2. WHAT IS BEHAVIOUR MODIFICATION MODEL ?<br /><ul><li>Changing the external behaviour of the learners and describe them in terms of visible behaviour rather than underlying behaviour.
3. Skinner is the chief exponent of this model.
4. Based on B.F.Skinner’s theory of Operant Conditioning and Bundara’s theory of Social Learning.</li></li></ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS<br /><ul><li>Break down the learning task into series of small sequences of behaviour.
5. Learner actively respond to the situation to and gets reinforcement and feedback.
6. Each behaviour; is so designed that success is ensured.
7. "Re-programming" on acquired behaviors of learners.
8. Old behavioural pattern is replaced by new behavioral patterns.</li></li></ul><li>IMPORTANCE <br /><ul><li>Develop mastery in subject matter or skills acquisition.
9. Seeks specific behavioral changes.
10. Measurable outcomes.</li></li></ul><li>MASTERY LEARNING<br /><ul><li>is an instructional strategy
11. Based on the idea that the majority of students can master any topic if it is broken down into small chunks and if they are given enough time to learn at their own pace.
12. Individualized instruction.</li></li></ul><li>Continued……<br /><ul><li>Assumes that almost all students can and will master a great deal of what is taught, if instruction is approached systematically; if the students are helped when and where they have learning difficulties; if they are given sufficient time to achieve mastery.</li></li></ul><li>CHARACTERISTICS<br /><ul><li>Small learning segments
13. Presentation of Instructional Objectives
14. Individual attention
15. Personalized instruction
17. Criterion referenced test
18. Diagnostic, formative & formative evaluation
19. focus on process of mastering of content not on content</li></li></ul><li>VARIABLES OF MASTERY LEARNING<br />Cognitive Entry Behaviour<br />STUDENT LEARNING<br />Learning Outcomes<br />(Levels and types of Achievement, Rate of Learning, Affective Outcomes)<br />Affective Entry Characteristics<br />Quality of Instruction<br />Variables of mastery learning (Wong, 2002)<br />
20. MAIN FOCUS OF MASTERY LEARNING<br />Behavioural Objectives:The specific objectives for learning a study unit are made clear to the learner, so that he knows what is expected of him from the course of study.<br />Small Learning Segments:The subject matter of a study unit is broken in to several blocks each followed by self-assessment questions which work as learner’s own evaluation checks.<br />Self-pacing:The learner learn the study unit at his own speed. The time for learning a study unit is different for different learners while the degree of mastery is the same.<br />
21. PRINCIPLES OF MASTERY LEARNING<br />1.Diagnosis of Learning Difficulties<br />2. Compensatory Programmed Units<br />3. Presentation of Instructional Objectives<br />4. Teacher Instruction<br />5. Supplementary Instruction, Review and Exercises<br />6. Formative Tests<br />7. Programmed Units<br />8. Enrichment Programmes<br />9. Co-operative Small Group Study<br />10. Summative Test<br />
22. HOW TO INSTRUCT FOR MASTERY ?<br />Enough time means:<br /><ul><li>Time required for demonstrate mastery of objectives.</li></ul>Appropriate instruction means:<br /><ul><li>Break course into units of instruction
23. Identify objectives of units.
24. Require students to demonstrate mastery of objectives for unit before moving on to other units.
25. Clearly state the objectives representing the purposes of the course.</li></li></ul><li>Continued…..<br /><ul><li>The curriculum is divided into relatively small learning units, each with their own objectives and assessment.
26. Learning materials and instructional strategies are identified; teaching, modelling, practice, formative evaluation, re-teaching, reinforcement, and summative evaluation are included.
27. Each unit is preceded by brief diagnostic tests, or formative assessments.
28. The results of formative tests are used to provide supplementary instruction, or corrective activities to help the learner overcome problems.</li></li></ul><li>ADVANTAGES<br /><ul><li>Students have prerequisite skills to move to the next unit
29. Requires teachers to do task analysis, thereby becoming better prepared to teach each unit
30. Requires teachers to state objectives before designating activities
31. Can break cycle of failure (especially important for minority and disadvantaged students)</li></li></ul><li>DISADVANTAGES<br /><ul><li>Not all students will progress at same pace; this requires students who have demonstrated mastery to wait for those who have not or to individualize instruction
32. Must have a variety of materials for remediation
33. Must have several tests for each unit
34. If only objective tests are used can lead to memorizing and learning specifics rather than higher levels of learning.</li>