OBESITYA medical condition in which excess body fat hasaccumulated to the extent that it may have anadverse effect on health, leading to reduced lifeexpectancy and/or increased health problems.People are considered as obese when their bodymass index (BMI), a measurement obtained bydividing a persons weight in kilograms by thesquare of the persons height in metres, exceeds30 kg/m2.
HISTORYObesity is from the Latin obesitas, which means"stout, fat, or plump." Ēsus is the past participle of edere (toeat), with ob (over) added to it. The Greeks were the first torecognize obesity as a medical disorder. Hippocrates wrotethat "Corpulence is not only a disease itself, but theharbinger of others". The Indian surgeon Sushruta (6thcentury BCE) related obesity to diabetes and heart disorders.He recommended physical work to help cure it and its sideeffects. For most of human history mankind struggled withfood scarcity. Obesity has thus historically been viewed as asign of wealth and prosperity. It was common among highofficials in Europe in the Middle Ages and the Renaissance aswell as in Ancient East Asian civilizations.
TYPES The first type is not caused by any disease butmainly due to lifestyle and eating habits. Too mucheating and eating fatty foods are the common causesof obesity not just for adults but also to children.Lack of exercise is also a major factor. The unusedfats in the body will accumulate if you have asedentary lifestyle. The Type 1 obesity comprises themajor percentage of obese people. And thiscondition will lead to other health problems if notgiven enough attention.
TYPES An abnormal weight gain occurs even if the persondoes not eat too much. Some causes of this type arecushing syndrome, hypothyroidism, polycystic ovariandisease, and insulinoma. People suffering fromhypothyroidism experiences a drop in metabolism. Weightgain occurs as a result of low calorie consumption. In thecase of cushing syndrome, abdominal obesity occurs wheremost of the fats gather around the body. It is alsocharacterized by the thinning of the arms and legs. Thereare instances where the hypodermis cracks from suddenweight gain causing line marks on theabdomen, groin, underarm, and back.
HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY• Insulin resistance. Once the pancreas can no longer keep up with producing high levels of insulin, blood glucose levels begin to rise, resulting in type 2 diabetes, thus insulin resistance is a pre-diabetes condition.• High blood pressure (hypertension). Hypertension is common among obese adults. Weight gain tended to increase blood pressure in women more significantly than in men. The risk of developing high blood pressure is also higher in obese people who are apple shaped (central obesity) than in people who are pear shaped.
• Others are high cholesterol, stroke, heart attack, congestive heart failure, cancer, gallstones, gout and gouty arthritis, osteoarthritis (degenerative arthritis) of the knees, hips, and the lower back and sleep apnea.
MANAGEMENT• The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. Diet programs may produce weight loss over the short term, but maintaining this weight loss is frequently difficult and often requires making exercise and a lower food energy diet a permanent part of a persons lifestyle. Success rates of long-term weight loss maintenance with lifestyle changes are low, ranging from 2–20%. Dietary and lifestyle changes are effective in limiting excessive weight gain in pregnancy and improve outcomes for both the mother and the child.
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