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Simon Garrett: Real World Zoos + Academic Psychology = World Changing Action Research?

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Presentation delivered by Simon Garrett, Head of Learning, Bristol Zoo Gardens, at Communicate, 3rd November 2011. Communicate is hosted by the Bristol Natural History Consortium …

Presentation delivered by Simon Garrett, Head of Learning, Bristol Zoo Gardens, at Communicate, 3rd November 2011. Communicate is hosted by the Bristol Natural History Consortium www.communicatenow.org

Published in: Education, Technology

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  • Let’s look at some MonashUni research
  • If this is what zoos say that they are doing/can do, then let’s challenge and research the validity of that proposition
  • THE GRAPH HAS BOTH HEART RATE AND RESPIRATORY SINUS ARRHYTHMIA ON IT WHICH BOTH MEASURE EMOTIONAL AROUSAL BUT IN DIFFERENT WAYS.  THE LATTER IS GENERALLY ACCEPTED AS A BETTER MEASURE AND MOMENTS OF PEAK AROUSAL ARE INDICATED BY LOWER SCORES (IE TROUGHS). I ALSO INCLUDED HEART RATE BECAUSE MOST PEOPLE ARE FAMILIAR WITH THIS MEASURE SO IT MAKES MORE SENSE TO THEM. three yellow arrows WERE WHEN BEHAVIOUR REQUESTS WERE MADE BY THE PRESENTER FOR THIS PARTICULAR PERSON/ SHOW.
  • Why this theory? General theory of behaviour. Proven in many contexts. Many studies support the model. Can be operationalised.
  • Only did Studies one and two for the two non-existent behaviours
  • Lots of requests for different behaviours
  • Repeated requests for the same behaviours
  • Transcript

    • 1. Real-world zoos + academic psychology world changing action research?Simon Garrett, Head of Learning, Bristol Zoo Gardens sgarrett@bristolzoo.org.uk
    • 2. A sustainable future for wildlife and people Conservation Research
    • 3. Conservation breeding
    • 4. Field conservation
    • 5. WAZA: The educational focus should induce a feeling of wonder and respect for the web of life and our role in it; it should engage the emotions and build on this experience to create a conservation ethic that can be carried into action.
    • 6. Learningat Bristol Zoo:38,000 pupils in education sessions650,000 visitors a yearLearning outcomes:• Activity, behaviour and progression• Skills• Enjoyment, creativity and inspiration• Attitudes, values and feelings• Knowledge and understanding
    • 7. We need to get everyone (i.e. normal people) involvedin conservation to be truly effective in the long term …… the sustainable future for wildlife and people. • Connection • Action
    • 8. ZSL symposium 2005 – ‘The humandimensions of wildlife conservation’UK zoo directorsand (mostly) American(conservation) psychologistsspeaking entirely differentlanguages.
    • 9. … and then I went to IZE …
    • 10. The magic partnership history nutshellMonash Uni research (Betty Weiler, Sue Broad and Liam Smith)• showed zoo experiences changing attitudes, creating arousal – but not much evidence of influencing behaviour• got people at the zoo thinking differently.Zoos Victoria• 2005 evaluation of possum program – zero schools action• employed Rachel Lowry and … behaviour change became core business.
    • 11. WAZA: The educational focus should induce a feeling of wonder and respect for the web of life and our role in it; it should engage the emotions and build on this experience to create a conservation ethic that can be carried into action.
    • 12. Tourism Research UnitDoes emotion at the zoo influence pro-wildlife behaviour? Liam Smith Tourism Research Unit Monash University
    • 13. The zoo proposition ZOO Institute for changing people Tourism Research Unit
    • 14. Studies into the zoo proposition• Some show that visitors are already active in conservation• Few studies have tested the impact of different types of experiences• Most behaviour studies in zoos show little support for the zoo proposition• BUT… Tourism Research Unit
    • 15. Emotion may be important• Attention• Memory• Behaviour through cognitive and affective models• So there is definitely potential… Tourism Research Unit
    • 16. Four studies to examine the impact of visitoremotions on the behaviour of visitors – Identify experiences to test – Test them for emotional arousal – Develop measures of behaviour – Test the impact of emotion on behaviour Tourism Research Unit
    • 17. Identify experiences to test• Consultation with ZV staff from each property• Eight selected – Orang presentation – Elephant presentation – Butterfly house – Bus tour – Rip Roaring Feed tour – BOP show – Watching an operation at the AWHC – Watching a reptile show Tourism Research Unit
    • 18. Test them for emotional arousal Tourism Research Unit
    • 19. Physiological data Tourism Research Unit
    • 20. Results• The two most consistently emotionally arousing experiences were... – The BOP show – this was chosen (3 behaviours already asked, open to all) – Rip Roaring Feed tour Tourism Research Unit
    • 21. Develop measures of behaviour• Attitudes toward behaviours and behavioural intentions for: • Buying 100% recycled • Recycling paper and cardboard • Removing road kill off the road Tourism Research Unit
    • 22. Testing the impact of emotion on behaviour• Measured attitudes and intentions before and after BOP show• Measured emotion and attention-paying during the show• Examined the relationship between emotion and changes in attitudes and intentions• Measured attitudes and intentions of those who didn’t go to the show Tourism Research Unit
    • 23. Findings• Most attitudes and intentions for the recycling behaviours did not change as a result of attending the BOP show• Attitude toward and intention to remove road kill did change but emotion probably wasn’t the reason• First time visitors experience more emotional arousal and this may distract them from requests Tourism Research Unit
    • 24. Some suggestions• Separate the WOW from the REQUEST• Repetition• Emotion into the REQUEST• Choose novel behaviours Tourism Research Unit
    • 25. What to ask?• New• Easy• Response efficacy high or explained• On-site options+ consider the number of people you want to influence Tourism Research Unit
    • 26. Results of applying NERO• Ran 8 workshops with zoo staff around Australia• Elicited large lists of behaviours• Applying NERO criteria led to prioritising – Political engagement and activism – Consumerism Tourism Research Unit
    • 27. The magic partnership history nutshellMonash Uni research (Betty Weiler, Sue Broad and Liam Smith)• showed zoo experiences changing attitudes, creating arousal – but not much evidence of influencing behaviour• got people at the zoo thinking differently.Zoos Victoria• Developed a model.
    • 28. The seed• 2006/07 – trialled two education programmes at Werribee, and in Zimbabwe using the new model – with great success.• Rachel employed for one year• 2008, budgeted A$3,000 for phone campaign (£2k)
    • 29. Thanks to Melbournes people426,000 mobile phones are ‘retired’ in the US every day
    • 30. They’re calling on you – Oct 2008 • Over 47,000 phones diverted from landfill • more than AU$100,000 dollars raised • 122 corporations registered, committing their retired mobile fleets • over 200 schools and other organisations signed up to do mobile phone drives • media communications raised the profile of the program and Melbourne Zoo. • Bar codes showed 26% return rate from keeper talks, vs 7% from main gate • Newspaper reaching over a million is inserting ‘satchel’ in every copy
    • 31. Don’t palm us off – 2009 • 70,000 signatures in the first five months, now 162,317 • Bill to The Parliament of the Commonwealth of Australia titled ‘Food Standards Amendment (Truth in labelling – Palm Oil)’ • Rise in awareness from 53.4% to 97% amongst zoo visitors • More than 31,000 people joined the facebook page • The Campaign website has driven traffic to the zoo website generating more than 138,000 unique viewers • Country Life Soap sponsored the campaign for $50,000 whilst placing the Melbourne Zoo logo and call to action on product going into more 5 million Australian homes • So far over AU$300,000 raised
    • 32. • 95% of Australians buy non- recycled toilet paper.• 6.7 million trees are flushed in Australia every year.• http://www.zoo.org.au/wipeKey objectivesWipe for Wildlife aims to:• Shift at least 10,000 households towards recycled toilet paper in one year.• Raise the profile of selected native species and the power of conservation-sensitive consumers.
    • 33. What is the theory of planned behaviour? Attitude toward the On balance, is it a good thing to do? behaviour Who would approve or disapprove? Intention to do BASED Subjective the behaviour Behaviour norm ON BELIEFS Perceived behavioural What makes it hard or easy to do? control Tourism Research Unit
    • 34. What is the TPB approach? If I sign up to an online• Study 1: Work out what the beliefs are wildlife action group, I could be sent spam emails• Study 2: Work out what type of beliefs (attitude belief) Attitude toward the are the best predictors of behaviour or behaviour My spouse / partner would If I donate to the Tassie Devil intention Appeal, some if I the money will be approve of purchased recycled toilet paper• Study 3: Measure belief strength and wasted on administration Subjective norm (normative belief) Intention to do the behaviour Behaviour compare between doers and non-doers Those that donated = 4.3 My supermarket doesn’t Perceived behavioural control stock phosphate-free Those that didn’t donate = 6.7 detergent (control belief) Tourism Research Unit
    • 35. An example of the TPB approach: purchasing 100% recycled toilet paper• Study 1 – belief elicitation – Some beliefs were predictable: • buying 100% recycled TP will save trees • buying 100% recycled TP will save wildlife • it feels uncomfortable to use • it costs more – Some were less common: • my spouse is an important other • opaque packaging makes it harder to buy Tourism Research Unit
    • 36. Belief differences between compliers and non-compliers for buying recycled toilet paperBelief Complier average Non complier average score score pIf I purchase 100% recycled toilet paper at the supermarket within a month itwill help save trees 17.8 16.4 0.13If I purchase 100% recycled toilet paper at the supermarket within a month itwill help save water, energy and resources 17.4 15.8 0.11If I purchase 100% recycled toilet paper at the supermarket within a month, itwill help save wildlife habitat 18.7 16.6 0.06When using 100% recycled toilet paper, it feels uncomfortable compared tousing non-recycled toilet paper -2.5 -6.4 0.02*When using 100% recycled toilet paper, I get annoyed because it is too thinand tears easily -3.7 -8.1 0.00*Purchasing 100% recycled toilet paper makes me feel good 16.6 11.0 0.00*100% recycled toilet paper costs more than non-recycled toilet paper -4.4 -1.4 0.00*100% recycled toilet paper is not clearly labelled at the supermarket Tourism Research Unit 11.0 7.7 0.08
    • 37. Three examples...• At Perth Zoo, we found these beliefs important: 1. 100% recycled toilet paper feels uncomfortable compared to using non-recycled toilet paper 2. 100% recycled toilet paper costs more than non- recycled toilet paper 3. 100% recycled toilet paper is too thin and tears easily Tourism Research Unit
    • 38. Wipe for Wildlife – 2010/11• Board gave approval but Rachel was told to keep complaint log. First complaint was that Crapman wasn’t there the day a family visited.• 27,000 households engaged• 45% of visitors got the message• 27% of non-compliers switched• Crapman was the most effective influence
    • 39. Another example...• At Adelaide, we found these beliefs important for donating at an enormous globe... – It is clear what the globe is for (confusion about ‘Conservation Ark’) – My kids would approve if I put money in the donation globe – If I put money in the donation globe, it will help endangered species Tourism Research Unit
    • 40. Conservation ARKWe exist to save animals from extinctionHelp support international conservation programs Tourism Research Unit
    • 41. Please consider the environment. Hang up your towel so we know not to replace it. Reusing towels decreases the use of electricity, detergents and water. Please reuse your towelTourism Research Unit
    • 42. Most guests at this hotel consider the environment and ↑ 26% reuse their towel at least once during their stay. Please join them in considering the environment and reuse your towel.Tourism Research Unit
    • 43. Most guests who stay in this room consider the environment and ↑ 33% reuse their towel at least once during their stay. Please join them in considering the environment and reuse your towel.Tourism Research Unit
    • 44. At this hotel we are committed to the environment. When you 0% reuse your towel, we donate a percentage of the energy savings to WWF. Please reuse your towelTourism Research Unit
    • 45. At this hotel, we are committed to the environment. We’ve already donated to WWF on behalf of our ↑ 45% guests in anticipation of the savings we’ll make through towel reuse. Please reuse your towelTourism Research Unit
    • 46. Tourism Research Unit
    • 47. A final example...• At Taronga, we found differences for... – It will fund the Tasmanian devil breeding program – The keepers would approve of me donating to the Tassie Devil Appeal – My kids would approve – I could easily find / see the donation box – The design of the donation box was good – There was not enough information about the Tassie Devil Appeal Tourism Research Unit
    • 48. Videos• Video 1 – existing Tassie Devil Video• Video 2 – Old Spice ad http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=owGykVbfgUE• Video 3 – Waz doing the Old Spice man Tourism Research Unit
    • 49. Videos Tourism Research Unit
    • 50. Conclusions• Research can help guide but identifying the message is just the start• The TPB is just one of many approaches that can be used• Need to compare methods Tourism Research Unit
    • 51. Is this all too much?
    • 52. The personal threshold measure... How many times during a visit should the zoo ask you to help wildlife? Oh, I reckon about five times How many times were you asked to help wildlife today? Two times today.. that I can remember AHA, so your threshold wasn’t crossed and you could have been asked three more times Tourism Research Unit
    • 53. Is this all too much? • Very few visitors have their personal threshold crossed • Visitor satisfaction goes up the more you ask • … as long as you only ask for money once Tourism Research Unit