Mark Eppinga Julie Lewis Stephanie Kitt Paul MathengeSamantha Joseph Ekaterina Maydanskaya
IntroductionOur assignment was to introduce the class to the culture ofAustralia. We set ourselves a timeline for getting the various partsdone and divided up the topic amongst ourselves like this:• Stephanie handled the history of Australia• Julie researched the current gender roles• Ekaterina took on traditions• Paul looked at Australian rituals• Samantha investigated Australian holidays• Mark scrutinized popular culture and media and then assembled all the slides into a single presentation.We hope this presentation will give you a brief primer into Australiaand elicit interest from you in learning more about it.
The First Australians-The first known people ofAustralia were theAborigines. AustralianAboriginal culture is theoldest living culture in theworld. It dates as far back as40,000 years.-Europeans started exploringAustralia in the 16th Century.-In 1770, Captain JamesCook claimed the continentfor the British and named itNew South Wales.Australian History: COLONISATION (n.d) retrieved November3, 2011 from http://www.australianhistory.org/colonisation
The British are Coming -In 1779, Joseph Banks suggested that Britain use the newly claimed continent to solve its overcrowded prisons problem. -In 1787, the First Fleet set sail, comprising 11 ships, 1500 people-half of which were convicts. -The fleet arrived in Sydney Harbor on January 26, 1788. -This day is celebrated as Australian Day. Living in Australia (n.d.) retrieved November 1, 2011 from: http://www.studyinaustralia.gov.au/en/Living-in-Australia
A Country is Born-Approximately 160,000 men and women were broughtto Australia as convicts from 1788 until 1868.-The discovery of gold in the 1850’s permanentlychanged the colony with an influx of free settlers.-The Commonwealth of Australia was formed in 1901through the federation of six states under oneconstitution. Australian History (n.d) retrieved November 3, 2011 from: http:/ /www.dfat.gov.au/aib/history/ What effects do you think being a former colony have on a modern country?
Australia has both native and European holidays.Examples of national Australian holidays: – Australian Day – January 26 – ANZAC Day – April 25 – Queens Birthday – June 8 – Boxing Day – December 26 – New Years Day – January 1 – Good Friday – Friday after Easter – Easter Monday – Day After Easter Sunday – Christmas Day – December 25 Lets focus on the holiday Australian Day. Public holidays and school terms. (n.d) retrieved November 10,2011, from Australian Government Web Site: http://australia.gov.au/about- australia/our-country/public-holidays-and-school-terms#NationalPublicHolidays
What is Australia Day?• It is the biggest celebration in the country. It’s the anniversary of the arrival of the First Fleet of 11 convict ships from Great Britain, and the raising of the Union Jack at Sydney Cove by its commander Captain Arthur Phillip, in 1788.• Today Australia Day celebrations reflect contemporary Australia. It also is an opportunity to reflect on the nations history, and to consider how to make Australia a better place in future. It has become a community day.Australia day. (n.d) retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.australiaday.org.au/experience/page31.asp
How Is It Celebrated? • Formal ceremonies - flag • The modern population raising, citizenship should incorporate the ceremonies and the culture of the indeginous presentation of important people in their community awards ceremonies. Doing so allows the wider • Theatrical performances, community to share in music, sporting events, the native culture, and speech days, multicultural promote a stronger sense and native performances of shared nationhood.Indigenous Australia. (n.d) retrieved November 9, 2011, from Australia Day Web This is an example of theSite: http://www.australiaday.org.au/experience/page103.asp communication concept ‘Adapting to others’. Are American holidays very different from Australian ones? Why?
Aboriginal Gender roles in Australia • Aboriginal people have specific roles for women and men but have interdependent relationships as well. • Men were the hunters of large animals the families main protein. • Women were the principle food gathers of vegetables, fruits, small insects. • “The interdependent roles Aboriginal men and women shared are: healers, law makers, performers, painters and making sure that their traditions are maintained and passed on to future generations” (Aboriginal Culture, p.1).Aboriginal Culture (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011 from http://emedsa.org.au/PsychoSocial/EthnicIssues/Culture/Aboriginal.htm
Gender Roles Today• Men are in a higher economic status and play a bigger role in politics then women.• “Women were seen as caregivers, homemakers and held jobs as teachers and in nursing. But affirmative action policies since the late 1970’s has been directed toward promoting gender equality in all spheres” (Culture of Australia, p.1).Culture of Australia (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011 from: http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Australia.html
Gender Roles Today cont..• Women only earned the right to vote in 1901.• “In 1955, 20% of women were represented in local, state, and federal government” (Culture of Australia, p.1).• Women are known to participate more in religious activities but the majority religious leaders are male. Are these dates and percentages of women’s liberation and modernity moreCulture of Australia (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011from: http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Australia.html consistent with the U.S., Europe or Asia?
Marriage and Family• Marriage is only allowed between heterosexuals and occurs by a civil service or religious ceremony. The ceremony is conducted by a registered official.• Divorce had been available since 1975, it requires a one year separation period and has a 40% rate in first marriages (Culture of Australia p.1).• “Family is decided upon the domestic unit, primarily the couple, then couples with children, then one- parent families.” The extended family is important support for most families. Blended families are becoming more common (Culture of Australia, p.1).Culture of Australia (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011 from: http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Australia.html
• During the Christmas holidays families celebrate with relays in swimming pools, water gun fights, or backyard cricket. FatherChristmas Holiday rituals Christmas/Santa Claus is usually pictured in a swimming costume and a cool drink is left out for him by children at night. School is let out a week prior to Christmas for summer break and resumes after Australia Day on January 26 • Homes are not decorated as heavily as in some cultures but there are two traditional native plants used for the occasion: The NSW Christmas bush and Christmas bells. • Meals include hot turkey, Christmas pudding, seafood, cold turkey and ham for salads, Panforte and panettone (Christmas cake), mince pies and ice cream . Australian traditions. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2011 from: http://fits.depauw.edu/mkfinney/culturaleresumes/australia/trad s.htm("Paul eckersley illustration:," )
• Australia has a rich sporting culture . They are renowned world wide for their cricket.Rituals in sports • In cricket , in the first session of each test, it is a ritual for the Australian players to wear their baggy green caps; this is a gesture of solidarity and a salute of their heritage. • At the end of a victorious series, players gather (in the middle of the field) to sing their theme song Underneath the Southern Cross. • This rituals are important for their sports because are an important ingredient in developing the public image of a sport, and providing the participants at all the various levels with a common bond. • For cricket it is very important that many of the great traditions of the game are maintained. It provides a sense of order, and when difficult times are encountered by any sport there is a tangible support element for the players and the game itself to look up to. The importance of rituals. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2011 from: http://www.hindu.com/tss/tss2445/24450340.htm Flaherty
• Funeral ceremonies. Another important time for ceremonies is on the death of aFuneral Rituals performed person, when people often paintby Aborigines themselves white, cut their own bodies to show their remorse for the loss of their loved one, and conduct a series of rituals, songs and dances to ensure the person’s spirit leaves the area and returns to its birth place, from where it can later be reborn. • Burial practices vary throughout Australia, people being buried in parts of southern and central Australia, but having quite a different burial in the north. Across much of northern Australia, a person’s burial has two stages, each accompanied by ritual and ceremony. McFinney. (2001, 26 January). Australian Traditions.fits.depauw.edu. Retrieved November 13, 2011, from http://fits.depauw.edu/mkfinney/culturaleresumes/australia/trads.htm.
Australian TraditionsAustralians havemany traditions andrituals however I amgoing to focus on: Folklore Clothing Food
Folklore Prior to European Examples are invasion, Aboriginal people lived Dinewan the all through out Australia during a Emu, and period of time called the Goomblegubbon the Bustard Dreamtime. The dreamtime is The Galah, and Oolah full of various myths and stories the Lizard that are widely spread all through Bahloo the Moon and the Daens out the Australian culture. These stories are mainly about how the Earth, Sun and all creation came to be.
Clothing In the workforce Australians tend to dress light because of the constant heat. Long socks, tailored shorts, and a light shirts. In the city and workplace areas people tend to dress formal and casual in their spare time as well as on weekends. Children wear uniforms and sunscreen year round. Sun tans are looked upon as foolishness The famous since Australia has the highest UGG made rate for skin cancer. initially for the Australian deserts and hot beaches
Food Meat PieAustralia is Made from beefabundant in pork, or lamb.seafood, meats, aswell as fruits andvegetables. Pavlova Made of softHowever, the most meringue, cream fillingfamous meals are… and fruit Lamington Sponge cake coated Vegemite with chocolate and A yeast extract coconut and salt spread Despite a lot of similarities to the U.S. their favorite foods are quite different than ours, why?
Language George Bernard Shaw once wrote: “England and America are two countries separated by a common language” and the same can certainly be said of Americaand Australia. Australia has its own distinct accent that whilesimilar to the British accent is very unique. Press PLAY for a quick primer on the Australian accent Australian Tip of the Day (n.d) retrieved November 2, 2011 from: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RuoXH2fBDA
TV Although originally a British colony, the most of the highest rated programs in the metropolitan centers do not come from the BBC but mostly from the US along with a few Australian produced programs. “60 minutes” and “7 news” are consistently among the top 15 highest rated programs in the nation with rugby and football games topping the ratings whenever they are played.Oztam Ratings (n.d) retrieved November 6, 2011 from: Oztam Ratings (n.d) retrieved November 6, 2011 from:http://www.oztam.com.au/documents/2011/OzTAM- http://www.oztam.com.au/documents/2011/OzTAM-20111002-EMetFTARankSumCons.pdf 20111016-EMetFTARankSumCons.pdf
MusicThe popular Australian music charts mirror the American music charts with many ofthe same songs and artists.You can see in the music chart below from the week ending 11/14/11 that almostall of the top perfumers are from the US. Aria Top 50 (November 14, 2011) retrieved November 14, 2011 from: http://www.ariacharts.com.a u/pages/charts_display_single s.asp?chart=1U50
ConclusionWe hope you have enjoyed our brief look at Australia and all it has to offer.As you have seen, Australia shares a lot of similarities to both the UnitedStates and the Great Britain. This combination of cultures makes for anextremely hospitable tourist spot and a vibrant culture.
ReferencesPublic holidays and school terms. (n.d) retrieved November 10,2011, from Australian Government Web Site:http://australia.gov.au/about-australia/our-country/public-holidays-and-school-terms#NationalPublicHolidaysAustralia day. (n.d) retrieved November 8, 2011, from http://www.australiaday.org.au/experience/page31.aspIndigenous Australia. (n.d) retrieved November 9, 2011, from Australia Day Web Site:http://www.australiaday.org.au/experience/page103.aspCulture of Australia (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011 from: http://www.everyculture.com/A-Bo/Australia.htmlAboriginal Culture (n.d) retrieved October 29, 2011 fromhttp://emedsa.org.au/PsychoSocial/EthnicIssues/Culture/Aboriginal.htmAustralian traditions. (n.d.). Retrieved October 28, 2011 from:http://fits.depauw.edu/mkfinney/culturaleresumes/australia/trads.htmFlaherty, C. (n.d.). First blood to the poms as fans hijack ashes tickets - cricket - sport. Retrieved fromhttp://www.theage.com.au/news/cricket/english-fans-hijack-ashes-tickets/2006/06/01/1148956482844.htmlThe importance of rituals. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2011 from:http://www.hindu.com/tss/tss2445/24450340.htmPaul eckersley illustration: Father christmas. (n.d.). Retrieved November 4, 2011 from:http://www.pauleckersley.co.uk/fatherchristmas.html
McFinney. (2001, 26 January). Australian Traditions.fits.depauw.edu. Retrieved November 13, 2011, fromhttp://fits.depauw.edu/mkfinney/culturaleresumes/australia/trads.htm.Langloh Parker, K. (n.d.). Australian Legendary Tales. Sacred-texts.com. Retrieved November 13, 2011, fromhttp://www.sacred-texts.com/aus/alt/index.htm.Aria Top 50 (November 14, 2011) retrieved November 14, 2011 from:http://www.ariacharts.com.au/pages/charts_display_singles.asp?chart=1U50Australian Tip of the Day (n.d) retrieved November 2, 2011 from:http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5RuoXH2fBDAOztam Ratings (n.d) retrieved November 6, 2011 from: http://www.oztam.com.au/documents/2011/OzTAM-20111002-EMetFTARankSumCons.pdfOztam Ratings (n.d) retrieved November 6, 2011 from: http://www.oztam.com.au/documents/2011/OzTAM-20111016-EMetFTARankSumCons.pdfAll images are from google Images