESPONSE- the student has to do something.<br />REWARD- the student has to get something. <br />If particular tactics fulfills all these requirement it leads acceptable successive strategy.<br />
MASTERY LEARNING:<br />Appeared during recent years. Put forward by Benjamin Bloom. As a tactic, mastery learning is best understood as a special case of criterion referenced instruction, in which the objective of instruction is more apparent to students and kept before the student until he/she has achieved it.<br />While achieving it frequent feedback is given.<br />Sufficient time is given according to the needs of the learner.<br />
Project- centered approach:<br />It mainly focuses on individual student. <br />Coined by Kilpatrick<br />The project may be in group or for individual.<br />It fulfills all the requirements require for the effective strategy.<br />
Types of Teaching Styles<br />"Style"<br />The way or manner (Method) in which something is said or done -<br />American Heritage Dictionary<br />
Types of Teaching Styles<br />A. Keep Students Interested<br /> - Excited teacher with loud voice and lots of energy<br /> - Humor<br /> - Change activities frequently<br />B. Respect Learners<br />C. Objective Driven<br />
Types of Teaching Styles<br />A. Keep Students Interested<br />B. Respect Learners<br />C. Objective Driven<br />- Verbal teaching styles<br /> - Bibliotherapy: Use of written handouts and articles<br />Knowledge<br />Skills<br />Attitudes<br />
Deals with thinking skills.</li></li></ul><li>Contrasts between Suggestive and Collaborative Styles<br /> Teacher’s experience Learner’s experience<br />aaaa<br />SuggestiveCollaborative<br />Student working harder<br />Students structuring responses<br />Teacher working harder<br />Teacher structuring responses<br />
The Unit Study Approach<br />· Takes a theme or topic and delves into it deeply over a period of time · Integrates some or all subjects into one study around a common theme· Many prepared unit study curricula are available· Example: Unit study on Birds- <br />Language Arts: reading and writing about birds and about famous ornithologists, <br />Science and Math: studying the parts, functions, and life cycles of birds and even the aerodynamics of flight, <br />Social Studies: determining the migration paths, habitats, and ecological/sociological impact of birds, <br />Art: sketching familiar birds, building bird houses or feeders.<br />
The Unit Study Approach<br />Strengths of the Unit Study Approach*All ages can learn together*Children can delve as deeply or as lightly into a subject as they like*The family's interests can be pursued*Students get the whole picture*Curiosity and independent thinking are generated*Intense study of one topic is the more natural way to learn*Knowledge is interrelated so is learned easily and remembered longer*Unit studies are fairly easy to create<br />Weaknesses of the Unit Study ApproachØ It is easy to leave educational "gaps"Ø Hard to assess the level of learning occurringØ Record keeping may be difficultØ Prepared unit study curricula are expensiveØ Do-it-yourself unit studies require planningØ Too many activity-oriented unit studies may cause burn-out of teacher and student<br />
Strengths of the Traditional Approach*Everything is laid out for ease of use*Follows a standardized scope and sequence*Has definite milestones of accomplishment*Testing and assigning grades is easy to do<br />Weaknesses of the Traditional ApproachØ Doesn't take into account individual learning styles, strengths, weaknesses or interestsØ Assumes that there is a body of information that comprises as education and that this information can be broken down into daily incrementsØ Treats children's minds like containers to be filled with informationØ Focuses on transmitting information through artificial learning experiencesØ Is teacher-directed and chalkboard orientedØ Different aged students study different materialsØ Expensive when teaching multiple childrenØ Discourages original, independent thinkingØ Has a high "burn out" rate<br />
Summary of Teaching Styles<br />“Verbal Teaching Styles” are value-neutral.<br />No one style is unqualifiedly better or worse than another.<br />Each “Teaching Style” has its own advantages and usefulness.<br />The Key is flexibility.<br />