7. tesoro   acute myelogenous leukemia
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7. tesoro acute myelogenous leukemia






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7. tesoro acute myelogenous leukemia Presentation Transcript

  • 2. ACUTE MYELOGENOUS LEUKEMIA (AML) is a clonal hematopoietic disorder resulting from genetic alterations in normal hematopoietic stem cells. These changes alter normal hematopoietic growth and differentiation, resulting in an accumulation of large numbers of abnormal, immature myeloid cells in the bone marrow and peripheral blood. These cells are capable of dividing and proliferating, but cannot differentiate into mature hematopoietic cells. AML is more common in men than women. AML is the most common acute leukemia affecting adults, and its incidence increases with age.
  • 3. SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS Fever Fatigue Loss of appetite Weight loss Frequent infections Shortness of breath Weakness Swelling of lymph nodes Spleen/Liver enlargement Pallor Easy bleeding and bruising Petechiae (red spots) on the mucosa Gingival swelling Ulcers are often found on the mucosa or gingival Oral Candidiasis/Oral thrush
  • 4. DENTAL CORRELATION OF THE DISEASE IN DENTALTREATMENT Hematological information is needed before any invasive procedures (such as extractions )as leukemia patients have higher bleeding tendencies and they are liable to infections. Preventive oral care is important in leukemia patients. Early intervention is important to reduce the possible complications.  Frequent topical fluoride applications  Fissure sealants on the molars to reduce dental caries.  Dietary advice to the patient  Give proper tooth brushing instructions to both patient and parents.  Antibiotic cover is needed before any surgery to prevent any postoperative infection.  Local anesthesia should be avoided to prevent any hemorrhagic tendency.  Root canal treatment is preferred over extractions to reduce the risk for oral and systemic complications  Dental treatment should be performed as a traumatically as possible to prevent any injuries to the soft tissues.  Fixed and removable orthodontic appliances are not recommended for patients with poor oral hygiene.  Preshedding deciduous teeth should be left to exfoliate naturally and patient should not play with it with his/her tongue to reduce bacteremia.  Local measures such as placing sutures, gelatin sponge are required to stop/arrest bleeding when a minor/major surgery is performed.
  • 5.  Leukemia patients should maintain their oral hygiene by:  Brush twice daily using a soft toothbrush to reduce the risk of significant bleeding and infection of the gingival.  Attending the dental appointments regularly to monitor their oral condition.  Remove plaque effectively to prevent formation of dental caries  Rinse after meal to avoid accumulation of plaque/food debris
  • 6. CLASSIFICATION OF AML Multifactorial -The barriers to curing AML are multifactorial, including drug resistance, poor tolerance of induction therapy, and very high rates of relapse. Single Gene - The affected people may have a single gene or multiple genes in common. In some cases, families tend to develop the same kinds of leukemia as other members; in other families, affected people may develop different forms of leukemia or related blood cancers. Cytogenetics - The translocation t(8;21)(q22;q22) is one of the most common structural aberration in acute myeloid leukemia and is found in 5-12% of AML