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A Close Look at Immigration - Dorie Combs - KRA 2013
 

A Close Look at Immigration - Dorie Combs - KRA 2013

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A “Close” look at Immigration: Addressing Literacy Standards for Social Studies. Presented at the KY Reading Association conference, Lexington, KY, October 18,2013. ...

A “Close” look at Immigration: Addressing Literacy Standards for Social Studies. Presented at the KY Reading Association conference, Lexington, KY, October 18,2013.
Dorie Combs, Eastern KY University

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  • Ask participants to read.
  • Review the CCR standards required for social studies – and other areas!
  • At a time when text books are no longer a dependable reality, we need to use a variety of text and media to provide current information
  • Stop 7 introduce if the group is small. Think, pair with someone sitting close to you, share out ;
  • How is this different from what you do now? Discuss
  • There are many formulas and methods, most that are provided by publishers are quantitative.
  • The context: 11th grade history class.The question: Which text is more complex?Allow participants 1 minute to read both texts. Then allow several minutes to discuss their responses.Answer: the text on the left in more complex for a 11th grade students. (Complex sentences, Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student, dense information, sophisticated vocabulary, sophisticated subject matter and concepts)(Texts were excerpted from CCSS Appendix B. The text on the left is an informational text for 11th – CCR and the text on the right is an information text for grades 2nd – 3rd)
  • The context: 11th grade history class.The question: Which text is more complex?Allow participants 1 minute to read both texts. Then allow several minutes to discuss their responses.Answer: the text on the left in more complex for a 11th grade students. (Complex sentences, Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student, dense information, sophisticated vocabulary, sophisticated subject matter and concepts)(Texts were excerpted from CCSS Appendix B. The text on the left is an informational text for 11th – CCR and the text on the right is an information text for grades 2nd – 3rd)
  • There is not only one way to do close reading, but close reading must involve rich complex texts that are worth reading and re-reading. Students also engage in answering and discussing text-dependent questions.Multiple readings and chunking texts will support fluency for struggling readers.
  • Reread the Ed Leadership passage about close reading and annotate
  • Here is one annotation strategy to support student understanding in tandem with teacher monitoring of student understanding. As they read, students utilize the symbols and annotate the text. (This strategy was developed by Kaycee Eckhart, a Fellow at Student Achievement Partners). From this point, students can paraphrase, journal, or prepare to write about the text in an evidence-based and meaningful way.)This is just one example! Please feel free to adapt, add, and modify this strategy to meet the needs of your students*Optional Additional Activity: You may choose print the “Lincoln” texts from slide #17, and give participants 15 minutes to practice using the strategy mentioned above.
  • Annotate on handout
  • What is stressed in Close Reading?
  • Look at the op-ed piece. Use R, R, R handout and Practice the process
  • Demonstrate this with Woody Guthrie Song
  • Chunking – breaking up the text so that it is accessible and more significant passages can be studied in depthReading and rereading – pull small groups of struggling readers to pre-read the text with you, so they feel confident in class. Always remember that one read through is not enough – students need several reads of a rigorous textRead aloud – read aloud to the class. students need to hear and imitate the natural pauses, inflections, and tonality of a master reader’s voice. Strategic think aloud – modeling to students what is happening in your head as you read is a great way to show students how they might be thinking about a text. This is NOT telling them what to think about – rather it is a way to show HOW they might think about it. I’ll talk about this a little more in a moment. Scaffolding questions – while incredibly rigorous questioning is where we want students to go, not every question has to be a high level comprehension question. Build in more basic evidence-based questions along the way to check for comprehension and build confidence. Heterogeneous small groups – break your class into smaller groups and assign a stringer reader to guide other students through this. There are many ayes to do this – assign different parts of the text to each group so that each group becomes an “expert.” Give each group a different set of questions to work on. Recording – read the text a few days in advance into a device and provide it to ESL and emerging readers. You may also want to pause in your reading and ask questions or provide helpful hints as they listen. They really enjoy this. Preparing struggling readers to support confidence and participation – similar to recording or rereading, this also includes leveled reading about a topic before encountering the more complex textAnnotation strategies – increases engagement and comprehension, helps students be “metacognitive” about their learningCornell notes – helps students retain information and summarize knowledgeParaphrasing and journaling – helps students own the information and helps the teacher check for troop understanding

A Close Look at Immigration - Dorie Combs - KRA 2013 A Close Look at Immigration - Dorie Combs - KRA 2013 Presentation Transcript

  • A “Close” look at Immigration: Addressing Literacy Standards for Social Studies Dorie Combs, Ph.D. Eastern KY University Dorie.combs@eku.edu 859 622-2154 Neil Diamond video link http://youtu.be/9ttDUGM1mU
  • America is an improbable idea. A mongrel nation built of ever-changing disparate parts, it is held together by a notion, the notion that all men are created equal, though everyone knows that most men consider themselves better than someone. “Of all the nations in the world, the United States was built in nobody’s image,” the historian Daniel Boorstin wrote. That’s because it was built of bits and pieces that seem discordant, like the crazy quilts that have been one of its great folk-art forms, velvet and calico and checks and brocades. Out of many, one. That is the ideal. Quindlen, Anna. “A Quilt of a Country.” Newsweek September 27, 2001. (2001) CCSA Grade 9-10 Informational text exemplar. CCSS Appendix Bhttp://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf
  •  KEY IDEAS and DETAILS ◦ Pay attention to what the text says explicitly ◦ Summarize central ideas with supporting details and ideas. ◦ Analyze the text  Craft and Structure ◦ Interpret words and phrases ◦ Analyze structure ◦ Assess point of view and how that shapes the text
  •  Integration of Knowledge and Ideas ◦ Integrate content from multiple formats and media ◦ Evaluate the argument and claims in a text ◦ Analyze how two or more texts address similar themes / topics  Range of Reading and Level of Text Complexity ◦ Read and comprehend complex literary and informational texts independently and proficiently. www.corestandards.org
  • It is imperative that we provide time for reading significant and complex text AND provide guidance and support through the reading process.
  •     An investigation of a short piece of text, Multiple readings done over multiple instructional lessons. Use of text-based questions and discussion, Students deeply analyze and learn to appreciate various aspects of the text, stressing:  Key vocabulary  How its meaning is shaped by context;  Attention to form, tone, imagery and/or rhetorical devices;  The significance of word choice and syntax;  The discovery of different levels of meaning
  • “The teacher’s goal is to gradually release responsibility to students moving from an environment where the teacher models for students the strategies to one where students employ the strategies on their own when they read independently.” Brown, S. & Kapps, L. (2012). Implementing the Common Core State Standards: A Primer on Close Reading of Text. Aspen Institute: Washington, D.C.
  • All students are expected to be able to independently read and comprehend a range of sophisticated and complex text and practice a range of thinking. 3 factors to consider:  Qualitative evaluation of the text  Levels of meaning, structure, language, conventionality and clarity, and knowledge demands  Quantitative evaluation of the text  Readability and scores of text complexity  Matching reader to text and task  Reader variables (motivation, knowledge, and experience)  Task variables (purpose and complexity)
  • Text 1 According to those who knew him, Lincoln was a man of many faces. In repose, he often seemed sad and gloomy. But when he began to speak, his expression changed. “The dull, listless features dropped like a mask,” said a Chicago newspaperman. “The eyes began to sparkle, the mouth to smile, the whole countenance was wreathed in animation, so that a stranger would have said, ‘Why, this man, so angular and solemn a moment ago, is really handsome.’” Text 2 Lincoln was shaken by the presidency. Back in Springfield, politics had been a sort of exhilarating game; but in the White House, politics was power, and power was responsibility. Never before had Lincoln held executive office. In public life he had always been an insignificant legislator whose votes were cast in concert with others and whose decisions in themselves had neither finality nor importance. As President he might consult with others, but innumerable grave decisions were in the end his own, and with them came a burden of responsibility terrifying in its 1 dimensions. 0
  • • • • • • Subtle and/or frequent transitions • • • Complex sentences • • Longer paragraphs Multiple and/or subtle themes and purposes Density of information Unfamiliar settings, topics or events Lack of repetition, overlap or similarity in words and sentences Uncommon vocabulary Lack of words, sentences or paragraphs that review or pull things together for the student Any text structure which is less narrative and/or mixes structures 11
  • Text 1 According to those who knew him, Lincoln was a man of many faces. In repose, he often seemed sad and gloomy. But when he began to speak, his expression changed. “The dull, listless features dropped like a mask,” said a Chicago newspaperman. “The eyes began to sparkle, the mouth to smile, the whole countenance was wreathed in animation, so that a stranger would have said, ‘Why, this man, so angular and solemn a moment ago, is really handsome.’” Text 2 Lincoln was shaken by the presidency. Back in Springfield, politics had been a sort of exhilarating game; but in the White House, politics was power, and power was responsibility. Never before had Lincoln held executive office. In public life he had always been an insignificant legislator whose votes were cast in concert with others and whose decisions in themselves had neither finality nor importance. As President he might consult with others, but innumerable grave decisions were in the end his own, and with them came a burden of responsibility terrifying in its dimensions. 1 2
  • • Requires prompting students with text-dependent questions to unpack complex text and gain knowledge. • Text dependent questions require text-based answers – evidence. • Not teacher summarizing text, but guiding students through the text for information. • Virtually every standard is activated during the course of every close analytic reading exemplar through the use of text dependent questions. • Supports development of fluency From Achieve the Core 13
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. Select content appropriate text that is sufficiently complex for your grade level Set a purpose for reading Introduce critical vocabulary Students read the text and annotate a) Circle important words and phrases b) Underline any words and phrases you do not understand c) Mark text that raises questions with a “?” d) Mark text that surprises your with a “!” e) Write important thoughts in the margins f) Draw arrows to connect your ideas to the text. WOW!
  •        ? = Ask a question “The text mentions a the DNA study. What does DNA stand for?” !!! = Note an interesting passage “I didn’t realize that tapeworms can grow to 23 meters!” C = connection to another text or piece of evidence “The Ebola virus is like the AIDS virus we read about yesterday because….” (check)= Access prior knowledge; I already knew that! “I knew that photosynthesis required water.” X = Challenge your own thinking, new information “I had no idea that Nobel invented dynamite.” * = Reason that looks important “I’ll need this piece of evidence about Triceratops to support my thesis.” "Box it" = Remember words you don't know, are repeated, or you just like “I’ve seen the word ignominious several times, and I need to look it up.” 15
  •   Read the passage by Nancy Boyles from her article “Closing in on Close Reading” Go back through the text a second time and annotate it. a) Circle important words and phrases b) Underline any words and phrases you do not understand c) Mark text that raises questions with a “?” d) Mark text that surprises your with a “!” e) Write important thoughts in the margins f) Draw arrows to connect your ideas to the text
  • 5. 6. Teacher presents text-dependent questions variations a. Teacher models “think aloud” and annotations of the text b. Teacher reads the text through one time before students read independently c. Student pairs “whisper read” and annotate together d. Student pairs discuss the text and their annotations in pairs e. Class debates / discusses the text
  •         Use primary & secondary sources Include literary non-fiction, such as essays, speeches, non-fiction narratives, letters, and legal documents Utilize music, poetry, and visuals Provide High Quality Text Sets* of varying complexity Model Close Reading Use Guided Reading Strategies Require Close Reading Discuss the text and ask students to refer to the text *A collection of different types and levels of books, stories, articles, and other texts that connect to the topic or theme
  • 1. 2. 3. 4. Builds knowledge through complex, challenging texts Teaches academic language in context Provides support to gradually move students toward independent reading Differentiates by providing a variety of texts and supports. “The CCSS require equal outcomes; they do not require equal inputs. Vary amounts and types of instructional supports.” (IRA CCSS Guidelines) 5. Makes use of class time for regular practice and support with reading, re-reading, and discussion
  • Student reads grade appropriate texts independently & silently Partner “whisper reading” or paired questioning & retelling Pre-reading activities Vocabulary Learning Tasks Teacher or other proficient reader reads aloud & models thinking Guided or Directed Reading and Thinking, individually or in small groups
  •   Think about your beliefs about the effects of immigration on the US. Discuss with a partner 1. 2. 3. Read the essay, annotating as you read Re-think about your beliefs Re-read the essay, making additional notations.
  •     Plan questions to address all standards Require students to cite text (Can you find an example in the text? Show us where you read that.) Read, reread and reread! Analyze non-fiction text as if it is poetry!
  •       Ask a Question or questions Clarify (vocabulary, important details, etc.) Summarize Predict Repeat! Model for students, practice with the whole group, then have students practice in small groups.
  •           Chunking Reading and rereading Teacher Read aloud Strategic think aloud Scaffolding questions Heterogeneous small groups Pre-prepping struggling readers to support confidence and participation Recordings – but only for students who need them Cornell notes or PQ3R Paraphrasing and journaling 24
  •  Learning Through Inquiry ◦ Students review multiple text and multimedia sources from Janet Allen, More Tools for Content Literacy Woody Guthrie’s Deportee youtube video http://youtu.be/TN3HTdndZec 
  •  (Insert thematic question). After reading_______ (texts) on _________ (content), write a _________ (editorial, essay, or other) that ________ addresses the question and support your position with evidence from the text(s). Be sure to acknowledge competing views.
  •  After researching _______ (texts) on _________ (content), write a _________ (report, essay, or other) that ________ (defines, describes, explains, analyzes, etc.) ______________ (content). Support your discussion with evidence from your research.
  •       Write letters to Legislators or other government officials Letters to the Editor or Op-Ed Hold a debate Make speeches Write proposals Write songs or poems See Buck Institute for Education www.bie.org
  • The tendency to generate or recognize ideas, alternatives, or possibilities that may be useful in solving problems, communicating with others, and entertaining ourselves and others. Robert Franken (Human Motivation) The ability to be able to view things in new ways or from a different perspective. …to generate new alternatives or possibilities (Divergent thinking tests…number of alternatives as well as uniqueness of alternatives). For something to be considered “creative” it must be judged both novel and of value.
  •       Achieve the Core http://www.achievethecore.org/ Boyles, N. (2012). Closing in on Close Reading, in Education Leadership, December, 2012 – January, 2013. http://www.ascd.org/publications/educationalleadership/dec12/vol70/num04/Closing-in-on-Close-Reading.aspx Brown, S. & Kapps, L. (2012). Implementing the Common Core State Standards: A Primer on Close Reading of Text. Aspen Institute: Washington, D.C. CCSA Grade 9-10 Informational text exemplar. CCSS Appendix B http://www.corestandards.org/assets/Appendix_B.pdf Ghadar, F. Dispel the immigration myths http://www.cnn.com/2012/12/11/opinion/ghadar-immigration-policy International Reading Association CCSS Implementation Guidelines http://www.reading.org/general/aboutira/white-papers.aspx
  •      Don’t Bite the Hand That Feeds You Interpreting Primary Sources http://www.digitalhistory.uh.edu/historyonline/us29.cfm The History Project http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu/lessons/view_lesson.php?id=4 LOC Primary Sources http://www.loc.gov/teachers/classroommaterials/primarysourcesets /immigration/ DocsTeach http://www.inthefirstperson.com/firp/firp.frame.aspx?collectioncod e=OHC0000109&http=www.alexanderstreet2.com/imld/&page=firp .detail.collections.aspx&cit=%3cP%3e%3cI%3eBelow Immigration political cartoons http://historyproject.ucdavis.edu/lessons/view_lesson.php?id=4
  • If the student is… interested Low to Moderate Scaffolding Moderate scaffolding Use independent reading and Pre-reading instruction in vocabulary and text structure and guided reading strategies mini-lessons if needed If the text is… easy difficult High scaffolding Moderate scaffolding Pre-reading instruction Guided reading activities to help students make predictions and questions Pre-reading instruction to develop prior knowledge and set a purpose for reading Pre-reading strategies to develop vocabulary and text structure knowledge guided reading strategies disinterested