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Japanese CultureJapanese Culture
A look into Japanese weddings,A look into Japanese weddings,
religion, dining, holidays, ...
Dining in JapanDining in Japan
A look at the nonverbalA look at the nonverbal
experience of eating in Japaneseexperience o...
In home dining vs. restaurantIn home dining vs. restaurant
dining- Entering and being seateddining- Entering and being sea...
DrinkingDrinking
• Tea is served with most meal and in restaurantsTea is served with most meal and in restaurants
is serve...
EatingEating
• Rice is a staple of the Japanese diet, served at mostRice is a staple of the Japanese diet, served at most
...
Things said and unsaidThings said and unsaid
““Itadakimasu" at the beginning of dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the...
Childhood EducationChildhood Education
A closer look at the nonverbal communication, culturalA closer look at the nonverba...
CommunicationCommunication
“communication other than written or spoken language that creates“communication other than writ...
Cultural ValuesCultural Values
(whatever a given group of people value or appreciates)(whatever a given group of people va...
Communicating in
Teams
(Team: A coordinated group of people organized to work together and
achieve a specific common goal....
Japanese Holidays
Adapting to Others Who Are
Different from You
Jessica Hartenstine
Coming from one specific culture, many times we are
unaware that people from other cultures do not celebrate
the same holi...
Major Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations
Shogatsu, the new year celebration
from January 1st
-3rd
, is the most
importa...
Intercultural Communication
Though we can look to written
sources to learn little bits about a
culture’s holidays, the bes...
JAPANESE WEDDINGS
A LOOK AT BOTH THE SYMBOLISM AND
TRADITIONS EXPRESSED IN JAPANESSE
WEDDINGS
Veronica Feist
WEDDING ATIRE
• Traditionally brides had their faces painted white and wore an all
white silk wedding Kimono. This traditi...
WEDDING CEREMONY
• In the Japanese American Wedding Traditions article the
author states that, “Most Japanese Americans in...
UNDERSTANDING JAPANESE WEDDINGS
• To understand Japanese weddings we must understand
the symbolism that is expressed in tr...
Japanese ReligionJapanese Religion
A look at the major religions in JapanA look at the major religions in Japan
as they re...
Religion in Japan
• Japan’s population is comprised
largely of followers of two different
religions:
•Buddhism
•Shinto
• 1...
Japanese Buddhism
Figure 2. Buddha_big, a Japanese Buddhist shrine
• Buddhist belief revolves around a desire to
attain pe...
Figure 3. Shrine, A Shinto temple in Kyoto Japan
Shinto
• Followers of Shinto believe in many
deities known as “Kami”
• “A...
Managing Conflict
•Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy state that “Interpersonal
conflict is a struggle that occurs when two people
cann...
Conclusion
When participating in any form ofWhen participating in any form of
communication with a member of thecommunicat...
Open-ended questionsOpen-ended questions
•What are some examples of good conversationWhat are some examples of good conver...
ReferencesReferences
(2010).(2010). Japan Map and FlagJapan Map and Flag [Photograph]. Retrieved from[Photograph]. Retriev...
References (cont’d)References (cont’d)
Hays, J. (2010, March).Hays, J. (2010, March). Eating and Drinking CustomsEating an...
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  1. 1. Japanese CultureJapanese Culture A look into Japanese weddings,A look into Japanese weddings, religion, dining, holidays, andreligion, dining, holidays, and childhood education to betterchildhood education to better understand communicating moreunderstand communicating more efficiently with members of theefficiently with members of the Japanese culture.Japanese culture. Spencer Graves, Jessica Hartenstine, Jory Carnahan, Veronica Feist, & Jade Herring
  2. 2. Dining in JapanDining in Japan A look at the nonverbalA look at the nonverbal experience of eating in Japaneseexperience of eating in Japanese tradition.tradition. Japanese culture is one of high context, where nonverbalJapanese culture is one of high context, where nonverbal messages are expressed and received with high meaning. Itmessages are expressed and received with high meaning. It is important to be aware of general expected nonverbalis important to be aware of general expected nonverbal interpretation.interpretation. Jade HerringJade Herring
  3. 3. In home dining vs. restaurantIn home dining vs. restaurant dining- Entering and being seateddining- Entering and being seated Dining in someone's home-Dining in someone's home- • It is polite and customary to take off yourIt is polite and customary to take off your shoes when entering someone's home.shoes when entering someone's home. There are usually slippers available forThere are usually slippers available for guest to wear at the entrance of the homeguest to wear at the entrance of the home (Hays, 2010).(Hays, 2010). • If invited to a Japanese home, consider it aIf invited to a Japanese home, consider it a great honor, Japanese do not tend to invitegreat honor, Japanese do not tend to invite just anyone to their homes (Hays, 2010).just anyone to their homes (Hays, 2010). • If you receive a bow, bow at least as low asIf you receive a bow, bow at least as low as the bow given. This bow represents thethe bow given. This bow represents the status and respect given and expected. Ifstatus and respect given and expected. If bowing to someone of great status, yourbowing to someone of great status, your bow must be lower. The bow is an emblembow must be lower. The bow is an emblem for honor and respect (McBennett, 2010).for honor and respect (McBennett, 2010). Dining out-Dining out- • It is not considered rude to wear shoesIt is not considered rude to wear shoes at a restaurant if there are tables.at a restaurant if there are tables. However, if there are only traditionalHowever, if there are only traditional tatami mat floors, than you will changetatami mat floors, than you will change into slippers provided. Tatami mats areinto slippers provided. Tatami mats are hard to clean and Japanese culturehard to clean and Japanese culture highly values cleanliness (Dining Out,highly values cleanliness (Dining Out, 2008).2008). • Traditional table settings are a bowl ofTraditional table settings are a bowl of rice to your left, bowl of miso soup torice to your left, bowl of miso soup to your right , other dishes placed behindyour right , other dishes placed behind these bowls, and chopsticks arethese bowls, and chopsticks are placed in front of your rice pointing leftplaced in front of your rice pointing left on a chopstick holder (Mishima, 2010).on a chopstick holder (Mishima, 2010). • Many meals are ordered to shareMany meals are ordered to share among the group.among the group.
  4. 4. DrinkingDrinking • Tea is served with most meal and in restaurantsTea is served with most meal and in restaurants is served as part of your meal (Dining Out,is served as part of your meal (Dining Out, 2008).2008). • If you want a refill of your sake or tea you firstIf you want a refill of your sake or tea you first want to drink all that is in your cup and letwant to drink all that is in your cup and let someone else in your party fill your glass. It issomeone else in your party fill your glass. It is also custom for you to fill others cups if you seealso custom for you to fill others cups if you see they are empty. If the cup is not empty it is athey are empty. If the cup is not empty it is a signal that they may no longer want anymore tosignal that they may no longer want anymore to drink. Another way to avoid refill of sake anddrink. Another way to avoid refill of sake and express you are done drinking is to hold yourexpress you are done drinking is to hold your hand over the top of the cup when someonehand over the top of the cup when someone tries to refill your cup (Table Manners, 2008).tries to refill your cup (Table Manners, 2008). • Japanese culture relies quite a bit on gestures,Japanese culture relies quite a bit on gestures, it is important to learn some of them unless youit is important to learn some of them unless you want to end up very drunk after a night of notwant to end up very drunk after a night of not knowing how to keep your glass empty withoutknowing how to keep your glass empty without offending your host!offending your host! Picture of Saki.Retreived November 5,2010, from factsanddetails.com
  5. 5. EatingEating • Rice is a staple of the Japanese diet, served at mostRice is a staple of the Japanese diet, served at most meals (Food and Culture Resources, 2010). There aremeals (Food and Culture Resources, 2010). There are several things to know when eating your rice, don’tseveral things to know when eating your rice, don’t leave your chopstick standing straight out of the riceleave your chopstick standing straight out of the rice (this is too similar to an incense ritual at funerals) and(this is too similar to an incense ritual at funerals) and it is okay to pick up the bowl and hold it towards yourit is okay to pick up the bowl and hold it towards your face to make it closer to your mouth during eatingface to make it closer to your mouth during eating (Hays, 2010).(Hays, 2010). • It is okay to slurp and make noise while eating and isIt is okay to slurp and make noise while eating and is a signal to your host or chef that the meal is good.a signal to your host or chef that the meal is good. Many also believe it makes the soup and/or noodlesMany also believe it makes the soup and/or noodles better (Hays, 2010).better (Hays, 2010). • It is not okay to burp at the table like in some otherIt is not okay to burp at the table like in some other Asian countries.Asian countries. • It is frowned upon to blow you nose in the presence ofIt is frowned upon to blow you nose in the presence of others, especially the table (Mishima, 2010).others, especially the table (Mishima, 2010). Picture of rice and child eating noodles. Retrieved November 5,21010Factsanddeails.com
  6. 6. Things said and unsaidThings said and unsaid ““Itadakimasu" at the beginning of dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the end. It is polite useItadakimasu" at the beginning of dinner, and "gochisou-sama-deshita" at the end. It is polite use these phrase and it will show you host that you have enjoyed the meal (Williams, 2008).these phrase and it will show you host that you have enjoyed the meal (Williams, 2008). If you would like more rice in you bowl during a meal, leave about a teaspoon of rice left in the bottomIf you would like more rice in you bowl during a meal, leave about a teaspoon of rice left in the bottom to indicate this to your host, if you do not want more rice, eat every last grain.to indicate this to your host, if you do not want more rice, eat every last grain. It is considered rude to point or use your chopsticks for anything other than eating (Food and CultureIt is considered rude to point or use your chopsticks for anything other than eating (Food and Culture Resources, 2010).Resources, 2010). The Japanese toast is 'The Japanese toast is 'KampaiKampai' (literally 'dry glass') (McBennett, 2010).' (literally 'dry glass') (McBennett, 2010). Never use our American gesture for “okay” with your hands, this is a Japanese emblem for money,Never use our American gesture for “okay” with your hands, this is a Japanese emblem for money, Japanese do not talk openly about money or flash it about (Wiiliams, 2008).Japanese do not talk openly about money or flash it about (Wiiliams, 2008). Remember, the Japanese consider food an ‘art’ so take a moment to enjoy the presentation of theRemember, the Japanese consider food an ‘art’ so take a moment to enjoy the presentation of the food you have been served.food you have been served.
  7. 7. Childhood EducationChildhood Education A closer look at the nonverbal communication, culturalA closer look at the nonverbal communication, cultural values, and group communication used in Japanese schools.values, and group communication used in Japanese schools. By: Jory CarnahanBy: Jory Carnahan
  8. 8. CommunicationCommunication “communication other than written or spoken language that creates“communication other than written or spoken language that creates meaning for someone”meaning for someone” (Beebe, Beebe, & Ivy, 2010). • In Japan the most prevalent form of communication is nonverbal. (Condon, John C.) • Japanese classrooms usually have more students per classroom than American classrooms, though the children are better behaved. This is due in part to the high level of organization and discipline by the teacher. There is a great amount of pressure for each student to constantly be aware of all nonverbal signs that the teacher gives them. (Wood, Monika D.) • Starting on the first day of school children are taught to follow these extensive routines and rituals. The children are expected to follow cues from the teacher. (Japanese Education System) • Unlike American students, children in Japan are rarely reprimanded individually. Instead the teacher may use a techniques similar to peer pressure to encourage a misbehaving child to correct their undesired behavior by themselves. Each child is expected to interpret nonverbal messages through observation of others actions. (Wood, Monika D.) • Each student is responsible for their own behavior. • In Japanese culture learning to become a good citizen with strong morals is equally important as academic success. (Japanese Education System) Tips for Verbal and Nonverbal Communication •Speaking too much is associated with immaturity or a kind of empty headedness.  (Be direct and to the point when you speak, and be conscious of what message your body language is sending) • Show respect when communicating.  (Be attentive when listening, and do not interrupt. Not paying attention is very disrespectful.)
  9. 9. Cultural ValuesCultural Values (whatever a given group of people value or appreciates)(whatever a given group of people value or appreciates) • Japanese schools are designed to work in a “collectivistic culture”. A culture that places a high value on collaboration, teamwork, and group achievement. (Beebe, Beebe, & Ivy, 2010. ) • Examples of these cultural values in school include; (40 fun facts) – Students in both public and private schools must wear uniforms, also known as seifukus. – Students must remove their shoes and wear special slippers in their classroom. – Students take turns serving lunch to their classmates. The children also use ceramic ware having to be responsible and not break the dishes. – You must eat everything on your plate. – After lunch a moment of silence is given to show their gratitude. – Children eat with chopsticks. Rice and green tea is served with every meal. – Boys must keep their hair cut short. Neither boys or girls are allowed to change their hair color, only natural hair color is allowed. – Girls can not wear make up, nail polish, or jewelry. – Japanese schools practice great teamwork. Everyday after lunch 15 minutes are dedicated to cleaning. Every student is responsible for doing some kind of cleaning. Typical jobs include sweeping/mopping floors, wiping down windows, dusting shelves, emptying garbage bins etc. Not only do the children clean their own classroom they also take turns cleaning the library, music room, gym, and playground. Understanding the purpose of Cultural Values in school. •These values are meant to instills Focus, Structure, Morals, and Ethics which ultimately influences how the Japanese communicate.
  10. 10. Communicating in Teams (Team: A coordinated group of people organized to work together and achieve a specific common goal.) • Japanese Schools The majority of the school day children work together in small groups and teams. • It is expected that children work harmoniously, are cooperative and polite. Harmony is considered to be the most crucial ingredient for working productively. • Included in the course of study are weekly ceremonies to emphasize character development and the importance of group effort and cooperation. (Elementary schools) • Japanese students are placed into “han”. Han is similar to a platoon, a squad, or a working group and it operates with little to no hierarchy. Each han is comprised of 5-8 children depending on the class size with a total of 6-8 han groups per classroom. (All about life) • In a han no individual person is ever praised or reprimanded (Japanese Education System) • Again, the students must wear uniforms in school, creating an even greater sense team pride. • Japanese children sit close together in their class room, and even eat lunch in groups. • (picture below taken from Peterson) • American Schools Unlike the children in Japan, American students strive to be unique, individuals, who have their own personal identity. Most American children in public schools are not forced to wear uniforms and are able to express their unique personalities though clothing and hair styles of their choice. Children in American schools, learn ‘stereotyping’ at a very young age. American students are expected to sit at their own desk. It is most common for children to complete their school work independently. Except for group activities such as P.E. (physical education) or music class, American children do not usually participate in structured group activities. According to oppapers.com, American classrooms are smaller (about 30 students per classroom) than Japanese classrooms (about 50 students per class room). With fewer students per classroom in the US it is easier to build interpersonal relationships with peers (Differences). Understanding the differences between Japanese and American schooling is one way to better understand the difference in how we communicate. Japanese are more nonverbal , where as Americans tend to be primarily verbal.
  11. 11. Japanese Holidays Adapting to Others Who Are Different from You Jessica Hartenstine
  12. 12. Coming from one specific culture, many times we are unaware that people from other cultures do not celebrate the same holidays we are raised with, or that they may have similar holidays on different days or with different meanings. For instance, Christmas in Japan is merely a commercial event, with Christmas Eve being a romantic night out as opposed to the more Christian views of a holy remembrance. (Japan Tourist Info, 2000) The Japanese have their own version of Thanksgiving, Labor Thanksgiving, which is celebrated on November 23rd . Traditionally a celebration by the Emperor giving thanks for the rice harvest, it is now a day to thank laborers for their hard work. (Elementary School Japanese Department, 2005) Assuming Similarity
  13. 13. Major Holidays, Festivals, and Celebrations Shogatsu, the new year celebration from January 1st -3rd , is the most important holiday in Japan. Families gather together, eat traditional foods, play games, and celebrate the fresh start of a brand new year. Golden Week is usually when most Japanese take their longest vacation. Four national holidays take place during this time- •Showa Day – April 29 – The birthday of Emperor Hirohito’s •Constitution Day – May 3 – The celebration of the National Constitution •Green Day – May 4 – A celebration of nature •Children’s Day – May 5 – A day for children, mainly boys, celebrated with the flying of carp streamers, known as koinobori The Japanese generally have festivals or rituals that go along with their holidays. Many holidays are to celebrate historic events, seasonal changes or Emperor’s birthdays. O-Bon is a widely celebrated Buddhist festival to pay respect to ancestors in August. Graves are cleaned and offerings are left as the spirits of the ancestors return. At the end of the celebrations, there is a dance called Bon Odori held in many neighborhoods. (Japan Tourist Info, 2000)
  14. 14. Intercultural Communication Though we can look to written sources to learn little bits about a culture’s holidays, the best way to understand the holidays that are important to a person is to ask questions. Japan is divided into many different regions, and they have their own festivals and celebrations that another region may not take part in. Becoming mindful of others is essential. We should not assume that someone celebrates a holiday just because we do. Instead of asking, for instance, “What are you doing for Easter?” asking someone if they have any Spring festivities they take part in is a way to expand your intercultural communication competence. (Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy, 2010)
  15. 15. JAPANESE WEDDINGS A LOOK AT BOTH THE SYMBOLISM AND TRADITIONS EXPRESSED IN JAPANESSE WEDDINGS Veronica Feist
  16. 16. WEDDING ATIRE • Traditionally brides had their faces painted white and wore an all white silk wedding Kimono. This tradition dates back to the Edo era from 1700 till 1900. • Some Japanese brides have chosen to wear more modern gowns but many still choose to wear kimonos that have been passed down from generation to generation. • “White symbolizes both a new beginning and an end, because the bride “dies” as her father’s daughter and is reborn a member of her husband's family.”(Shu, 2010)
  17. 17. WEDDING CEREMONY • In the Japanese American Wedding Traditions article the author states that, “Most Japanese Americans include the “san- san-kudo” sake sharing tradition, which translates to “three sets of three sips equal nine.” Using three flat sake cups stacked atop on another, the bride and groom take three sips each from the cups. Next their parents also take sips, for a total of nine, cementing the bond between the families.” (Japanese American Wedding Traditions, 2010) • At the ceremony many Japanese brides have 1,001 folded gold origami cranes. This represents : Good luck, good fortune, longevity, fidelity, and peace to the marriage.
  18. 18. UNDERSTANDING JAPANESE WEDDINGS • To understand Japanese weddings we must understand the symbolism that is expressed in traditional weddings. • In Communication: Principles for a Life time, Beebe, Beebe and Ivy explain that, “Symbols are words, sounds, gestures, or visual images that represent thoughts, concepts, objects, or experiences.” (2010) • Japanese Brides use the symbolism of white on their wedding day to symbolize the new beginning to their husbands family and the ending as their fathers daughter. They also use san-san –kudo to represent the bond between the two families. • To better communicate with members of the Japanese culture it is important to understand and take into consideration what would other wise be unknown facts about Japanese culture. Understanding non-verbal symbols is necessary to understanding Japanese culture and efficiently communicating with a member of the culture.
  19. 19. Japanese ReligionJapanese Religion A look at the major religions in JapanA look at the major religions in Japan as they relate to communicating with aas they relate to communicating with a member of the Japanese culture.member of the Japanese culture. Spencer Graves
  20. 20. Religion in Japan • Japan’s population is comprised largely of followers of two different religions: •Buddhism •Shinto • 107 million Japanese people identify themselves as Shinto, while 89 million identify themselves as Buddhist (Bureau of Democracy, 2009) •Only 13 million Japanese people identify themselves to be followers of religions other than Buddhism or Shinto (Bureau of Democracy, 2009). Figure 1. Japan Map and Flag, an outline of the country being discussed and an example of the nation’s flag.
  21. 21. Japanese Buddhism Figure 2. Buddha_big, a Japanese Buddhist shrine • Buddhist belief revolves around a desire to attain personal enlightenment and free one’s self from suffering through many cycles of reincarnation (Robinson, 2009) • To attain enlightenment one must gain control over their mind through practices like meditation, which is believed to lead to wisdom (Robinson, 2009) • The Buddhist path to wisdom involves basic principles that resemble those of mainstream Christian religions, with a focus on awareness (Robinson, 2009) •This Buddhist path is eightfold and is known as Buddha’s eightfold path (Robinson, 2009) Buddha’s Eightfold Path • 1) Samma ditthi Right Understanding of the Four Noble Truths • 2) Samma sankappa: Right thinking; following the right path in life •3) Samma vaca: Right speech: no lying, criticism, condemning, gossip, or harsh language •4) Samma kammanta Right conduct by following the Five Precepts •5) Samma ajiva: Right livelihood; support yourself without harming others •6) Samma vayama Right Effort: promote good thoughts; conquer evil thoughts •7) Samma sati Right Mindfulness: Become aware of your body, mind and feelings •8) Samma samadhi Right Concentration: Meditate to achieve a higher state of consciousness (Robinson, 2009)
  22. 22. Figure 3. Shrine, A Shinto temple in Kyoto Japan Shinto • Followers of Shinto believe in many deities known as “Kami” • “Among them [is] a divine couple, Izanagi-no-mikoto and Izanami-no- mikoto, who gave birth to the Japanese islands.” (Robinson, 1995) • Some of the other Shinto Kami are; • Natural objects and creatures such as animals, bodies of water, and rocks • Guardian spirits of regions of Japan and individual Shinto clans • Exceptional members of Japanese society, including past emperors •“Believers revere "musuhi", the Kamis' creative and harmonizing powers. They aspire to have "makoto", sincerity or true heart. This is regarded as the way or will of Kami.” (Robinson, 1995) • Followers of Shinto are guided to; “1) To be grateful for the blessings of Kami and the benefits of the ancestors, and to be diligent in the observance of the Shinto rites, applying oneself to them with sincerity, brightness, and purity of heart. (2) To be helpful to others and in the world at large through deeds of service without thought of rewards, and to seek the advancement of the world as one whose life mediates the will of Kami. (3) To bind oneself with others in harmonious acknowledgment of the will of the emperor, praying that the country may flourish and that other peoples too may live in peace and prosperity.” (Shinto Online Netwrok Association, 2005 )
  23. 23. Managing Conflict •Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy state that “Interpersonal conflict is a struggle that occurs when two people cannot agree on a way to meet their needs.” (2010) • When communicating with a member of the Japanese culture it is imperative to understand the religious background from which they come •Because of the focus on awareness, sincerity, and mindfulness of both of Japan’s major religions interpersonal conflict with a member of the Japanese culture could be very different from interpersonal conflict between two Americans. • If conflict arises with a Japanese person it would be safe to assume that the Japanese participant in the conflict would strive to participate only in constructive conflict. • Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy define constructive conflict as “Conflict characterized by cooperation in dealing with differences; [it] helps build new insights and patterns in a relationship.” (2010) • Within Beebe, Beebe, and Ivy’s text they discuss Wilmot and Hocker’s hallmarks of constructive conflict. One of these hallmarks is that “constructive conflict provides each partner with a more honest, complete picture of himself or herself.” (2010) • With this knowledge, one involved in a conflict with a Japanese person should avoid destructive conflict and strive to communicate only within the guidelines of constructive conflict to aid more effective communication. Figure 3. Two people arguing, an example of conflict
  24. 24. Conclusion When participating in any form ofWhen participating in any form of communication with a member of thecommunication with a member of the Japanese culture it is important to rememberJapanese culture it is important to remember some of the things learned here regardingsome of the things learned here regarding large aspects of this high context culturallarge aspects of this high context cultural group’s way of life. In particular, be aware ofgroup’s way of life. In particular, be aware of any nonverbal cues you may be giving thatany nonverbal cues you may be giving that could be misinterpreted or that you are beingcould be misinterpreted or that you are being given, be understanding of Japanese dininggiven, be understanding of Japanese dining customs, both verbal and nonverbal whilecustoms, both verbal and nonverbal while eating with a Japanese person, be mindful ofeating with a Japanese person, be mindful of the tendency a member of this culture maythe tendency a member of this culture may have to aim to handle conflict constructively.have to aim to handle conflict constructively.
  25. 25. Open-ended questionsOpen-ended questions •What are some examples of good conversationWhat are some examples of good conversation starters to learn more about the holidays a person whostarters to learn more about the holidays a person who may have a different cultural background celebrates?may have a different cultural background celebrates? JessicaJessica •How do you think traditions in Japanese weddings areHow do you think traditions in Japanese weddings are similar to traditions in American weddings and why dosimilar to traditions in American weddings and why do you think this is?you think this is? •What core values do the Japanese obtain from theirWhat core values do the Japanese obtain from their childhood education that influences how theychildhood education that influences how they communicate?communicate? •What differences in communication tendencies wouldWhat differences in communication tendencies would you expect when communicating with a member of theyou expect when communicating with a member of the Japanese culture in contrast to dealing with membersJapanese culture in contrast to dealing with members of cultures which you encounter everyday?of cultures which you encounter everyday? •What would be your best adivise to someone fromWhat would be your best adivise to someone from Japan about our western eating customs?Japan about our western eating customs?
  26. 26. ReferencesReferences (2010).(2010). Japan Map and FlagJapan Map and Flag [Photograph]. Retrieved from[Photograph]. Retrieved from http://nursingcrib.com/wp-content/uploads/japan-map-and-flag.jpghttp://nursingcrib.com/wp-content/uploads/japan-map-and-flag.jpg (2010).(2010). Buddha_bigBuddha_big [Photograph]. Retrieved from[Photograph]. Retrieved from http://cdn.babble.com/famecrawler/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/buddha_big.jpghttp://cdn.babble.com/famecrawler/wp-content/uploads/2010/10/buddha_big.jpg (2010).(2010). ShrineShrine [Photograph]. Retrieved from[Photograph]. Retrieved from http://3.bp.blogspot.com/_w4ifTToAw5Q/TBLLJfRJ8HI/AAAAAAAACMQ/9PhUdhcYaao/s1600/shrine.jpghttp://3.bp.blogspot.com/_w4ifTToAw5Q/TBLLJfRJ8HI/AAAAAAAACMQ/9PhUdhcYaao/s1600/shrine.jpg (2010).(2010). Two People ArguingTwo People Arguing [Photograph]. Retrieved from[Photograph]. Retrieved from http://www.treehugger.com/two-people-arguing.jpghttp://www.treehugger.com/two-people-arguing.jpg 40 Fun Facts About Japan40 Fun Facts About Japan. Retrieved November 7th,2010 from. Retrieved November 7th,2010 from http://http://www.rubymoon.orgwww.rubymoon.org/school//school/ All about Life in a Japanese School; Resources and Further ReadingAll about Life in a Japanese School; Resources and Further Reading. Retrieved November 7th from. Retrieved November 7th from http://www.mangatutorials.com/2010/all-about-life-in-a-Japanese-school-resources-further-http://www.mangatutorials.com/2010/all-about-life-in-a-Japanese-school-resources-further-reading/reading/ Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., & Ivy, D.K. (2010).Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., & Ivy, D.K. (2010). Communication: principles for a life timeCommunication: principles for a life time. Boston: Allyn and Bacon.. Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., & Ivy, D.K. (2010).Beebe, S.A., Beebe, S.J., & Ivy, D.K. (2010). Communication: principles for a lifetimeCommunication: principles for a lifetime. (Pearson eText), Retrieved. (Pearson eText), Retrieved fromfrom http://http://www.mycommunicationlab.comwww.mycommunicationlab.com Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, (2009).Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor, (2009). International religious freedom report, Japan.International religious freedom report, Japan. RetrievedRetrieved from http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127272.htmfrom http://www.state.gov/g/drl/rls/irf/2009/127272.htm Condon, John C.Condon, John C. (1983).With Respect to the Japanese : A Guide for Americans.(1983).With Respect to the Japanese : A Guide for Americans. Intercultural PressIntercultural Press Differences In Japanese And U.S. SchoolsDifferences In Japanese And U.S. Schools. Retrieved November 10th, 2010 from. Retrieved November 10th, 2010 from http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Differences-Japanese-Us-Schools/128283http://www.oppapers.com/essays/Differences-Japanese-Us-Schools/128283 Elementary Schools in JapanElementary Schools in Japan. Retrieved November 7th from. Retrieved November 7th from http://http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_schools_in_Japanen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elementary_schools_in_Japan Elementary School Japanese Department. (June 06, 2005). Elementary School Japanese Department. (June 06, 2005). Japanese Holiday TraditionsJapanese Holiday Traditions, Retrieved November 6,, Retrieved November 6, 2010 from2010 from http://http://www.asij.ac.jp/elementary/japan/jp_holi.htmlwww.asij.ac.jp/elementary/japan/jp_holi.html Etiquette in JapanEtiquette in Japan. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from. Retrieved November 7th, 2010 from http://http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_customsen.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_customs
  27. 27. References (cont’d)References (cont’d) Hays, J. (2010, March).Hays, J. (2010, March). Eating and Drinking CustomsEating and Drinking Customs. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php?. Retrieved from http://factsanddetails.com/japan.php? itemid=609&catid=18itemid=609&catid=18 Japanese American National Museum. (2010).Japanese American National Museum. (2010). Japanese American Wedding Traditions.Japanese American Wedding Traditions. Retrieved OctoberRetrieved October 27,2010, from,27,2010, from, http://http://janmstore.com/weddings.htmljanmstore.com/weddings.html Japanese Education System. http://members.tripod.com/h_javora/jed6.htm Retrieved November 7th 2010.Japanese Education System. http://members.tripod.com/h_javora/jed6.htm Retrieved November 7th 2010. Japanese Etiquette. (2008, May 6). InJapanese Etiquette. (2008, May 6). In Japan-guide.comJapan-guide.com. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from. Retrieved November 1, 2010, from http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e622.htmlhttp://www.japan-guide.com/e/e622.html Japan-guide.com. (June 07, 2008). Japan-guide.com. (June 07, 2008). Japanese HolidaysJapanese Holidays, Retrieved on November 6, 2010 from , Retrieved on November 6, 2010 from  http://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2062.htmlhttp://www.japan-guide.com/e/e2062.html Japan Tourist Info. (2000). Japan Tourist Info. (2000). Japanese National Holidays; Public HolidaysJapanese National Holidays; Public Holidays, Retrieved on November 6, 2010 from, Retrieved on November 6, 2010 from http://www.japanvisitor.com/index.php?cID=359&pID=326http://www.japanvisitor.com/index.php?cID=359&pID=326 McBennett, M.McBennett, M. (2010).(2010). Japanese EtiquetteJapanese Etiquette. In. In Japan-ZoneJapan-Zone. Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://www.japan-zone.com/new/etiquette2.shtmlhttp://www.japan-zone.com/new/etiquette2.shtml Mishima, S. (2010).Mishima, S. (2010). Etiquette in JapanEtiquette in Japan. Retrieved from http://gojapan.about.com/cs/tablemanners/a/tablemanner. Retrieved from http://gojapan.about.com/cs/tablemanners/a/tablemanner Peterson, Blake E.Www.math.byu.edu/~peterson/eating% 20Lunch% 20in% 20homeroom/jpg. RetrievedPeterson, Blake E.Www.math.byu.edu/~peterson/eating% 20Lunch% 20in% 20homeroom/jpg. Retrieved November 7th, 2010.November 7th, 2010. Robinson, B.A. (2009, August 16).Robinson, B.A. (2009, August 16). Buddhism's core beliefsBuddhism's core beliefs. Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism1.htmhttp://www.religioustolerance.org/buddhism1.htm Robinson, B.A. (1995, November 24).Robinson, B.A. (1995, November 24). Shinto, an ancient Japanese religionShinto, an ancient Japanese religion. Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htmhttp://www.religioustolerance.org/shinto.htm Shinto Online Netwrok Association. (2005).Shinto Online Netwrok Association. (2005). Jinja shinto (shrine shinto)Jinja shinto (shrine shinto). Retrieved from. Retrieved from http://jinja.jp/english/s-4.htmlhttp://jinja.jp/english/s-4.html Shu,S. (2010). Japanese Wedding CustonShu,S. (2010). Japanese Wedding Custon WeddingsAtWork.com.WeddingsAtWork.com. Retrieved October 27,2010, from,Retrieved October 27,2010, from, http://www.weddingsatwork.com/culture_customs_japanese.shtmlhttp://www.weddingsatwork.com/culture_customs_japanese.shtml Takeo Doi, The Anatomy of Dependence: Exploring an area of the Japanese PsycheTakeo Doi, The Anatomy of Dependence: Exploring an area of the Japanese Psyche. Retrieved November 6th. Retrieved November 6th 2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_values.2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_values. The Education Japan Guide to Japanese VisasThe Education Japan Guide to Japanese Visas. Retrieved November 7th from. Retrieved November 7th from http://educationjapan.org/jguide/school_system.htmlhttp://educationjapan.org/jguide/school_system.html Williams, D. (2008).Williams, D. (2008). JapanJapan. Retrieved from http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/japan.htm. Retrieved from http://www.cyborlink.com/besite/japan.htm Wood, Monika D.Wood, Monika D. A Brief Introduction to Japanese SocietyA Brief Introduction to Japanese Society. Retrieved November 7th 2010 from. Retrieved November 7th 2010 from http://crab.rutgers.edu/~deppen/Japan.htm.http://crab.rutgers.edu/~deppen/Japan.htm.
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