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  • 1. TRANSVERSAL COMPETENCES: TODAY’S SOLUTIONS FOR TOMORROW’S JOBS Eurokid builds up his future Comenius Project Theory and Practice 2011-2013 CZECH REPUBLIC – ITALY – POLAND - TURKEY
  • 2. NEW SKILLS NEW JOB IN EUROPA How the european students must work at school to develop the international skills for job? “Language skills will be important in achieving European policy goals, particularly against a background of increasing global competition” A new framework strategy for multilingualism, European Commission, 2005INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................. 2 The European vision for 2020........................................................................................................................ 3 How can this be achieved? ............................................................................................................................ 5SKILLS MAKE THE DIFFERENCE .......................................................................................................................... 5EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK ..................................................................................................... 8 Planning and regulating education and training supply ................................................................................ 9 Reinforcing quality assurance mechanisms .................................................................................................. 9 Establishing qualification frameworks .......................................................................................................... 9 Improving flexibility and transparency in the transition between different levels and types of education10 Moving towards skills, competences and learning outcomes .................................................................... 10 Implementing competence-based curricula ............................................................................................... 10 Facilitating the validation of non-formal and informal learning ................................................................. 11 Extending and strengthening apprenticeship schemes .............................................................................. 11 Make education and training more flexible and more open for innovation and enhance relationships between skills providers and employers ..................................................................................................... 11 Establish skills–based qualifications ............................................................................................................ 11 The right skills portfolio ............................................................................................................................... 12 Adapt curricula content, teaching, delivery methods and assessment to the intended learning outcomes ..................................................................................................................................................................... 13REFERENCE ...................................................................................................................................................... 16 Links ............................................................................................................................................................. 16
  • 3. INTRODUCTION Upgrading, adapting and widening the skills portfolio of individuals to create and fill thejobs of tomorrow is one of the greatest challenges facing Europe today. Everyone needs to step upand be more ambitious for their futures – individuals, private and public employers, the educationsector and governments at all levels. Improving people’s skills1 is a real ‘win, win’ for all – for theeconomy, for society, for employers and, of course, for individuals themselves. In every single EUcountry, unemployment rates systematically vary with qualification levels. The employment rate for those with high skill levels across the EU as a whole isapproximately 85 %, for medium skill levels 70 % and for low skill levels it stands at 50 %. Andyet, it is an inconvenient truth that, despite progress in recent years, much of Europe is still notsufficiently skilled. Nearly one third of Europe’s population aged 25-64 – around 77 million people– have no, or low, formal qualifications and only one quarter have high level qualifications. Thosewith low qualifications are much less likely to upgrade their skills and follow lifelong learning.Another major challenge is to ensure that people have the right skills. This is not just a question ofshort-term employability, but of our capacity to adapt to and shape the jobs of tomorrow. Duringthe last decade education and training systems in Europe have become more relevant and responsiveto the needs of society; but labour market mismatches still exist and create the painful and wastefulsituation of both skill shortages and skill gaps co-existing with unemployment: an economic andsocial exclusion. We can, we must, do better. Increased global competition means that Europeancountries will no longer be able to compete on cost and price, but need to produce higher qualityand more innovative products and services, delivered by higher skilled people. Encouragingcreativity and entrepreneurship throughout the learning process is fundamental for future growth.The crisis, and the recovery from it, is also accelerating the pace of economic restructuring, with alasting structural effect on the volume and types of skills needed. Future demographic trends willadd further pressure to tackle this challenge. Fewer and fewer young people will graduate fromschools and universities, and the only growth of the labour force is likely to be amongst those agedover 50. The numbers of over-65s in relation to those aged 15-64 will increase from 26 % in 2008to 38 % by 2030. Clearly, with an increasing old-age dependency ratio, those in work also need tobecome more productive in order to support those outside the labour market. These challenges, andopportunities, come at a time of serious fiscal restraint facing most, if not all, Member States aswell as the EU itself. This requires explicit and sensible choices about priorities for public funding1 The term ‘skill’ subsumes knowledge, skill and competence defined in the European Qualifications Framework, where ‘skills’ means the ability toapply knowledge and use know-how to complete tasks and solve problems, and ‘competence’ means the proven ability to use knowledge, skills andpersonal, social and/or methodological abilities, in work or study situations and in professional and personal development
  • 4. of education and training. We must strongly encourage individuals and employers to invest moreheavily in their skills development, not only to secure the best ‘value for money’ but to reap thebenefits of people’s potential.The European vision for 2020 We want to see a Europe where citizens have more and better skills. Where people as well asorganisations are able to make betterinformed choices about which education or training to investin, depending on which jobs they have, would like to develop in, or apply for. Where education andtraining systems propose innovative and equitable approaches such as flexible learning pathways,and focus on developing essential skills as well as intellectual and job specific skills. We want tosee a Europe where these efforts will have helped the EU not only to recover successfully from thecrisis, but also to fundamentallychange the way Europeans think about ‘education and training’,about ‘work’ and about the relation between them. ‘Education and training’ and ‘work’ will nolonger be two separate worlds, but will be much more integrated into a single lifelong learningprocess, open to innovation and open to all. The foundation stone for success is to ensure that more,many more, people, businesses and public bodies recognise the value of skills. We need to persuademore people and organizations that their future prosperity depends on broadening skills and raisingskill levels. Overall investment in education and training must increase, even if fiscal constraints arepresent, and must be efficient and well targeted. This can be achieved only if Member Statespromote a stronger, shared responsibility between government, employers and individuals forinvesting in skills.Impatto della recessione sull’occupazione (UE-27+)
  • 5. Opportunità di lavoro future (UE-27+)Evoluzione della struttura occupazionale (UE-27+)Domanda di qualifiche, cambiamento netto (UE-27+)
  • 6. How can this be achieved?1. Investment in skills must be massive and smart. It requires the right incentives to upgrade andbetter use skills for individuals and employers: we need better incentives and services for citizens ofall abilities, and better incentives for firms of all types to invest in, and make the best of, people’sskills.2. We need to bring the worlds of education, training and work closer together. We need innovationto make education and training more flexible and open as well as to develop more effectiverelationships between providers, employers and guidance and placement services. More interactionwill promote more skills–based qualifications and ensure continuing and lifelong education andtraining for all.3. We must develop the right mix of skills. Specific job related competences learned throughouteducation and training must be underpinned by transversal competences, especially digital andentrepreneurial competences, in order to both encourage initiative rather than simple reproductionof received knowledge and to better adapt to learners and employers’ needs.4. We need to better anticipate future skills needs, through improved labour market information,developing early-warning systems and opening up to global talent. These four priorities are detailedin 34 specific recommendations. These will not be achieved without the sustained commitment andengagement of governments, local authorities, employers, education and training providers andindividuals. This is both a powerful and a challenging ambition and one which we must achieve ifwe are to secure prosperity in Europe in the decade ahead.SKILLS MAKE THE DIFFERENCE Upgrading, adapting and widening the skills portfolio of individuals to create and fill thejobs of tomorrow is one of the greatest challenges facing Europe today. Everyone needs to ‘step up’and be more ambitious for their futures – individuals, ‘private and public employers’, the educationsector and governments at all levels. There are great benefits in stepping-up – for ourselves, ourcommunities, our economies and for society as a whole. Our prosperity, today and tomorrow,depends on how many people are in work and how satisfied and productive they are when they arein work. Skills, the right skills, are the key to moving us out of recession into recovery, and the bestguarantee of our ability to sustain our growth and secure lasting economic success. Skills alsounderpin personal development and well being. A more highly skilled workforce is a moreemployable workforce (e.g. across the EU, those with medium level qualifications are 40 % morelikely to be employed than those with low level qualifications). A more highly skilled workforce isalso a better paid workforce and a more productive and satisfied workforce. And yet, it is an
  • 7. inconvenient truth that, despite progress in recent years, much of Europe is still not sufficientlyskilled. Nearly one third of Europe’s population aged 25-64, around 77 million people, have no, orlow, formal qualifications and only one quarter have high level qualifications. And those with lowqualifications are much less likely to participate in upskilling and lifelong learning. Furthermore, ofthe five European benchmarks in education and training set for 2010, only one is likely to bereached. Worryingly, the latest figures show that 14.9 % of pupils leave school early with severalcountries suffering from extremely high drop-out rates; the performance in reading literacy isactually deteriorating. This is not only unacceptable but means that we are way off meeting the 10%2 European target of early school leavers (3). We are, indeed standing on a ‘burning platform’.Europe aims to be amongst the most highly skilled regions in the world, yet many Europeancountries are not even in the top 20. We can, we must, do better: the countries that succeed in theirexit strategies from the current crisis will be those that best educate and train their people for thefuture. Old certainties are largely gone, many of the jobs in 2020 do not exist today and cannot beforeseen yet; this requires the development of broader and better knowledge, skills andcompetences. It can mean individuals moving up one step within a formal qualifications framework,it can mean individuals acquiring additional qualifications related to other occupational fields, it canmean better recognition of skills acquired outside formal contexts. Most of the 2020 workforce isalready in work, so raising skill levels is not just about our young people in school, college anduniversity, but is about all of us – employed and unemployed, young and old, men and women,employees and managers at all levels. Working life for individuals should be an active andcontinuing process of skills development, where there are high stakes to keep up with the pace ofchange and to be able to move easily, from one job to another. Government, employers andindividuals should see training and upskilling as an investment in a sustainable future, rather than asa cost to be minimised. People’s skills are essential to social and economic success. Employersshould encourage their staff to achieve the ‘one step up’. More and better jobs will only be possibleif we also raise the demand for skills by raising employer ambition and create a ‘virtuous circle’where more skills are both available and utilised in the workplace. Working environments need toencourage people to use their potential to the full to the benefit of their work and their owndevelopment. Leadership is crucial. We envision a Europe where citizens have more and betterskills, where people have shifted from job seekers to job shapers. We want to see a Europe which isknown as one of the most highly skilled parts of the world. People will be able to apply their skillsin jobs where they are needed. Citizens as well as organisations will be able to make betterinformed2 European Commission, Progress towards the Lisbon objectives in Education and Training – Indicators and Benchmarks, 2009.http://ec.europa.eu/education/ lifelong-learning-policy/ doc28_en.htm
  • 8. choices about which education or training to invest in, depending on which jobs they have, wouldlike to develop in, or apply for. Education and training systems will propose innovative andequitable approaches such as flexible learning pathways, and focus on the development of essentialskills3 as well as job-specific skills. These are needed to help adapt to rapidly changingcircumstances, to seize new opportunities, but also to shape the future, to innovate, to turn ideas intoactions and to create new jobs. Our schools, universities, training and workplaces will foster equalopportunities, entrepreneurship, trust, co-operation, and a sense of responsibility, creativity andinnovation that will contribute to economic prosperity, societal good, engaged citizenship andpersonal well-being. To achieve this vision, we need to be much more ambitious. Coherent effortsand policies for our education and training systems as well as labour markets are needed, where allstakeholders will raise their game. We want to see a Europe where these efforts will have helped theEU not only to recover successfully from the crisis, but also to fundamentally change the way wethink about ‘education and training’, about ‘work’ and about the relation between them. ‘Educationand training’ and ‘work’ will no longer be two separate worlds, but will be much more integratedinto a single lifelong learning process, open to innovation and open to all. Education and trainingsystems will need to take into account people’s prior learning as well as their life situations,including gender, educational disadvantage and age, in order to enable education and training tocater to all kinds of learners and to pursue both excellence and inclusion – equally important goalsfor European society. Education and training especially needs to respond to the requirements of thelabour market, just as employers should commit to investing in professional and competencedevelopment and how skills are best deployed in the workplace. A highly skilled and well organisedworkforce will certainly contribute to improved business performance. Improving the level, qualityand relevance of citizens’ skills is not an end in itself. It will promote job creation, technologicaland social innovation, economic growth and greater competitiveness. Our societies will be morecohesive, as everyone will, irrespective of their Background, nationality or education, have thechance at every stage of their life to enhance their skills and competencies. So everyone can makebetter use of their potential, both within and outside work. The best way to include the morevulnerable, including migrants and minorities, is through better skills and employmentopportunities. As people’s skills will match much better the needs of the labour market,unemployment levels will be lower, skill shortages will be fewer and employees, employers and theself-employed will greatly benefit. This is both a powerful and challenging ambition, and one whichwe must achieve to secure prosperity in Europe in the decade ahead. We have to think about skills3 These essential, transversal, skills are well summarized in the European framework of eight key competences: mother tongue; foreign language;maths, science and technology; digital competence; learning to learn; social and civic competences; sense of initiative and entrepreneurship; andcultural awareness/ expression
  • 9. in th contex of a ‘skills ecosystems’ in which individuals, employers and the broader economic andsocial context are in permanent dynamic interaction. Improving people’s skills is a real ‘win, win’for all – for the economy, for society, for employers and, of course, for individuals themselvesImproved skill levels help you ‘get in’ (to work in the first place, from education or fromunemployment), ‘stay in’ (keep in work after entering the labour market) and ‘get on’ (progressthrough the labour market into better jobs). In every single EU country, unemployment ratessystematically vary with qualification levels. The more highly qualified you are, the greater thelikelihood there is of you being in work. The employment rates, for those with high skill levelsacross the EU as a whole is 83,9 %, that for medium skill levels is 70,6 % and that for low skilllevels is 48,1 %4. And, in just about every EU country, the more highly qualified you are, the moreyou earn on average. It is perhaps no surprise that, over the last three years, in the EU the number ofjobs employing people with higher level skills has actually increased, while the number of jobsemploying people with low level skills has decrease tAdequate skills and competences are crucial toparticipate in working life, but also in social and civic life. They are the basis of communitycohesion, based on democracy, mutual understanding, respect for diversity and active citizenship.Creativity, openness and interpersonal competences are also necessary for personal fulfilment andhappiness. According to recent research, the reform of an education system providing adequateskills for all citizens could increase GDP by as much as 10 % in the long term.5 A better-trainedworkforce also benefits the economy as a whole and increases its competitiveness. It makes it easierfor enterprises to adopt new technologies, innovate in products and services, processes or workorganisation. Companies that train their staff are 2.5 times less likely to go out of businesscompared to those that do not6. The lack of foreign language skills, and not just English, in smalland medium-sized European enterprises alone results in a loss of more than €100,000 per year foreach business on average7EUROPEAN QUALIFICATIONS FRAMEWORK In recent years, several EU initiatives have been launched with the aim of supporting thedevelopment of citizens’ skills as well as improving education and training systems so that they arebetter able to respond to the needs of the economy and society. These initiatives include the Key4 Eurostat, LFS, 20085 Bertelsmann Foundation, The economic costs of inadequate education: a macroeconomic calculation of the dynamic growth effects of lackingeducation competence, 20096 Collier W., Green F. and Young-Bae K. (2007), Training and Establishment Survival. SSDA Research Report 20. Sector Skills DevelopmentAgency, Wath-upon-Dearne7 ELAN: Effects on the European Economy of Shortages of Foreign Language Skills in Enterprise (http://ec.europa. eu/education/languages/Focus/docs/elan-sum_en.pdf)
  • 10. Competences Framework, the European Qualifications Framework, the general policy frameworkfor European cooperation in education and training and the initiative ‘New Skills for New Jobs’.This latest initiative is intended to promote an improvement in skills forecasting and matching thesupply of skills to the needs of the labour market through better cooperation between the worlds ofwork and education.Planning and regulating education and training supplyThe early identification of skills required in the labour market is an important trigger for theplanning and regulation of education and training supply. Skills forecasts are often used todefine specific quantitative targets for education and training provision.Reinforcing quality assurance mechanismsMany countries have introduced measures to assure and/or strengthen the quality ofeducational programmes, primarily through the introduction of external monitoring (e.g. inAustria), certification procedures (e.g. in Germany), or performance-based funding (e.g. in theCzech Republic). Some countries have also implemented European quality assurance frameworks,for example the European Quality Assurance Reference Framework for Vocational Education andTraining (EQARF). Some of these activities are funded by the European Social Fund (e.g. thequality improvement of initialvocational education and training programmes in Latvia). Qualityassurance efforts are concentrated in vocational and higher education.Establishing qualification frameworks At present, virtually all European countries are developing their National QualificationsFrameworks (NQFs). The aim of these frameworks is to enable employers, learners and thegeneral public to understand the full range of qualifications existing within a country, to clarify howthey relate to one another and show how the different types of qualifications can contribute toimproving the skills of the workforce.
  • 11. Improving flexibility and transparency in the transition between different levelsand types of education When developing policy strategies and reforms to enable education and training to becomemore responsive to labour market needs, some countries have chosen a consistent approachthroughout all educational levels and sectors. A prominent trend is to construct systems which allowfor a more flexible and transparent transition between the different levels and sectors of education,and especially between vocational and non-vocational paths. This greater flexibility andtransparency could reduce the existing number of ‘dead ends’ in education systems and couldpotentially increase the number of students who successfully complete their education.Moving towards skills, competences and learning outcomes One of the main trends in reforming education and training systems is the move towardseducation frameworks based on skills and competences. In some cases, especially in relation toqualification frameworks, students knowledge, skills and competences are expressed as thelearning outcomes of the education process. This refocusing process takes various forms andoccurs at various levels and in different sectors. This sub-section aims to show examples in threemain areas. Firstly, as Section 2 has already indicated, many countries have started the process ofdeveloping National Qualifications Frameworks (NQF). This process often goes hand in handwith adapting curricula, teacher training and assessment frameworks to a new, skill- andcompetence-based approach. Secondly, as curriculum changes can also take place independentlyfrom the development of new qualifications or the qualifications frameworks, changes in curricula,teacher training and assessment are discussed in the second part of this sub-section. Finally,several countries have started focusing attention on non-formal and informal learning and thevalidation of skills and competences gained outside formal education processes. Examples areshown in the last part of this sub-section.Implementing competence-based curricula This part of the summary illustrates how European countries have implemented competence-based frameworks in education – at different levels and in different sectors. In most countries,changing curricula have also brought about the adaptation of teacher training and assessmentframeworks in order to support the development of new skills and competences. In generaleducation, several countries have implemented the EUs key competences framework. In somecountries this is coupled with an increasing attention to keys skills in maths, science and technology
  • 12. (e.g. in the Czech Republic, Latvia and Malta). A few countries also reported follow-up difficulties(e.g. the Czech Republic) and changes (e.g. Austria and Iceland) in their teacher training systems.Facilitating the validation of non-formal and informal learning Several countries report that they have been focusing attention on how non-formal andinformal learning can be acknowledged (the Flemish Community of Belgium, the Czech Republic,Denmark, Germany, Greece, Spain, Latvia, Slovakia, Slovenia and Iceland). A competence- orlearning outcomes-based approach can facilitate this recognition process.Extending and strengthening apprenticeship schemes In addition to, or sometimes in parallel to the implementation of competence-basedframeworks in education, curricula are often becoming more practice-oriented. This change usuallyoccurs through either the introduction of new requirements on more extensive practical training (forexample in Spain or Greece) or the introduction and support of a wider range of apprenticeshipschemes as alternatives to school-based vocational education (for example in Denmark, Germany orSweden). These policies also serve to reduce the number of early school leavers.Make education and training more flexible and more open for innovation andenhance relationships between skills providers and employers Education and training can be effective and innovative if the institutions themselves areinnovative, ‘learning organisations’ open to interactions with the world of business and work. Thereis a need to make regulatory environments, incentives and support mechanisms more coherent, sothat schools, higher education and training institutions can adapt to changing conditions. Priorityshould be given to the development of institutional leadership, capacity building and qualityimprovement efforts enhanced including in human resource development.Establish skills–based qualifications In order to ensure that the qualifications people obtain are actually of value to them on thelabour market, and so that employers can employ people who possess the skills they need,cooperation between ‘work’ and ‘education and training’ should be much more intensive and moresubstantial. These two worlds need to address and overcome existing barriers between them andunderstand that only a joint approach will deliver what people really need and want, be it intransitions from initial education and training to work or in training or education during theircareers. Both need to understand that educating and training people is their shared responsibility. A
  • 13. more flexible, responsive education and training system is good for learners, good for employers,good for the economy and good for the community (ies) it serves. It will help balance the labourmarket and ensure that individuals and employers acquire the skills they need. And, a focus on‘learning outcomes’ can encourage this relationship.Most education and training systems, and the labour market, are still largely based on the ‘linear’assumption that most people will first go to school, then move onto vocational education oruniversity, and then go to work and finally, retire. This reflects neither the needs of employees andemployers nor today’s reality: formal and informal education and training, taking place in work, atthe workplace and, increasingly, in digital environments. This continuing skill acquisition is just asimportant as initial education and training, especially given both demographic trends and thecontinuing need to upskill and re-skill throughout working life. Even within the education andtraining system different parts such as vocational education and training and higher education havetoo limited links to each other. This makes it difficult to combine courses, programmes andqualifications in the best way and may limit participation and progression. Current reforms acrossEurope should continue to support more flexible learning paths, foster motivation and valueindividual learning.Key actions:  Develop outcome-based qualifications and a common language between education/ training and the world of work, communicate the potential of European Qualifications Framework and national qualification frameworks, and ensure the involvement of all actors, including PES, employers and social partners. Encourage and facilitate the use of learning outcomes in planning and delivering educational and training programmes at all levels, including higher education institutions.  Adapt pedagogy and training and assessment methods, to align them more clearly to learning outcomes. Make labour market needs analysis and the definition and implementation of appropriate learning outcomes a priority in institutional leadership and strategy, as well as in institutional level information and quality management.The right skills portfolio Job and subject specific competences learned throughout education and training need to beunderpinned by transversal competences in order to both encourage initiative rather than a simplereproduction of received knowledge and to better match learners’ and employers’ needs.Employers are interested not only in a person’s academic or vocational qualification, but also in
  • 14. other competences that would add value to their organisation. Moreover, young people oftencomplain that they feel unprepared for the world of work when they get there. The missing link, inpart, lies in a set of desirable skills such as the ability to work quickly, analyse and organizecomplex information, take responsibility, handle crisis, manage risk and take decisive action. Thiscalls for the development of ‘T-shaped’ individual skills profiles: individuals should combine suchtransversal core skills (the horizontal bar) with the specific skills needed for a job (the vertical bar).These competences should be acquired as soon as possible, but they could also be developedthroughout life. Digital skills showcase the importance of the right mix of generic competences andtechnical skills. E-Skills range from the informally acquired functional digital skills to specialistpractitioner skills. At one end of the spectrum, it is almost universally true that any job will requiresome level of e-skills. Digital and media literacy will be crucial both for life and work, and weshould tend to the new goal of digital fluency. For an increasing number of jobs, indeed, digitalfluency is increasingly required.Key actions:  Develop the integration of the key enabling competences such as creativity, innovation, entrepreneurship, and citizenship, in schools, in higher education and initial and continuous vocational education and training. Develop and provide tools for individual self-assessment.  Embed digital and media literacy at all levels in education and training, and map competences towards a goal of digital fluency for all citizens.  Develop Europe-wide indicators to measure levels of transversal key competences. Set quantitative targets (e.g. access to entrepreneurship education; or digital literacy), and provide the metrics to monitor progress.  Ensure an adequate flow of qualified workers to facilitate the transition to the low-carbon economy. Include environmental awareness in all curricula irrespective of the level of education or training.Adapt curricula content, teaching, delivery methods and assessment to theintended learning outcomes There is little point in setting relevant learning outcomes and developing innovativequalification frameworks, if education and training institutions lack the capacity to createappropriate learning environments to achieve the intended outcomes. Consistency between theformulation of learning outcomes, assessment, pedagogy and the initial education and continuousprofessional development of teachers and trainers is required. Schools, universities and training
  • 15. places can more effectively concentrate on the development of the competences that are the mostrelevant for work, adult life and lifelong learning. Too often, modes of formal assessment andevaluation are too narrowly defined and do not capture the range of outcomes desired; a situationcompounded by ‘teaching to the test’ which results in a narrowing of the taught curriculum. Weshould develop ways to assess, test and recognise whether people have acquired and improvedtransversal and key competences and whether our institutions are successfully encouraging them.Key competences require different kinds of teaching and learning methods than those traditionallyapplied. The skills and competences needed today and in the future cannotonly be learned through subject teaching but also require more cross-curricular and innovativeapproaches, such as, learning-by-doing or project-based learning. Learning through experience isseen as one of the most efficient learning methods for professionalisation and stimulating creativityand innovation. Workplaces could play a more active role in providing real spaces for learning inreal life projects, as is already the case for work-based VET. systems. All education and trainingcan better promote a culture of receiving students in the workplace for field and project work,internships or apprentices.Key actions:  Introduce and mainstream field studies, project-based learning, employee volunteering in cooperation between schools, universities, vocational training and other education bodies and business/NGO/ public institutions (‘skills and employment partnership agreements’).  Ensure alignment between reforms of national qualifications systems and of assessment/quality assurance systems, linked to the European instruments such as EQF: create, adapt and develop new assessment methods and tools to capture and reflect the complexity of hard and soft skills and competences of learners.  Encourage public-private partnerships to map qualification and competence needs for a low- carbon economy and to design relevant qualification profiles and curricula8.  Reinforce in teachers’ education curricula ‘work-related’ issues: skills development, entrepreneurship and professional guidance. Ensure that newly qualified teachers come from initial teacher education with the appropriate skills and practical experience in fostering transversal competences; ensure they can engage with digital media across the curriculum and inside and outside of the classroom; re-skill as many existing teachers as possible.  Enhance the recognition of more practice- oriented teacher education programmes. Develop a European competence framework for teachers, monitor its implementation and strengthen8 Such broad public-private partnerships could be established at EU or even international level, similarly to Career Space which was a consortiumestablished in the 1990s to tackle the skill shortages and gaps in the ICT sector
  • 16. the exchange of good practice on teachers’ professional development. Encourage teachers and institutional leaders to spend time in workplaces in industry or other services and apply the experiences made, as it is already the case in vocational education and training.  Strengthen continuing training of teachers, in particular by facilitating placements outside the education and training sector, strengthening communication with enterprises and other users of qualifications. Make similar efforts to develop the skills of other key actors in the ‘learning sector’ such as specialists in pedagogical support, curriculum development, assessment, career guidance and providers of other education related services.  Improve the capacity to anticipate future skill requirements, using a combination of different methods at European and national level in a coordinated way, combining skill supply and demand forecasts with qualitative information on actual skills needed (e.g. EU-wide employer surveys, sectoral studies and scenarios, advisory sectoral bodies and/or groups of experts analysing emerging, evolving and changing occupations and labour market conditions). Ensure good quality statistical data on jobs and skill/ competence requirements, especially at EU level. This project has been funded with support from the European Commission.This publication [communication] reflects the views only of the author, and the Commission cannot be held responsible for any use which may be made of the information contained therein.
  • 17. REFERENCECedefop, Skill supply and demand in Europe: Medium-term forecast up to 2020, Luxembourg:Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2010 (forthcoming)European Commission, Key competences for lifelong learning. European reference framework,Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2007European Commission, New Skills for New Jobs. Anticipating and matching labour market andskills needs, Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities, 2009European Commission, Transversal study summarising the result of 16 sectoral studies,forthcoming, 2009, http://ec.europa.eu/social/ main.jsp?catId=784&langId=enEuropean Commission, ‘Key competences for a changing world’, Draft Joint progress report ofthe Council and the Commission on the implementation of the ‘Education and Training 2010 workprogramme’, and Progress towards the Lisbon objectives in Education and Training - Indicators andBenchmarks, Luxembourg: Office for official publications of the European Communities, StaffWorking Document, November 2009Comunicazione della Commissione al parlamento europeo, Unagenda per nuove competenze eper loccupazione:Un contributo europeo verso la piena occupazione, Strasburgo, 23-11-2010Rete Europea Elos, Management Team, Marzo 2010LinksCedefop (European centre for the development of VET) http://www.cedefop.europa.euEurofound (European Foundation for the improvement for Living and Working conditions)http://www.eurofound.europa.eu