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CommTech Talks: Optical Access Architectures for Backhauling of Broadband Mobile Networks
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CommTech Talks: Optical Access Architectures for Backhauling of Broadband Mobile Networks

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  • 1. COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 2. AGENDA1. The data storm2. Challenges and opportunities3. Solutions: HetNet, small cells, BBU centralization4. A closer look to BBU centralization (CPRI backhauling)5. BBU centralization CAPEX/OPEX analysis6. Conclusions COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 3. The data storm New Consumers New Devices/Ecosystem 5 Billion people will be directly touched data munching devices exhausting data and by connectivity in 2015 signaling capacity New Connections New Communities and Cloud Services 25X Global Mobile Traffic in 5 years (forecast for period 2011-2016) 100s Millions empowered users connected in social communities COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 4. Challenges … Service Provider network economics 50 40 $/sub/month 30 Data ARPU Network Cost 20 Data Traffic 10 0 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 Source: Bell Labs Analysis COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 5. … and opportunities Mobile backhaul connection by fiber reaching 42% in 2016. Mobile Backhaul Connections by medium 10,000,000 9,000,000 8,000,000 7,000,000 copper 6,000,000 fiber 5,000,000 air 4,000,000 total 3,000,000 2,000,000 1,000,000 0 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 Source: Infonetics Research, March 2012 COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 6. Solutions: HetNet From homogeneous coverage paradigm to inhomogeneous • Different wireless technologies, such as W-CDMA , LTE and Wi-Fi • Flexible radio access options, such as macros, small cells and Wi-Fi. • Cost-effective for capacity and coverage needs in all environments. • Mitigates interference and allows for intelligent traffic management features COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 7. Solutions: small cellsNGNM definition: “Small cells are operator managed base stations with a lowertransmission power and coverage area than macro cells, used to complement themin order to improve the service level by easing congestion with more capacity andenhancing coverage” Small cells typically below rooftop 3-6m above street level Macro In a Het-Net scenario, macro- sites may double up as aggregation sites for small cells ‘Last mile’ backhaul therefore provides connectivity between macro sites and small cell sites Connection must meet QoS requirements… Typical Small Cell locations COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 8. Solutions: mobile backhauling models Remote Radio Conventional BBU Head (Macrocell) (on tower) IP IP All-in-one IP (BaseBand integrated IP mobile in Radio Head) backhaul Small cell IP Wireless IP Controllers packet core Multi-band Remote CPRI Radio Head over fiber with any BaseBand Centralized baseband RF only sites COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 9. Solutions: IP backhauling options and metrics INFRASTRUCTURE AND TECHNOLOGY CAPABILITYMEAN Option Bandwidth (Mb/s) Latency (ms) DSL - 2 pair bonding with vectoring and phantom mode 1500 m 100 down, 20 up 3Copper DSL - 4 pair bonding with vectoring and phantom mode 1500 m 230 down, 40 up 3 DSL - 8 pair bonding with vectoring and phantom mode 1500 m 750 down, 150 up 3 305 down, 306 up per 11-23 GHz (up to 16 Km at 11 GHz) 254 bits per frame ∼ 0.15 per hopMicrowave radio 80 GHZ (up to 1.5Km) 1000 ∼ 0.15 per hop 10000 down, 2500 up TDM PON ∼1 (shared among ONTs)Fiber B&W point to point 10000 0.005/Km CWDM 8x 10000 per channel 0.005/Km COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 10. Solutions: BBU centralization (CPRI backhauling)Traditional versus centralized architectures Ethernet backhauling CPRI backhauling RU RU Cabinet CO Backhaul network Backhaul network BBU BBU CPRI BH i/f CPRI CPRI COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 11. Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) Radio Radio Equipment CPRI Backhaul Equipment Controller (RE) CPRI over fiber (REC) Centralized Base RF Only Band Unit (BBU) • The Common Public Radio Interface (CPRI) is an industry cooperation, operative since 2003, defining a publicly available specification for the internal interface of radio baseHistory stations between the Radio Equipment Control (REC) and the Radio Equipment (RE). • Cooperating parties are: Ericsson AB, Huawei, NEC, Alcatel Lucent and Nokia Siemens Networks (Nortel left on 2009) • A digitized and serial p2p radio interface, mapping the sampled antenna signals (I/Q data), possibly related to different mobile technologies, into containers. • Mobile technologies supported include: GSM, UMTS, WiMax, LTE … • Single-hop and multi-hop topologies (between REC and RE) are allowed.What is • Three different information flows (User Plane data, Control and Management Plane data, and Synchronization Plane data) are TDM multiplexed over the CPRI. • Seven different options for CPRI line bite rates are defined, as multiple of lower line rate: (1) 614, 4 Mb/s, (2) 1228.8 Mbit/s, (3) 2457.6 Mbit/s, (4) 3072.0 Mbit/s, (5) 4915.2 Mbit/s, (6) 6144.0 Mbit/s, (7) 9830.4 Mbit/s. COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 12. CPRI throughput examplesHow evaluating CPRI throughput:• N. of sectors for each cell site: 3 5 MHz WCDMA carriers LTE spectral bandwidth [MHz]• N. of MIMO TX antennas 0 10 20 30 • for WCDMA: 2 0 0 5.530 11.059 16.614 1 737 6.267 11.796 17.351 • for LTE: 4 2 1.475 7.004 12.534 18.089• Sampling rate: 7.68 Mb/s for WCDMA 3 2.212 7.741 13.271 18.826 4 2.949 8.479 14.008 19.563 15.36 Mb/s for LTE 10MHz 30.72 Mb/s for LTE 20MHz CPRI unidirectional throughput [Mb/s] 46.15 Mb/s for LTE 30MHz (non compressed)• Sample width: 8 bit/sample for WCDMA 5 MHz WCDMA carriers LTE spectral bandwidth [MHz] 15 bit/sample for LTE 0 10 20 30• I/Q multiplication factor: 2 0 0 2.048 4.096 6.153 1 273 2.321 4.369 6.426• Compression rate: 2.7 2 546 2.594 4.642 6.699 3 819 2.867 4.915 6.973 4 1.092 3.140 5.188 7.246 CPRI unidirectional throughput [Mb/s] (compressed) COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 13. Centralized BBU Deployment Pros&ConsBenefits: Challenges:• Reduced OPEX (clustering): • CPRI backhaul demands • Fewer cell site visits (e.g. high bandwidth capacity centralized upgrades) CPRI (up to 10G) for circuit- over fiber • Reduced site costs (site based traffic rental) and civil works for • Need for optical infra- new sites structure Centralized • Bandwidth • Eliminate heating and BBU cooling of enclosure compression • Improved security (no algorithms can cabinets to break into) effectively reduce costs CPRI • Improved X2 performance over fiber • Strict transmission latency (no transmission delay and jitter requirements among BBUs in a pool) • Low entry cost with ability• Load balancing lowers CAPEX Centralized to scale (pooling) BBU • Effectively leveraging• Improved spectral efficiency existing fiber (e.g. GPON (CoMP) overlay) COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 14. The business case for BBU centralization source: • The total incremental costs of a C-RAN architecture in urban environments reduce after the first year, moving towards 70% of traditional RAN costs in the final years • OPEX reduction eventually outweighs initial CAPEX increase COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 15. A synopsis of CPRI backhauling architectures P2P TREE RING P2P fibers RRH-BBU CPRI multiplexing Y N Need for CPRI P2P fibers Fiber rich multiplexing RRH-BBU context at cell site • Purely passive solution possible WDM WDM or TDM • Active solution • CPRI compression not needed TDM • CPRI compression lowers costs • With colored or colorless optics muxing • Proprietary or std multiplexing COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 16. CPRI backhauling functional model Cell site Central Office Transport network CPRIs Line Line CPRIs RRH(s) BBU Pool CPRI CPRI CPRI OPTICAL OPTICAL CPRI CPRI (AxC) (AxC) MUX NETWORK LINE MUX or SUB-CPRI COMPR. COMPR. DEMUX TERMINATION TERMINATION DEMUX SWITCHING DECOMPR. DECOMPR.• Optional • TDM/WDM • P2P • P2P • TDM/WDM • Optional • Optional• Proprietary • PON • PON • Proprietary • Proprietary • Ring • Ring if sub-CPRI Optimized TDM based CPRI backhauling architecture WDM based CPRI backhauling architecture COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 17. CPRI backhauling CAPEX/OPEX analysisModelsCPRI multiplexing: BBU stack Active TDM MX/DX• TDM up to 10Gb/s• CPRI compression (about 3 times on LTE signals) B&W pt-to-pt Cell site (20÷40 Km) COCPRI multiplexing: BBU stack Passive WDM1. Fixed DWDM MX/DX (AWG)2. Colorless DWDM (SS-WDM) WDM pt-to-pt Cell site (20÷40 Km) CO WDM colored e/o converters COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 18. CPRI backhauling CAPEX/OPEX analysis Minimally loaded configuration Normalized network cost• Variable number of cell sites 6 5.5• 2 scenarios: 5 4.5 1. Minimally loaded: 4 3.5 3 • mix of CPRI interfaces globally 3 2.5 conveying 33Gb/s (16Gb/s after 2 4 compression) 1.5 2 1 2. Maximally loaded: 0.5 1 0 • mix of CPRI interfaces globally 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 Number of cell sites conveying 88Gb/s (40Gb/s after Maximally loaded configuration compression) 6 Normalized network cost 5.5 5Legenda: 4.5 ) 4 1) p2p fibers connecting RUs and BBUs; ) 3.5 ) 3 2) TDM multiplexing (with compression); ) 2.5 3 3) WDM multiplexing with fixed WDM; 2 1.5 4 2 4) WDM multiplexing with colorless WDM 1 1 0.5 (SS-WDM) 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 x Number of cell sites COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 19. CPRI backhauling CAPEX/OPEX analysisOPEX considerations Reliability Scalability Installation aspects In-field upgradesTDM Acceptable if Limited by TDM Either in cabinet or on tower, Needed careful box capacity; it with need for power supply if electronic scales with boxes not cooling; indoor/outdoor design versions neededFixed Very good; only Limited by the No power/cooling needs for NotWDM passive WDM number of λs on WDM de-mux; complex needed de-multiplexer a fiber (up to management of WDM modules at cell site 80+80 using C+L (spares for each λ, need for (beyond RRHs) bands) management of fixed colors)SS-WDM Very good; only Limited by the No power/cooling needs for Not passive WDM number of λs on WDM de-mux; very simple needed de-multiplexer a fiber (up to management of WDM modules at cell site 80+80 using C+L (only one spare type, no (beyond RRHs) bands) management of fixed colors) COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 20. Colorless DWDM technologySS-WDM: principle of operation Distribution Fiber Feeder Fiber Data modulation Reflective-SOA Remote mirror ONU transmitter WDM MX/DX (AWG or TFF) Self-seeding Laser cavity Colorless transmitter self-aligns to any available channel of the AWG grid without needing wavelength control and tracking system: 1. The fiber between the R-SOA and the AWG mirror forms a laser cavity 2. The laser wavelength is selected by the AWG port channel 3. The R-SOA is directly modulated with the ONU data stream COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 21. Colorless DWDM technologySS-WDM: R-SOA operations in the self-seeding cavity The R-SOA in the cavity performs simultaneously 3 operations: • Sustain lasing – optical amplification • ONU data modulation – direct gain modulation • Cancellation of re-circulating modulation – Nonlinear Gain saturation COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 22. Conclusions• Some mobile market evolution trends have been depicted in their main lines, showing how a sustainable growth constantly needs to leverage on innovation, in order to make operators’ costs and revenues meet on a fair basis• Specifically, a new mobile backhauling paradigm (BBU centralization or CPRI backhauling) has been described - Suitable both for macro and small cells - Allowing for significant OPEX savings at the expense of initial CAPEX increase• Results from a CAPEX/OPEX analysis have been reported: - TDM (active) solutions with compression can be generally designed at lower cost than WDM ones and allow for “CPRI independent” monitoring of the optical line - Low cost/short distance WDM solutions, like SS-WDM, look promising thanks to the possibility of a pure passive add-ons in the cell site; the auto-tuning facility is key for eliminating the OPEX burden implied by the management of different devices for distinct colours COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 23. 23COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
  • 24. 24COPYRIGHT © 2011 ALCATEL-LUCENT. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.

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