The Rights to Land and Water and related Extraterritorial Obligations

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Presentation given by Rolf Künnemann during the work session on Business and Humand Rights at the ICCO offices on the 16th of February 2011

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The Rights to Land and Water and related Extraterritorial Obligations

  1. 1. The Rights to Land and Water and related Extraterritorial Obligations: Rolf Künnemann, Utrecht, February 16, 2011
  2. 2. Universal Rights => Universal Obligations <ul><li>Duty-holder for a person‘s human rights is not only the state in which the person is located. </li></ul><ul><li>The duty-holder is the community of states - individually and in cooperation. </li></ul><ul><li>All states carry extraterritorial obligations (ETOs) i.e. obligations towards persons outside their territories) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to respect, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to protect, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to fulfil. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The protect-ETO and the fulfil-ETO are limited by jurisdiction (the permission to act) </li></ul>
  3. 3. Challenges of Globalisation for ESCR-ETOs <ul><li>A. ET business (protect and respect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Trade </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Investment (treaties) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.TNCs </li></ul></ul><ul><li>B. ET development action (fulfil and respect) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1.Social assistance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2.Service transfers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3.Doing no harm in development </li></ul></ul><ul><li>C. ETOs in IGOs (accountability of WB, IMF etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Other important policy fields for ETOs (urgent and challenging): </li></ul><ul><li>- climate change, globalized eco-destruction </li></ul><ul><li>- regulating international finance </li></ul><ul><li>- enclosure policies (land grabbing, IPR … ) </li></ul>
  4. 4. Protect-ETOs in enclosure policies <ul><li>1. Land grabbing as an enclosure policy </li></ul><ul><li>(cf. Overview on land grabbing) </li></ul><ul><li>2. History: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1980s: Collapse of support for agricultural development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>1990: Forced deregulation on many resource rich countries, cutting subsidies, destroying cooperatives, world market „integration“ of food systems. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000s: The rights to land and water get commercialized (marketization): Internal landgrabbing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2000s: Internal land and water markets are broken open for FID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2005-10: Land grabbing explodes, (food crisis, financial crisis) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Reactions to land grabbing <ul><li>1. Peasant protests (Madagascar etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Oppression (Ethiopia etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Strong media attention </li></ul><ul><li>4. SR on Right to Food: Human rights criteria </li></ul><ul><li>5. States and FAO: Draft FAO Land Guidelines </li></ul><ul><li>6. World Bank, etc: „Responsible investment in agriculture“ </li></ul><ul><li>7. CSO mobilisation (CSO Land Guidelines, strong reference to right to land and water as human rights) </li></ul><ul><li>8. Everything but regulation? Ban land grabbing! </li></ul>
  6. 6. TNCs and land grabbing? <ul><li>Is there a protect-bound ETO to regulate „own“ TNCs abroad? </li></ul><ul><li>Effective monitoring of „own“TNCs? </li></ul><ul><li>Respect-bound ETO to not support abuses (Action of Embassies, Export credit agencies). </li></ul><ul><li>Duty to provide judicial remedy in home states? </li></ul><ul><li>Can the OECD Guidelines help? </li></ul><ul><li>The cases of Mubende and of Sawhoyamaxa </li></ul>
  7. 7. Likely impact of Ruggie Guidelines on Land Grabbing <ul><li>… RG unlikely to prevent firms from land grabbing – what is needed is binding international regulation, as in finance, climate etc.; </li></ul><ul><li>… RG will perhaps moderate effect on victims, but land grabbing can amount to genocide; </li></ul><ul><li>… RG (unless repaired) make home states intervention optional, not obligational; </li></ul><ul><li>… RG (unless repaired) leave TNC-landgrabbers (and even landgrabbing states) without obligations under international law; </li></ul><ul><li>… RG (unless repaired) undermine existing interpretation by UN treaty bodies applicable to land grabbing. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Thanks <ul><li>Thank you. </li></ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul>

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