Community media

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Community Media and ICTs' presentation for Comdev Master at Malmo University (November, 4th)

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Community media

  1. 1. Literature Review - Group 2 By Respect Bangu, Carolin Tornqvist, Vanessa Vertiz and Claire Ziwa
  2. 2. <ul><li>In the development context, community media is a C4D tool, which makes use of participation communication to make sure that, marginalised societies members are given platforms (public sphere) to air out their concerns and also formulate solutions to the identified problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Traditional community only covered certain geographical territories, however with the advent of the Internet and Social Media, vast and diverse communities emerged. </li></ul><ul><li>The contemporary community media has variations of activities like alternative media, media education, community based media, participatory media, public access movement, radical media, tactical media, community based media movement and employees various channels to reach their objectives with the target audients acting like change agents. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Cammaerts & Carpentier (2007: 244) responds to local needs and is situated under the community control with a wide range of media actors involved (from grassroots to NGOs and large media organizations). </li></ul><ul><li>Langlois and Dubois (2005:7) a tool which is owned and controlled by the community in response to local needs as it puts “more focus on participation and openness often showing the ability of non professionals to organise media production themselves </li></ul><ul><li>Many scholars concurred that community media was developed as an agent of participatory democracy which granted inclusive role to members of society in determining matters that were relevant to them with primary characteristics of audience being either geographic community or a community of interests and its developmental function within the relevant community (Hollander et al, 2002, Hadland, 2004, Howley, 2005) </li></ul>
  4. 5. <ul><li>In line with participatory communication: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The process and content of communication is owned by community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communication gives a voice to the previously unheard community members. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Communities become their own change agents. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The communication process is characterised by debate and negotiation on issues that affect community. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis is placed on outcomes that go beyond individual behaviour to widely recognised social needs. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The operations of a community media are guided by the funding structure is the money coming from donors, community, advertisers or sponsorship or donations with strings attached as he who pays the piper call the tunes. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 6. <ul><li>In most parts of the world radio is the dominant medium for community expression. </li></ul><ul><li>Broadcast community media has long been defined by its philosophy of civic participation, with volunteer staff often forming the substratum of its makeup. </li></ul><ul><li>Cammaerts et al, argue that civil society media open spaces for participatory communication, whilst reclaiming the public space from the mass media. </li></ul><ul><li>Community media plays a crucial role in responding to local needs under community control, focussing on issues which are directly relevant to a specific community and involve that community in all aspects of media production. </li></ul>
  6. 7. <ul><li>With many of us living busy lifestyles, where time is so valuable that even a slow internet connection can lead to frustration, the idea of volunteering to participate in a community media initiative may not sit comfortably for citizens with too much to do and so little time. </li></ul><ul><li>With the emergence of ICT technologies, the Internet is widely hailed as the technology to bring direct participatory democracy to the masses, enabling citizens to become actively involved. </li></ul><ul><li>To appreciate the value of the Internet as a tool that enhances civic participation, we need to acknowledge the Internet as a vehicle that hosts a new form of community media – the online community, rather than a geographic one. </li></ul>
  7. 9. <ul><li>Technology devices and internet access are frequently provided as central and emblematic steps towards modernity </li></ul><ul><li>Absent thus, in this mainstream discourse is: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The practice of empowerment of marginalized groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods to strengthen local knowledge or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Methods to strengthen traditional means of support </li></ul></ul>
  8. 10. <ul><li>Recognize the design of technologies as a social matter in the ICT4D dialogue and community media and networking as revenues of social movements’ attempts to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>encounter dominant social codes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>test new designs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>experiment on current relations of power </li></ul></ul><ul><li>From this ICTs can be seen as possibilities for community organizations to further their work on behalf of marginalized groups. </li></ul>
  9. 11. <ul><li>Encompass both “traditional” as well as new forms of information technologies </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><li>Radio is still the most extensive device since it is cost effective and practical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>manage to reach out and connect with the most marginalized and poor communities on the globe </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Intersection of radio and the internet </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increased networking opportunities for communities </li></ul></ul>
  10. 13. <ul><li>Traditional technologies may be more comfortable than digital because of traditional ways that have more central importance of a certain structure or organization of a community </li></ul><ul><li>Through digital technology, messages, information and dialogue can be forwarded endlessly, at no cost BUT only with the premise that community members have access to this device and tools needed in order to approach it </li></ul><ul><li>So, to date, radio continues to be the most successful ICT since it is cheap to consume and explicitly oral in its nature. </li></ul><ul><li>Assessment of new ICT efforts for community media therefore needs to be put in relation to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allowed usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the behaviors they advance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the social values they advocate and confront </li></ul></ul>
  11. 14. <ul><li>Civil society plays an important role in guaranteeing accountability into global development and political decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Civil society is able to transnationalize its practice and discourse of resistance assisted by ICTs </li></ul><ul><li>From a social perspective: ICTs can be considered a process as it is stand on a community – based approach (its main goals: people appropriation, empowerment and active participation) </li></ul><ul><li>From a political aspect: some contextual features should be considered to guarantee accessibility, participation, sustainability and governance of communities and countries within a globalized world. </li></ul>
  12. 15. <ul><li>Several ICT projects have failed because they were too technological centered. </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate impact of ICTs at a community level: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Which voices are being heard in a community media? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Which power relationships are being reinforced within project planning and technology dissemination and appropriation? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How marginalized groups are socially affected by technologies: Are technologies promoting activity or passivity, creativity or monotony, autonomy or dependence? Are they interfering with community value or traditions, or community interests? </li></ul></ul>
  13. 16. <ul><li>Information society should not be see just as an instrument, but as an industry that can guarantee appropriation, sustainability and a really social change. 8Cs analysis framework : connectivity, content, community, commerce, culture, capacity, cooperation and capital (Rao in Hemer & Tufte 2005) </li></ul><ul><li>Evaluate the success of ICTs appropriation, taking also into account the social aspect and community involvement. </li></ul><ul><li>Projects should focus not only on advocating technologies, but looking at other existing community medias. </li></ul>
  14. 18. <ul><li>There is no generic way to identify and define community media, but through an array of definitions </li></ul><ul><li>participatory characteristics of these communication options remains critical in the debate around the impact and efficacy of community media as an agent for community driven developmental objectives. </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs can enhance the participation of marginalized groups into the public sphere, as well as bridging the digital divide. </li></ul><ul><li>ICTs can embrace both traditional and new forms of information technologies, by itself is not the answer within development processes and from a communication for development approach. </li></ul>
  15. 19. <ul><li>Technology by itself is not the answer, it is fundamental to take into account some social and political aspects, like active participation in decision-making, community interests, values and traditions, sustainability and empowerment. </li></ul><ul><li>“ ...technology alone may not be the answer if culture and identity are not at the heart of the discussion...” - (Dagron 2001) </li></ul>
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