Going Carbon Neutral Stirling


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Rachel Nunn describes the Going carbon Neutral Stirling Project at the Low Carbon Communities Conference 4th october 2008.

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  • Notes to presenter: Why RN? SCCS, and gap in market Activity English carbon per head per year (tonnes) Recreation 2 Heating 1.5 Food 1.2 Household 1.2 Hygiene 1 Clothing 1 Commuting 0.8 Aviation 0.8 Education 0.5
  • Going Carbon Neutral Stirling

    1. 1. Our mission is to provide a blueprint Our aim is provide a beacon
    2. 2. AGENDA <ul><li>Climate Change – making the case </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change Impacts - Global Context </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate Change Impacts - Local Context </li></ul></ul><ul><li>GCNS Aim & Model </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding behaviour barriers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Understanding emissions areas </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Finding Solutions - facilitation of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collective Ownership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Community led solutions </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    3. 3. How BIG is the problem? Despite 82% UK concern, only 4% public personal activity – Ipsos MORI 2007 7 years left to keep below global 2 °C warming – WWF 2008 Annual reduction targets need to be 8% to 9% - Tyndell Centre 2007 Global CO2e is still rising exponentially – IPCC 2008 Even if CO2 emissions stopped tomorrow, we are committed to 1.4 degrees of average global warming
    4. 4. Some Very Basic Science … <ul><li>Incoming shortwave solar radiation warms the earth, which then emits long wave radiation. </li></ul><ul><li>Certain gases absorb this energy, and re-emit it back to earth. </li></ul><ul><li>This is the greenhouse effect which is causing global warming and climate change </li></ul>
    5. 5. Where are global temperatures heading? (Follow the green line on the right!)
    6. 6. 1 ºC global warming IMPACTS X This map of mountain glacier mass balance changes since 1970 shows thinning in yellow and red, and thickening in blue.
    7. 7. 2 ºC, 2003 Heat Wave = ‘the norm’
    8. 8. 2 ºC, Sea Level Rise
    9. 9. 2 ºC, Ocean Acidification
    10. 10. 2 ºC global warming - IMPACTS <ul><li>While two degrees of warming will be survivable for most developed country humans, 40% of all other species (plant & animal) alive today may be driven to extinction as climate change wipes out their habitat. </li></ul>And we are getting close to irreversible “tipping points” through positive feedbacks
    11. 11. 3 ºC Amazon Rain Forest Destruction
    12. 12. 3 ºC Soil Microbes release CO2 under stress
    13. 13. 3 ºC : the ‘tipping point’ Combined, these 2 events will create a further 1.5ºC global temp rise. <ul><li>Increasing areas of planet uninhabitable by drought and heat </li></ul><ul><li>Hurricanes increase to Category Six </li></ul><ul><li>World food supplies critically endangered </li></ul><ul><li>Hundreds of millions of refugees will move towards the mid-latitudes . </li></ul>
    14. 14. 4 ºC, Antarctic Ice Sheet Collapse = 5m sea level rise
    15. 15. 4 ºC, Methane from Permafrost melt
    16. 16. 4 ºC, Ice Free Arctic Ocean
    17. 17. 5 ºC global warming - IMPACTS To understand the implications of 5 ºC of warming, we need to go back 55 million years ago when the Earth experienced a sudden and dramatic global warming.
    18. 18. Climate Change Impacts on Scotland Species invasion – e.g. ticks & mosquitoes Flooding, increased frequency, increased intensity Food price increases, changing diets PHYSICAL / LAND HUMAN IMPACTS Fuel price increases, later fuel shortages Influx global climate change refugees Coastal erosion Possible war Growing gap between rich and poor with more severe impacts What are the ripple effect impacts of each of these?
    19. 19. The inspiration behind going carbon neutral Stirling tipping a nation… (without legislation) … into immediate, mass, multi-faceted voluntary behaviour change So what was the task exactly?
    20. 20. In order to effect …. … that is…. We need to understand… Meaningful & Widespread Collectively owned Mutually supportive Evaluated Voluntary personal carbon reduction
    21. 21. Key Elements of GCNS 1) The areas of emission in our personal carbon footprint
    22. 22. 12 tonnes 11 tonnes 10 tonnes 9 tonnes Emissions 8 tonnes CO2 5 tonnes Year 4 tonnes Per 3 tonnes 2 tonnes Head 1 tonne Per 7 tonnes Scottish 6 tonnes Annual
    23. 23. For global climate change to have a hope of remaining under control, what should our emissions be? 2007. World population = 6 billion 2050. World population = 9 billion
    24. 24. … .by 2035 1 tonne Per year =
    25. 25. 1.5 tonnes FOOD 2 tonnes RECREATION & LEISURE 1.5 tonnes HOUSEHOLD ELECTRICITY 2.5 tonnes HEATING SPACE 1 tonne CLOTHING 0.5 tonne 1 tonne COMMUTING 0.8 tonne AVIATION 1.2 tonnes HYGIENE EDUCATION
    26. 26. Key Elements of GCNS <ul><li>Because that defines what solutions may look like </li></ul>1) Understand emissions areas & define targets 2) Understand behavioural change barriers And the order in which they might be taken up
    27. 27. Plenty of advice…but no support = attitude-behaviour gap Behaviour barrier, 1 of 6 “ whilst we know we should probably make some changes to the way we do things, we are always rushing around and don’t remember. We need reminders in the right place, and supportive help that goes right through, in practical terms, to the bitter end…without hassle and cost!” We don’t act because:
    28. 28. <ul><li>“ it’s not socially normal to carry out personal carbon budgeting…I’ll look like a freak (and no-one will like me!)” </li></ul>Behaviour barrier, 2 of 6 Social Norms We don’t act because:
    29. 29. No social norms 1 tonne COMMUTING It’s not socially normal to say (to your peers and employer): “ Moving to new offices?” So I need to… x
    30. 30. <ul><li>Aspirations and desires are pro high carbon. </li></ul>Behaviour barrier, 3 of 6 “ advertising tells us, everywhere we look, that the newness and amount of our ‘stuff’ defines who we are and how successful we are. People will wonder about my competence if I don’t demonstrate it in stuff, and this will make me unhappy. It’s hard to go against the grain…” We don’t act because:
    31. 31. Skegness The Caribbean Toyota Land cruiser Aspirational (fun, cooler, smarter, affluent) Non-aspirational (routine, less cool, banal, ‘poorer’) Bus HIGHER CARBON LOWER CARBON Your own parking space X SMART Car
    32. 32. Behaviour barrier, 4 of 6 Complexity & number of messages “ carbon reduction involves an enormous quantity, variety and complexity of action, we don’t know what to believe, or what to do, so we end up doing nothing” We don’t act because:
    33. 33. Behaviour barrier, 5 of 6 Ease of Action “ currently, it’s hard to be a carbon cutter. We need lower carbon goods and services to be easier to find than other products and services, preferable to use, and better priced” We don’t act because:
    34. 34. Hybrid Cars Bio-fuels Slower road speed limits Tele-communications Electric Fleet Car sharing Bus Trains Trams Hi-Speed trains Cycling SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT SOLUTIONS THINGS WE’VE HEARD…PERCEPTIONS? Walking Fragmented Service Non-recyclable so higher lifecycle footprint Global Famine Not aspirational. Slow Same CO2 as planes Late More Expensive Crowded Not ubiquitous, infringes on personal flexibility Lower comparative mileage performance No infrastructure Mileage Issues Expensive, ? quality, not ubiquitous, not as good as face to face Huge set up carbon footprint Impossible to enforce. Slowing traffic increases CO2. Hugely unpopular Need to have the time Not safe Thefts
    35. 35. <ul><li>“ currently, there is not enough evidence of ‘joined up thinking’ and worse, a lot of ‘conflicting messaging’ by government, local authorities, media & business…if they can’t be bothered to get it right, why should I?!” </li></ul>Behaviour barrier, final one Conflicting messaging & non-joined up thinking We don’t act because:
    36. 36. Key Elements of GCNS <ul><li>Finding Solutions. Facilitation of </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Community led solutions </li></ul>2) Understanding emissions areas & defining targets 1) Understanding behavioural change barriers Partners… Communities…all types Local Businesses Stirling Council Local Media Community Planning Partnerships
    37. 37. <ul><li>How do we engage our partners? </li></ul>
    38. 38. STEP 1 We contact them through recognised ambassadors STEP 2 We meet them at their regular group meeting (ease of action) STEP 3 We show them the effects of climate change.. STEP 4 ..and ask if they will say ‘YES’! to become part of the Stirling critical mass carbon cutting project STEP 6 … with whom we create the group’s FIRST YEAR CARBON CUTTERS PLAN STEP 7 We give up to 6 support sessions throughout the year, overcoming obstacles collectively and collaboratively. STEP 5 We identify the group’s First Year Activator… At the end of year one, the group is invited to repeat the process for a second and third year…. 1 ° 2 ° 4 ° 5 ° 6 ° 3 °
    39. 39. 3 year Community Carbon Cutting Plan Yrs 2 & 3: Infrastructural changes ATTITUDE CLOSED BEHAVIOUR + Settlement Open Days Yrs 1 - 3 Smart n’ easy (brain & body trainers) Immediate ease of action Large degree of normality YRS 2 & 3 Carbon Crushers Perceived new ‘desire’ , new aspirations & norms Reduction in conflicting messages More demand = greater ease of action Creates ease of action Engenders social norm Demonstrates joined up thinking
    40. 40. Plenty of advice…but no support = attitude-behaviour gap Behaviour barrier, 1 of 6 Each GCNS community group acts as its own weekly support infrastructure, through asking ‘who remembered?’. We remind, encourage, cajole and compete with each other, to remember to carry out our carbon cutting action. By talking to each other, we start to understand our local infrastructural needs. These are then coordinated through the GCNS team to local delivery partners.
    41. 41. Behaviour barrier, 2 of 6 Social Norms By asking each engaged community group to talk about their carbon cutting on a weekly basis, GCNS starts to normalise the idea of day to day carbon reduction. In addition, we will start to see carbon cutting in our local shops, in our local newspapers, hear about it on our local radio…everywhere we go in Stirling in fact, we will see that others are part of this critical mass project
    42. 42. <ul><li>Aspirations and desires are pro high carbon. </li></ul>Behaviour barrier, 3 of 6 GCNS will explain to businesses that over the next 4 years, the programme will be creating carbon savvy customers – who will appreciate low carbon offers, and horrified by hi-carbon offers! By engaging business staff communities, hi-carb offers will be swiftly spotted internally and interchanged for localised low carb offers.
    43. 43. Behaviour barrier, 4 of 6 Complexity & number of messages GCNS puts the carbon cutter plan into being – one action per week that everyone takes, and everyone is reminded to take. GCNS will ask participants “what language worked for this activity?” “what reminder mechanism would work better?” ”How else can we help you make this happen?” We will record what tools and practices work for the varying groups, and improve our delivery with this feedback.
    44. 44. Behaviour barrier, 5 of 6 Ease of Action GCNS will work with GCNS communities, bringing them together in annual open days, in order to discover mutual needs that will aid further carbon cutting. These ‘infrastructural demands’ will be assessed for their carbon validity, and then taken to the ‘delivery community’ such as the council & businesses.
    45. 45. Behaviour barrier, final one Conflicting messaging & non-joined up thinking GCNS works with businesses and public bodies to help them get their own houses in order. Then, with their staff engaged as ‘communities’ we look at businesses’ external activity and messaging, as perceived by the public, and realign it to our area’s low carb aspirations.
    46. 46. What will businesses do? <ul><li>INTERNAL activity </li></ul><ul><li>Discover and report s cope 1 and 2 emissions (internal fossil fuels burnt and electricity purchased). </li></ul><ul><li>Start to demand knowledge on, and reduction of scope 3 emissions (indirect emissions that are a consequence of a company's activities, but which arise from sources that are owned or controlled by others). </li></ul><ul><li>Provide a Lifecycle carbon footprint on top services / products </li></ul><ul><li>Create an emissions reduction target in line with the dictates of science </li></ul><ul><li>Staff engagement, as communities </li></ul>Talk about it talk about it talk about it talk about t talk about it talk about it….
    47. 47. What will businesses do? <ul><li>EXTERNAL Activity </li></ul><ul><li>Create social norms – for consumers and other businesses </li></ul><ul><li>Demonstrate joined-up thinking </li></ul><ul><li>Re-adjust aspirations & desires </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure non-conflicting messaging </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure ultimate ease of action </li></ul>
    48. 48. Key Elements of GCNS <ul><li>Finding Solutions. Facilitation of </li></ul><ul><li>Collective Ownership </li></ul><ul><li>Collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Community led solutions </li></ul>2) Understanding emissions areas & defining targets 1) Understanding behavioural change barriers Partners… Communities…all types Local Businesses Stirling Council Local Media Community Planning Partnerships Carbon Cutter Plans for staff Internal CR activity External collaboration Carbon Cutter Plans Open days Keeping it alive with Positive messaging
    49. 49. NOW 2035 12 tonnes 6 tonnes 1 tonne GCNS Carbon Descent Model, the trajectory and what it looks like…. Getting started, with smart and easy carbon brain and body trainers Making real progress with effective carbon crushers With the collaboration of businesses & the council to help us with infrastructural changes… So that cutting more carbs becomes easy again
    50. 50. <ul><li>Big Lottery Fund Supporting 21st Century Life programme: £500,000 </li></ul><ul><li>The Scottish Government Greener Directorate: £800,000 </li></ul><ul><li>WWF-Scotland and Stirling Council Housing Department: £64,000 </li></ul><ul><li>There might be funding in years 2 to 4 from LEADER </li></ul>Funding, where and how much
    51. 51. And with that we pay for… <ul><li>Staff team of 8 for 4 years; </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Programme manager </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Business engagement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon coach </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>3 community engagement and support </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Media & communications </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Administration </li></ul></ul></ul>
    52. 52. Questions…