Learning DisordersLearning disabilities are problemsthat affect the brains ability toreceive, process, analyze, or storeinformation. These problems canmake it difficult for a student tolearn as quickly as someone whoisnt affected by learning disabilities. For someone diagnosed with a learning disability, it can seem scary at first. But a learning disorder doesnt have anything to do with a persons intelligence — kids with learning disabilities aren’t lazy or dumb. In fact, most are just as smart as everyone else. Their brains are simply wired differently. After all, successful people such as Walt Disney, Alexander Graham Bell, and Winston Churchill all had learning disabilities.
Preschool (4-5 years old) •Problems pronouncing words Signs and •Trouble finding the right word •Difficulty rhyming symptoms of •Trouble learning the alphabet, numbers, colors, shapes, days of the learning week •Difficulty following directions or learning routines disabilities •Difficulty controlling crayons, pencils, and scissors or coloring within the lines •Trouble with buttons, zippers, snaps, learning to tie shoes Grades K-4 (5-10 years old) •Trouble learning the connection between letters and sounds •Unable to blend sounds to make words •Confuses basic words when reading •Consistently misspells words and makes frequentIt’s not always easy to identify reading errors •Trouble learning basic math conceptslearning disabilities. Because of the •Difficulty telling time and remembering sequenceswide variations, there is no single •Slow to learn new skillssymptom or profile that you can look Grades 5-8 (10-14 years old) •Difficulty with reading comprehension or mathto as proof of a problem. However, skillssome warning signs are more •Trouble with open-ended test questions and word problemscommon than others at different •Dislikes reading and writing; avoids reading aloudages. •Spells the same word differently in a single document •Poor organizational skills (bedroom, homework, desk is messy and disorganized) •Trouble following classroom discussions and
Reading disorder (dyslexia) Types of learning Writing disorders disorder (dysgraphia) Math disability (dyscalculia)Learning There are many kinds ofDisorders Dyspraxia (Sensory learning disabilities. Integration Most students affected Disorder) by them have more than Dysphasia/ one kind Aphasia Auditory Processing Disorder Visual Processing Disorder
Common Types of Learning Disabilities Dyslexia Difficulty reading Problems reading, writing, spelling, speaking Dyscalculia Difficulty with math Problems doing math problems, understanding time, using money Dysgraphia Difficulty with writing Problems with handwriting, spelling, organizing ideasDyspraxia (Sensory Difficulty with fine motor Problems with hand–eye coordination, Integration skills balance, manual dexterity Disorder)Dysphasia/Aphasia Difficulty with language Problems understanding spoken language, poor reading comprehensionAuditory Processing Difficulty hearing differences Problems with reading, comprehension, Disorder between sounds language Visual Processing Difficulty interpreting visual Problems with reading, math, maps, charts, Disorder information symbols, pictures
DyslexiaDyslexia can affect people differently. Some withdyslexia can have trouble with reading andspelling, while others struggle to write, or to tellleft from right. Some children show few signs ofdifficulty with early reading and writing. But lateron, they may have trouble with complex languageskills, such as grammar, readingcomprehension, and more in-depth writing. Dyslexia can also make it difficult for people to express themselves clearly. It can be hard for them to use vocabulary and to structure their thoughts during conversation. Others struggle to understand when people speak to them. This isnt due to hearing problems. Instead, its from trouble processing verbal information. It becomes even harder with abstract thoughts and non-literal language, such as jokes and proverbs.
Learning styles for people with dyslexia Learning should be structured and multisensory (use sight, sound, and touch) Practice till automatic (people with dyslexia have short-term memory difficulties) Work on one problem at a time. Use right brain skills: like imagination, patterns, colour and visualisation to augment learning. Make sure there is nothing disturbing in the room you are studying in - dyslexics need to concentrate much more than other students Use technology e.g. spelling dictionaries, movies, computer programs
DysgraphiaDysgraphia makes the act What Can Help?of writing difficult. It canlead to problems withspelling, poor •Use paper with raised lines for ahandwriting, and putting sensory guide to staying within thethoughts on paper. lines.People with dysgraphia •Try different pens and pencils to findcan have trouble one thats most comfortable.organizing •Begin writing assignments creativelyletters, numbers, and with drawing, or speaking ideas intowords on a line or page. a tape recorder •Create a step-by-step plan that breaks writing assignments into small tasks • When organizing writing projects, create a list of keywords that will be useful
Dyscalculia What Can Help? •Use graph paper forDyscalculia refers to a wide range of students who have difficultylifelong learning disabilities involving math. organizing ideas on paper.There is no single type of math disability. •Work on finding differentDyscalculia can vary from person to person. ways to approach math facts.And, it can affect people differently at •Introduce new skillsdifferent stages of life. beginning with concrete examples and later moving to more abstractTwo major areas of weakness can contribute applications.to math learning disabilities: •For language difficulties, explain ideas and•Visual-spatial difficulties, which result in a problems clearly andperson having trouble processing what the encourage students to askeye sees questions as they work.•Language processing difficulties, which •Provide a place to work withresult in a person having trouble processing few distractions and haveand making sense of what the ear hears pencils, erasers and other tools on hand as needed.
ADHD (attention deficithyperactivity disorder) is a ADHD/ADDmedical condition thataffects how well someone Sometimes the symptoms of ADHD becomecan sit still, focus, and pay less severe as a person grows older. Forattention. People with example, experts believe that theADHD have differences in hyperactivity part of the disorder canthe parts of their brains diminish with age, although the problemsthat control attention and with organization and attention often remain.activity. This means that Although some people may "grow out of"they may have trouble their symptoms, more than half of all kidsfocusing on certain tasks who have ADHD will continue to show signsand subjects, or they may of the condition as young adults.seem "wired," actimpulsively, and get intotrouble. No one knows exactly what causes ADHD. It ADD (attention deficit runs in families, so disorder) is a type of ADHD genetics may be a that doesnt involve factor. hyperactivity.