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Sterilization and disinfection

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Sterilization and disinfection

Sterilization and disinfection

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  • 1. STERILIZATION AND DISINFECTION MICHELLE ANNE P. DECIPOLO, RN CLINICAL INSTRUCTOR
  • 2. STERILE TECHNIQUE
    • COMMONLY USED IN THE OPERATING ROOM AND DELIVERY ROOM
    • NURSING PROCEDURES THAT ARE INVASIVE
  • 3. PURPOSE
    • ELIMINATE ALL MICROORGANISMS THAT WILL COME INTO CONTACT WITH BODY TISSUES.
    • PROTECT PATIENTS FROM POSSIBLE INFECTION WHEN NATURAL DEFENSES ARE NOT NORMAL
  • 4. PROCEDURES REQUIRING STERILE TECHNIQUE
    • PROCEDURES WHEN UNDERLYING TISSUES ARE BEING EXPOSED
    • INTERNAL BODY AREAS ARE NORMALLY STERILE
  • 5. STERILIZATION
    • COMPLETE DESTRUCTION OF MICROORGANISM
      • ITEMS MUST FIRST BE CLEAN BEFORE STERILIZED
    • ITEMS MUST NOT ONLY BE FREE FROM MICROORGNISM BUT ALSO UNDAMAGED
  • 6. METHODS OF STERILIZATION
    • THERMAL
    • CHEMICAL
    • IONIZING RADIATION
  • 7. THERMAL
    • MOIST HEAT (STEAM UNDER PRESSURE)
      • HIGH PRESSURIZED STEAM REACHED A HIGHER TEMPERATURE TO DESTROY MICROORGANISM
    • EX. AUTOCLAVE
  • 8.
    • HOT AIR (DRY HEAT)
      • STERILIZED PETROLEUM PRODUCTS, ANHYDROUS OILS AND POWDERS
    • MICROWAVES
      • USES LOW – PRESSURE STEAM ALONG WITH THE NONIONIZING RADIATION
  • 9. AUTOCLAVE
  • 10. HOT AIR
  • 11. MICROWAVE
  • 12. CHEMICAL
    • ETHYLENE OXIDE GAS
      • ITEMS THAT ARE SENSITIVE HEAT/ MOISTURE.
    • HIGHLY FLAMMABLE!!!
    MONITOR!!!
  • 13.
      • STERILIZATION IS ACHIEVED THROUGH LOW - TEMPERATURES
    • HYDROGEN PEROXIDE PLASMA VAPOR
    SAFE AND NON-TOXIC
  • 14.
    • OZONE GAS
      • EXPENSIVE AND EASY TO OPERATE
    CORROSIVE!!!
      • NOT USED FOR ITEMS MADE OF STEEL BRASS AND ALUMINUM
  • 15.
    • LIQUID CHEMICAL STERILANT – PERACETIC ACID
      • LIQUID STERILANT
      • SUITABLE FOR STERILIZING HEAT – SENSITIVE ITEMS
      • RINSE IN STERILE WATER BEFORE USING
      • CAN BE USED IMMEDIATELY
  • 16. IONIZING RADIATION
    • EXPOSURE TO IRRADIATION
      • IRRADIATION STERILIZATION IS SUITABLE FOR HEAT AND MOISTURE SENSITIVE ITEMS
  • 17. DISINFECTION
    • the process of killing pathogenic organisms
    • used when items cannot be sterilized or situations where no method of sterilization is available
  • 18. TYPES
    • LOW – LEVEL DISINFECTANTS
      • FOR HOUSEKEEPING AND NON – CRITICAL ITEMS THAT DOES NOT TOUCH THE PATIENT’S SKIN
      • EX.
  • 19.
    • INTERMEDIATE LEVEL DISINFECTANTS
      • FOR SEMI – CRITICAL ITEMS THAT COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE SKIN
      • EX.
  • 20.
    • HIGH LEVEL DISINFECTANT
      • FOR CRITICAL ITEMS THAT COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE BODY TISSUES OR BELOW SKIN MEMBRANES
  • 21. TYPES OF DISINFECTANTS
    • CHEMICAL DISINFECTANTS
    • PHYSICAL DISINFECTANTS
  • 22. PHYSICAL DISINFECTANTS
    • BOILING WATER
    • ULTRAVIOLET RAYS
      • THE RAYS COMES IN CONTACT WITH THE ORGANISMS
      • WEAR PROTECTIVE SKIN COVERING!!!
  • 23. INDICATORS OF STERILITY
    • STERILE TAPES
  • 24.
    • PACKAGE WITH STERILE INDICATORS
  • 25.
    • EXPIRATION DATE
  • 26. GENERAL PRINCIPLES
    • MICROORGANISMS MOVE THROUGH SPACE IN AIR CURRENTS
    • MICROORGANISMS ARE TRANSFERRED FROM ONE SURFACE TO ANOTHER WHEN A NONSTERILE OBJECT TOUCHES OTHER OBJECTS
    • MICROORGANISM MOVE FROM ONE OBJECT TO ANOTHER AS A RESULT OF GRAVITY WHEN A NON-STERILE ITEM IS HELD ABOVE ANOTHER ITEM
  • 27.
    • 4. MICROORGANISMS TRAVEL RAPIDLY ALONG ANY MOISTURE THROUGH A WICKING ACTION
    • 5. MICROORGANISMS MOVE SLOWLY ALONG A DRY SURFACE
    • 6. MICROORGANISMS ARE RELEASES THROUGH THE AIR ON DROPOLET NUCLEI WHENEVER A PERSON BREATHES OR SPEAKS
  • 28.
    • 7. MICROORGANISMS ARE IN CONSTANT MOTION IN A VARIETY OF WAYS
    • 8. THE EDGE OF THE STERILE FIELD IS POTENTIALLY CONTAMINATED BY MICROORGANISMS MOVING IN FROM THE OUTSIDE
  • 29. ALWAYS REMEMBER!!! WHEN IN DOUBT OF STERILITY DISCARD!!! MA’AM MICHELLE ANNE

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