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  • 1. From community forestry to Model Forests The search for self-sustaining CBNRM systems in Africa Mariteuw Chimère Diaw, AMFN RECOFT 1st WED annual lecture 2012, Sasersat Univ, Bangkok
  • 2. Main points• Community forestry, Africa, and key processes and lessons: What we now know• Pushing the boundaries: collaboration, adaptation and multi stakeholder landscapes: ACM lessons• African Model Forests – The principles – The process – Preparing for African emergence and the new world economy
  • 3. What we know1• Same global determinants for community forestry in Africa – 1950s community development abandoned in the 1960s – Himalayan, Sahelian and fuelwood crises (end of 60s) – 70s-80s, integrated rural development projects, tree planting on-farm, reforestation, more forests under state tenure and protection, investments in improved charcoal and cooking stoves, Tropical Forestry Action Programmes (TFAP), village forestry, village woodlots, local community forests and peri-urban fuelwood plantations. – But still worsening forest loss and degradation, Structural Adjustment programs strongly weaken African states• Late 80s-early 90s, third generation known as rural forestry programs, social forestry, and wood fuel - agroforestry programs• Conceptual mismatch when CF moves from dry to humid forests in the 90s : planting is fundamentally different from managing common property forests in embedded tenure systems• Nevertheless, slow and steady growth of CBFM; 35 countries by 2003 (~16% of Sub- Saharan Africa)• Different types and levels of community tenure but the state retains levels of control and customary systems are only marginally integrated
  • 4. The overlooked modern divide in Africa Legal pluralism Civil Rights Blood Rights Most CBNRM User groups ‘Tribal’ associations Village federations Farmer organizations Peasant Movements Collective Action groups Local NGOs and movements Urban NGOs Fully transformed societies CommunityFully disembedded economy Embedded economy Fully fledged Nation state Blood-based political institutions Private property Embedded property regimes Civil Society Embedded Networks Citizenship Genealogical rights Full jus soli Jus sanginis & delegated rights electoral representation Kin-based representation
  • 5. What we know2• Different levels of tenure and rights but the richness of forests remains a factor – Tanzania and Gambia formalized CBFM registration at the District Council, village by-laws, communities recognized as owner-managers, mandated to manage the forest in more or less autonomous ways. – Niger and Mali, fuelwood marketing by associations under sustainable harvesting of resources, and rehabilitation of degraded forests ; Mozambique, Uganda, Lesotho and Namibia are close – In Cameroon, CBFM may only be established in unclassified forests, and is restricted to a maximum size of 5,000 ha on a 10 years agreement period. By contrast, Uganda, S. Africa, Ethiopia and Guinea Conakry allow CBFM in forest reserves, including those with high conservation priority – DRC has one of the most interesting CF legislation under the 2002 code, but still not implemented 10 years later• In practice: – size remain limited, – scale is still experimental, – rights are more easily granted in poor forests than in rich rainforest areas
  • 6. What we know3The true potential of CBFM for employment and income has not been assessed – Practice is more of subsistence than commercial nature and restricted to a limited portfolio of livelihood provisions• Nevertheless, communities are engaged in – out-grower contract with multinational commercial companies (South Africa), – timber-harvesting (Cameroon), – fuelwood licensing programs and wood marketing (Niger, Mali and Burkina Faso), – marketing fuelwood, particularly charcoal, selling fibres, including bamboos, rattans, palm leaves and other plant products, or converting them to crafts and furniture, – trading honey, bees wax, essential oils, tannin, dyes, gums, resins, latex, spices, balsams, various extractives, flavors, medicines, mineral bases, etc. Many of the products are harvested, processed and sold by women and youth. – The volume of trade in medicinal plants has recently risen to a commercial scale in many countries, with the sharp fall in public health services and increased cost of medical treatment in private clinics and hospitals. – Forests and forest product-based small scale enterprises are emerging as important players in the rural development sector in SSA. Bottling of drinks based on plant products, sale of honey, bees wax, gums, resins, oils, bitters and gels from Aloe, bush meat, insects, ethno-medicines, etc., are promising sources of direct and indirect employment. – Ecotourism is among the emerging forest-based industries that is growing fast in CBFM forests. A company that manages a forest in Narok district in Kenya earns about US $ 13,500 p.a. from ecotourism alone (Emerton, 2001). Another example comes from Kenya’s Arabuko Sokoke Kipepeo project that farms butterflies. This project raises $30,000 annually
  • 7. ACM Sites 11 countries, 30 research sites 50° 10° 70° 130 ° Kyrgyzstan # Nepal 30° # 30° # Philippines # # Brazil Ghana # Malawi # # Indonesia # Cameroon # # Bolivia Madagascar 30° 30° Zimbabwe 50° 10° 70° 130 °
  • 8. Conservation Campo Ma’an Forest reserves OttotomoLandscape mosaics Akok-Makak Council Forests DimakoCommunity Forests Lomie
  • 9. Model Forests as hardware3 requirements stand out:Broad-based local ownership of thecollaborative platformPolicy feedback loops: can be achieved througha deliberate process that makes policy makers theco- owners of a local process relevant to nationalconcerns Long-lasting change vehicles: Model Forests − can outlive any single project − absorb the shocks of erratic funding fashions − invest in the long-term development of the community − Post ACM evidence proves that the current structure of R&D and environmental projects is inadequate. All major institutional actors have since pulled out from all the former ACM sites – illustrating this fundamental vulnerability
  • 10. What is a Model Forest?• A place, a partnership and a process. – The place is a landscape or ecosystem scale area; – The partnership is voluntary and inclusive, from national policy makers, universities and enterprises to local farmers; – The process is a journey of dialogue, experimentation, and innovation designed to understand what "sustainability" means in a given landscape and then use the partnership to work toward it.
  • 11. A Model Forest is …• Not a project but a life project, and a process owned by local actors – « a forest for seven generations »• Not just forests, but cities, as well as farms, fisheries and the whole interconneted web of activities in a landscape• Not a community forest; it includes community forests as well as concessions, parks and the whole land use mosaic• Not just communities, but communities at the center of an equal partnerships of all actors, big and small, with all their diverse sets of interests and values• A method of pluralist gouvernance and territorial dialogue
  • 12. Some observations No formal land authority – an alternative, interest-based rather than right-based, approach of tenure A program of work to give substance to the partnership’s sustainability agenda and to influence broader policies through learning and innovation A nested network to help each other, share, learn, create and innovateNot two Model Forests are the same – They share the same general goals and a group of six common principles – But their cultural, geographic and sociopolitical characteristics make them unique. Their activities and methods reflect this diversity. Some Model Forests give high value to biodiversity conservation while others are more focused on economic diversification.
  • 13. The International Model Forests Network
  • 14. A global horizontal network A nested network of regional and local networks Baltic Sea LandscapesCanadian MFN Regional Boreal Forests Network Asia IMFNS African MFN Mediterranean MFN The IMFN
  • 15. The AMFN Secretariat Mission: To facilitate the establishment and development of a pan- African network of Model Forests, well governed and representative of the continent’s wealth and diversity. 2013 Objective  3-4 new Model Forests in the Congo Basin  Actual: 8 Model Forests – 6 new 7 strategic axes (Strategic Plan)  Institutionalizing the AMFN  Supporting new African Model Forests  Networking African Model Forests  Political dialogue and public policies  Adapting and monitoring the MF concept Campo-Ma’an Model Forest  Mobilizing resources and Partnerships Cameroon  Managing knowledge and communications
  • 16. Cameroun : 2 Model ForestsRDC : 4 Model ForestsRwanda: 1 (Gishwati)CAR: 1 (Lobaye)Algérie, Tunisie, Maroc (3)Ongoing processes: Congo,Gabon, Burundi, Sénégal,Côte d’Ivoire, Ghana, SierraLeone International Model Forests Network Avec le soutien du Gouvernement du Canada
  • 17. - AMFN Business Model - 1. Local Governance 2. A strategy of emergence: Green, socially green businesses
  • 18. The AMFN’s One Programme Heritage and Eco- •Recherche-action sur léco-tourisme en rapport avec le développement des communautés locales et autochtones •Réaliser linventaire du potentiel éco-touristique et culturel et développement de circuit stouristique s tourisme •La création et lexploitation des circuits éco-touristiques pouvant mettre en valeur les produits du terroir •Formation aux métiers du tourisme et conduite et création dentreprises (CCE) en éco-tourisme •Établir les bases pour la mise en place dun Centre de prototypage des PFNL et le développement de filières; •Mise en place de laboratoires virtuels dexpérimentation des chaînes de valeur (création des unités deNTFP-based Entreprises transformation, coopérative, transport, commerce, etc.) •Explorer des opportunités daffaire au niveau national, sous-régional et international au profit des asssociation qui en assume la transformation et la commercialisation locale Wood and wood •Établir un Centre de prototypage et explorer des solutions innovantes de valorisation du bois •Développer des moyens adéquats pour valoriser la ressource ligneuse (Ex: unité de séchage du bois) •Optimisation de lutilisation et de la transformation des sous-produits du bois en objets de haute qualité et à residues grande valeur ajoutée (parpaings, meubles, supports et objets divers en bois de récupéraiton) Éco-agriculture and •Maîtrise des techniques délevage non traditionnel (apiculture, héliciculture, allaculture, aquaculture, etc.) •Amélioration et diversification des techniques culturales (agriculture, sylviculture, bio-fertilisant, etc) •Mise en place de dispositifs de recherche sur linterface sécurité alimentaire / savoirs endogènes rural businesses •Prospection des techniques et technologies innovantes alliant la productivité à la gestion environnementale durable •Explorations dénergies alternatives répondant aux besoins énergitiques des populations locales et même urbaines contribuant à la lutte contre la déforestation (solaire, éolienne, bioénergie, barrage, biomasse, etc.)Water, energy & Health •Mobilisation de partenaires pour la recherche des solutions technologiquement efficaces à des coûts compatibles avec les moyens localement supportables (Ex: Lapprovionnement en eau potable , la construction des infrastructures dhydraulique villageoise, etc)
  • 19. Partnerships for growth and sustainability Territorial Dialogue Locale One Enhancing biodiversity & its Gouvernance Programme business value Local Eco- entrepreneurship
  • 20. The Model Forests Practical Itinerant School
  • 21. Microfinance ProgrammeAim: Strengthen the financial autonomy of small and very small eco-entrepreneursSpecific objectives:•Promote local businesses•Better understand and make use of markets•Strengthen management and technical capabilities•Improve access to financial and non financial servicesAssumption :•Microfinance is more effective than conventionaldevelopment projects for promoting entrepreneurship,particularly among wormen•Women and other rural entrepreneurs need financial and nonfinancial services adapted to their needs
  • 22. Socially green economy and appropriate technologies Ecoagriculture using biofertilisers (Inoculum : mycorhize, bactéries, etc.) => experimental Programme with Univ of Yaoundé Ecoagriculture project in the periphery of parks in the Cameroon Model Forests, Ministry of Forests/FAO BioChar and UriChar project (to be negotiated with logging companies)
  • 23.  African plants, Non Timber Forest products Wood and organic residues
  • 24. Heritage and Indigenous knowledgeVarNast program Developing NTTFPs value chains for nutritional food, cosmetics, aromatics, pharmaceuticals, and neutraceuticals Sacred natural sites and indigenous traditional knowledge project Social and community forestrySTEP Project (Stimulating Entrepreneurship through Partnerships)– Indigenous communities, ecotourism, giant snails and wooden pens
  • 25. Water and Energy (to be developed)Biomass, éolienne, micro-barrages, solaire,foyers améliorés haut de gamme à base de charbon écologique, etc.)
  • 26. Ecotourism and parksThe painted trees international initiative
  • 27. Merci !