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Mapping Global Value Chains: International Input-Output Table

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  • 1. ■ □ ■□ □■ ■□■□ □■□■□■ ■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■ ■□■□■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■□■□■□ ■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□ □■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■ ■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□■□ Satoshi Inomata IDE-JETRO Mapping Global Value Chains: International Input-Output Table
  • 2. “3E” HOT TOPICS - Employment and poverty - Environmental issues - Economic integration
  • 3. International value distribution of iPhone Retail price of iPhone in 2009 = $500 (64% margin for the Apple)
  • 4. Cost of parts for iPhone3G Manufacturer Components Unit Price Toshiba (Japan) Flash Memory US$24.00 Display Module US$19.25 Touch Screen US$16.00 Samsung (Korea) Application Processor US$14.46 SDRAM-Mobile DDR US$8.50 Infineon (Germany) Baseband US$13.00 Camera Module US$9.55 RF Transceiver US$2.80 GPS Receiver US$2.25 Power IC RF Function US$1.25 Broadcom (US) Bluetooth/FM/WLAN US$5.95 Numonyx (US) Memory MCP US$3.65 Murata (Japan) FEM US$1.35 Dialog Semiconductor (Germany) Power IC Application Processor Function US$1.30 Cirrus Logic (US) Audio Codec US$1.15 Others US$48.00
  • 5. Productdesign Assembly Distribution Marketing Customerservices Materialprocurement R&D Partsprocurement
  • 6. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement
  • 7. * Analytical focus is limited to a particular product/firm. Not appropriate for economic analyses at the national level. * Firm-level data does not explicitly present “compensation of employees”. * The approach only considers the value-added structure of direct input suppliers (the first tier). Weakness of “firm-level” approach → International Input-Output Analysis
  • 8. Automobiles (Y10 billion) Rough steel (Y8 million) Electricity (Y400,000) Coal products (Y100,000) Petroleum products (Y40,000) Steel (Y12 million) Wholesale (Y2 million) Roadfreight transport (Y400,000) Sea shipping (Y200,000) Dye (Y3.5 million) Intermediate organic chemical products (Y500,000) Composite plastics (Y200,000) Electricity (Y100,000) Wood pulp (Y100,000) Wholesale (Y100,000) Chemical fiber (Y2.1 million) Financing (Y300,000) Wholesale (Y300,000) Car parts (Y260 million) Cold-finished steel (Y60 million) Steel shar slit (Y20 million) Paint (Y17 million) Composite rubber (Y30 million) Carbon black (Y10 million) Silk and rayon textiles (Y10 million) Raw rubber (imported) (Y10 million) Car chassis (Y650 million) Tires and inner tubes Glass products (Y130 million) Internal-combustion engines (Y1.52 billion) ... ... ... ... ... ... ... Initial Impact 1st-round Impacts 2nd-round Impacts 3rd-round Impacts 4th-round Impacts Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value- added Value propagation (car industry)
  • 9. Bilateral IIOT between China and USA
  • 10. Main IIOT initiatives Database Producing organisation Reference years Number of countries Industry/product classification AIIOT IDE-JETRO 1975、1985、1990、 1995、2000、2005 10 56 (1975) 78 (1985-95) 76 (2000-05) EORA University of Sydney 1990-2009:yearly Approx. 150 20~500 EXIOPOL Database (CREEA) European Commission 2000 43 + ROW 129 industries 129 products GTAP-MRIO Purdue University 1990、1992、1995、 1997、2001、2004、 2007 129 57 industries ICIO OECD 1995、2000、2005、 2008、2009 56 + ROW 18 industries WIOD European Commission 1995-2011:yearly 40 + ROW 35 industries 59 products
  • 11. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement “Smiley Curve”
  • 12. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement DownstreamUpstream How to evaluate country’s relative position Backward length Forward length
  • 13. China 1985 China 2005 Indonesia Japan Korea Malaysia Chinese Taipei Philippines Singapore Thailand USA 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 3.7 3.9 Upstream Downstream Longer supply chains Shorter supply chains Backward APL ForwardAPL Backward Length ForwardLength
  • 14. 1985 2000 China China Indonesia Indonesia Japan Japan Korea Korea Malaysia Malaysia Taiwan Taiwan Philippines Philippines Singapore SingaporeThailand Thailand USA USA 1985 2005 DownstreamUpstream
  • 15. 0 20,000 40,000 60,000 80,000 100,000 120,000 140,000 160,000 180,000 200,000 China Japan Korea Traditional measurement Value-added measurement Million US$ 33% The US trade deficits: Traditional vs value-added measurement
  • 16. Trade in Value-added measures international trade as a transfer of employment opportunities. a transfer of CO2 emission (carbon footprints). a flow of values rather than of products.
  • 17. Trade in value-added approach • offers a better measurement of bilateral trade in the world of increasing production sharing among countries. • can be a core apparatus for linking trade policies to crosscutting economic and/or social issues like job creation, poverty alleviation, and energy and environmental planning.
  • 18. Thank you !!
  • 19. Average Propagation Length (APL) Dietzenbacher, E., I. Romero, and N.S. Bosma (2005)
  • 20. Ind A Ind EInd DInd CInd B (3)(1) (2) (4) Ind C Ind B Ind C Ind E Ind D Ind D Ind E Ind E Ind D (1) (2) (1) (3) (4) (3) (2) Industry A →Industry E
  • 21. Ind EInd DInd CInd BInd A (4) (4)(2)(1) (3) Ind C Ind B Ind C Ind E Ind D Ind D Ind E Ind E Ind D (1) (2) (1) (3) (3) (2) Industry A →Industry E l(2) = 50% l(4) = 10% l(3) = 30% l(4) = 10% lae = 1 x 0% + 2 x 50% + 3 x 30% + 4 x (10+10)% + 5 x 0% + …= 2.7 Weighted average of the number of production stages in supply chains.= The length of supply chains
  • 22. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement Backward APL Forward APL DownstreamUpstream
  • 23. Value- added Production process Product design Assembly Distribution Marketing Customer services Material procurement R&D Parts procurement Final products
  • 24. Value-addedTrade in goods and services
  • 25. Agri & Manu- Service Cons- Invest Export Import Total Mining fact'ing umption -ment Output Agri & Mining 800 1800 200 600 400 300 -100 4000 Manufacturing1600 600 500 0 350 200 -250 3000 Service 400 300 900 350 50 0 0 2000 Wages 800 200 250 Profits 250 50 100 Depreciation 100 30 40 Taxes 50 20 10 Total Input 4000 3000 2000 Intermediate Transaction ValueAdded Intermediate Transaction Final Demand Schematic image of an I-O table
  • 26. International value distribution of iPhone Retail price of iPhone in 2009 = $500 (64% margin for the Apple)
  • 27. The US trade deficits with China (1991=100)

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