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    530.1 530.1 r-05 530.1 530.1 r-05 Document Transcript

    • Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05) Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) Richard E. Klingner Jason J. Thompson Chair SecretaryVoting Members of Main Committee1:Ronald E. Barnett Thomas A. Gangel John H. Matthys Arturo E. SchultzRichard M. Bennett David C. Gastgeb W. Mark McGinley John G. TawreseyFrank Berg Satyendra K. Ghosh David McLean Margaret ThomsonDavid T. Biggs H. R. Hamilton, III Donald G. McMican Diane B. ThroopJ. Gregg Borchelt Craig Henderson John M. Melander Brian J. WalkerDean Brown Ronald J. Hunsicker Vilas Mujumdar Scott W. WalkowiczRussell H. Brown Keith Itzler Robert L. Nelson Terence A. WeigelRobert N Chittenden Rochelle C. Jaffe James L. Nicholos Rhett WhitlockJohn Chrysler Eric N. Johnson Jerry M. Painter Thomas D. WrightGerald A. Dalrymple Rashod R. Johnson Max L. Porter Daniel S. ZechmeisterVoting Members of Subcommittees Only2:Felipe Babbitt Steve Dill Mervyn Kowalsky Raymond T. MillerJim Bryja Edgar F. Glock, Jr. Walt Laska Keith PeetzGeorge Crow Dennis Graber Nick Loomis Dave WoodhamTerry M. Curtis John Kariotis Ali MemariSubcommittee Associate Members (A) and Main Committee Consulting Members(C)3:Ghassan Al-Chaar (A) Augustin Dukuze (A) John Kiland (A) Malcolm Phipps (A)Amde Amde (A) Jeffrey L. Elder (A) Waseem Khan (A) Joseph E. Saliba (A)James E. Amrhein (A & C) Hany Elshafie (A) Fred Kinateder Daniel Shapiro (A & C)Bruce Barnes (A) Rick Filloramo (A) Steve Lawrence (A) Nigel Shrive (A)Bill Bailey (A) Fouad Fouad (A) Hugh C. MacDonald (A & C) + Christine A. Subasic (A)Christine Beall (A) Chrs Galitz (A) Darrell McMillian (A) John Swink (A)John Bufford (A) Hans Ganz (A) George Miller (A) + Mike Tate (A)Leroy Caldwell (A) Felix Goldman (A) W. Thomas Munsell Itzhak Tepper (A)I-Kwang Chang (A) Clayford T. Grimm (C) + Colin C. Munro (A & C) Charles Tucker (A)James Colville (A & C) Ahmad A. Hamid (A) Javeed Munshi (A) Robert E. VanLaningham (A)Robert W. Crooks (A & C) Augusto Holmberg (A) Tony Nanni (A) William A. Wood (A)Walter Dickey (C) + Edwin T. Huston (A) Mel Oller (A) Barry Woodard (A)Howard L. Droz (A) Jason Ingham (A) Adrian Page (A)SYNOPSIS Keywords: AAC masonry, anchors; autoclaved aerated concreteThis Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6- (AAC) masonry, clay brick; clay tile; concrete block; concrete brick;05/TMS 602-05) is written as a master specification and is required construction; construction materials; curing; grout; grouting;by Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI inspection; joints; masonry; materials handling; mortars (material and530/ASCE 5/TMS 402) to control materials, labor, and construction. placement); quality assurance and quality control; reinforcing steel;Thus, this Specification covers minimum construction requirements specifications; ties; tests; tolerances.for masonry in structures. Included are quality assurancerequirements for materials; the placing, bonding, and anchoring ofmasonry; and the placement of grout and of reinforcement. ThisSpecification is meant to be referenced in the Project Manual.Individual project requirements may supplement the provisions ofthis Specification.1 Main Committee Members participate in Subcommittee and Main Committee activities, including correspondence and voting.2 Subcommittee Members participate in Committee activities, vote on Subcommittee Ballots, and can comment on Main Committee ballots.3 Associate and Consulting Members participate in Committee activities.+Deceased.Adopted as a standard of the American Concrete Institute (October 27, 2004), the Structural Engineering Institute of the American Society of Civil Engineers December15, 2004, and The Masonry Society (December 20, 2004) to supersede the 2002 edition in accordance with each organizations standardization procedures. The standardwas originally adopted by the American Concrete Institute in November, 1988, the American Society of Civil Engineers in August, 1989, and The Masonry Society inJuly, 1992.SI equivalents shown in this document are calculated conversions. Equations are based on U.S. Customary (inch-pound) Units; SI equivalents for equations are listed atthe end of the Code.
    • S-2 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 PREFACE P1. This Preface is included for explanatory P5. These mandatory requirements shouldpurposes only; it does not form a part of Specification designate the specific qualities, procedures, materials,ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05. and performance criteria for which alternatives are P2. Specification ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS permitted or for which provisions were not made in this602-05 is a reference standard which the Architect/ Specification. Exceptions to this Specification should beEngineer may cite in the contract documents for any made in the project specifications, if required.project, together with supplementary requirements for P6. A statement such as the following will serve tothe specific project. make Specification ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602- P3. Specification ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 05 an official part of the project specifications:602-05 is written in the three-part section format of the Masonry construction and materials shall conform toConstruction Specifications Institute, as adapted by ACI. the requirements of "Specification for MasonryThe language is generally imperative and terse. Structures (ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05)," P4. Specification ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS published by The Masonry Society, Boulder, Colorado;602-05 is intended to be used in its entirety by reference the American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills,in the project specifications. Individual sections, articles, Michigan; and the American Society of Civil Engineers,or paragraphs should not be copied into the project Reston, Virginia, except as modified by the requirementsspecifications since taking them out of context may of these contract documents.change their meaning.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-3 CONTENTS PART 1 — GENERAL, pg. S-4 1.1 — Summary ................................................................................................................................................ S-4 1.2 — Definitions .............................................................................................................................................. S-4 1.3 — Reference standards ................................................................................................................................ S-5 1.4 — System description ................................................................................................................................. S-7 1.5 — Submittals ............................................................................................................................................... S-9 1.6 — Quality assurance ................................................................................................................................... S-9 1.7 — Delivery, storage, and handling ............................................................................................................ S-11 1.8 — Project conditions ................................................................................................................................. S-11 PART 2 — PRODUCTS, pg. S-13 2.1 — Mortar materials ................................................................................................................................... S-13 2.2 — Grout materials ..................................................................................................................................... S-13 2.3 — Masonry unit materials ......................................................................................................................... S-13 2.4 — Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and metal accessories ............................................................... S-13 2.5 — Accessories ........................................................................................................................................... S-17 2.6 — Mixing .................................................................................................................................................. S-17 2.7 — Fabrication ............................................................................................................................................ S-17 PART 3 — EXECUTION, pg. S-19 3.1 — Inspection ............................................................................................................................................. S-19 3.2 — Preparation ........................................................................................................................................... S-19 3.3 — Masonry erection .................................................................................................................................. S-19 3.4 — Reinforcement, tie, and anchor installation .......................................................................................... S-21 3.5 — Grout placement ................................................................................................................................... S-22 3.6 — Prestressing tendon installation and stressing procedure ..................................................................... S-23 3.7 — Field quality control ............................................................................................................................. S-23 3.8 — Cleaning ............................................................................................................................................... S-23 FOREWORD TO SPECIFICATION CHECKLISTS, pg. S-24 Mandatory Requirements Checklist ................................................................................................................ S-25 Optional Requirements Checklist..................................................................................................................... S-26
    • S-4 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 PART 1 — GENERAL1.1 — Summary corrugated duct that is bonded to the surrounding 1.1 A. This Specification covers requirements for masonry through grouting.materials and construction of masonry structures. SI H. Cleanouts — Openings that are sized and spacedvalues shown in parentheses are provided for to allow removal of debris from the bottom of the groutinformation only and are not part of this Specification. space. I. Collar joint — Vertical longitudinal space between 1.1 B. The Specification supplements the legally wythes of masonry or between masonry and back upadopted building code and governs the construction of construction, which is permitted to be filled with mortarmasonry elements designed in accordance with the Code, or grout.except where this Specification is in conflict with J. Compressive strength of masonry — Maximumrequirements in the legally adopted building code. In compressive force resisted per unit of net cross-sectionalareas without a legally adopted building code, this area of masonry, determined by testing masonry prisms;Specification defines the minimum acceptable standards or a function of individual masonry units, mortar andof construction practice. grout in accordance with the provisions of this 1.1 C. This article covers the furnishing and Specification.construction of masonry including the following: K. Contract Documents — Documents establishing 1. Furnishing and placing masonry units, grout, the required Work, and including in particular, the Project mortar, masonry lintels, sills, copings, through- Drawings and Project Specifications. wall flashing, and connectors. L. Contractor — The person, firm, or corporation 2. Furnishing, erecting and maintaining of bracing, with whom the Owner enters into an agreement for forming, scaffolding, rigging, and shoring. construction of the Work. 3. Furnishing and installing other equipment for M. Dimension, nominal — The specified dimension constructing masonry. plus an allowance for the joints with which the units are 4. Cleaning masonry and removing surplus material to be laid. Nominal dimensions are usually stated in and waste. whole numbers. Thickness is given first, followed by 5. Installing lintels, nailing blocks, inserts, window height and then length. and door frames, connectors, and construction N. Dimensions, specified — Dimensions specified for items to be built into the masonry, and building in the manufacture or construction of a unit, joint, or vent pipes, conduits and other items furnished and element. located by other trades. O. Glass unit masonry — Nonload-bearing masonry composed of glass units bonded by mortar.1.2 — Definitions P. Grout lift — An increment of grout height within a A. AAC masonry – masonry made of autoclaved total grout pour. A grout pour consists of one or moreaerated concrete (AAC) units, manufactured without grout lifts.internal reinforcement, and bonded together using thin- Q. Grout pour — The total height of masonry to beor thick-bed mortar. grouted prior to erection of additional masonry. A grout B. Acceptable, accepted — Acceptable to or pour consists of one or more grout lifts.accepted by the Architect/Engineer. R. Mean daily temperature — The average daily C. Architect/Engineer — The architect, engineer, temperature of temperature extremes predicted by a localarchitectural firm, engineering firm, or architectural and weather bureau for the next 24 hours.engineering firm, issuing Drawings and Specifications, S. Minimum daily temperature — The lowor administering the Work under Contract Specifications temperature forecast by a local weather bureau to occurand Project Drawings, or both. within the next 24 hours. D. Area, gross cross-sectional — The area delineated T. Minimum/maximum (not less than . . . not moreby the out-to-out dimensions of masonry in the plane than) — Minimum or maximum values given in thisunder consideration. Specification are absolute. Do not construe that tolerances E. Area, net cross-sectional — The area of masonry allow lowering a minimum or increasing a maximum.units, grout, and mortar crossed by the plane under U. Otherwise required — Specified differently inconsideration based on out-to-out dimensions. requirements supplemental to this Specification. F. Autoclaved aerated concrete -- low-density V. Owner — The public body or authority,cementitious product of calcium silicate hydrates. corporation, association, partnership, or individual for G. Bonded prestressing tendon — Prestressing whom the Work is provided.tendon that is encapsulated by prestressing grout in a
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-5 W. Partition wall — An interior wall without AM. Tendon coupler — A device for connecting twostructural function. tendon ends, thereby transferring the prestressing force X. Post-tensioning — Method of prestressing in from end to end.which prestressing tendons are tensioned after the AN. Tendon jacking force — Temporary force exertedmasonry has been placed. by device that introduces tension into prestressing Y. Prestressed masonry — Masonry in which internal tendons.stresses have been introduced to counteract stresses in AO. Unbonded prestressing tendon — Prestressingmasonry resulting from applied loads. tendon that is not bonded to masonry. Z. Pretensioning — Method of prestressing in which AP. Veneer, adhered — Masonry veneer secured toprestressing tendons are tensioned before the transfer of and supported by the backing through adhesion.stress into the masonry. AQ. Wall — A vertical element with a horizontal AA. Prestressing grout — A cementitious mixture used length to thickness ratio greater than 3, used to encloseto encapsulate bonded prestressing tendons. space. AB. Prestressing tendon — Steel element such as wire, AR. Wall, loadbearing — A wall carrying verticalbar, or strand, or a bundle of such elements, used to loads greater than 200 lb per lineal foot (2919 N/m) inimpart prestress to masonry. addition to its own weight. AC. Project Drawings — The Drawings that, along AS. Wall, masonry bonded hollow — A multiwythewith the Project Specifications, complete the descriptive wall built with masonry units arranged to provide an airinformation for constructing the Work required or space between the wythes and with the wythes bondedreferred to in the Contract Documents. together with masonry units. AD. Project Specifications — The written documents AT. When required — Specified in requirementsthat specify requirements for a project in accordance supplemental to this Specification.with the service parameters and other specific criteria AU. Work — The furnishing and performance ofestablished by the Owner or his agent. equipment, services, labor, and materials required by the AE. Quality assurance — The administrative and Contract Documents for the construction of masonry forprocedural requirements established by the Contract the project or part of project under consideration.Documents to assure that constructed masonry is in AV. Wythe — Each continuous vertical section of acompliance with the Contract Documents. wall, one masonry unit in thickness. AF. Reinforcement — Nonprestressed steelreinforcement. 1.3 — Reference standards AG. Running bond — The placement of masonry units Standards referred to in this Specification are listedsuch that head joints in successive courses are below with their serial designations, including year ofhorizontally offset at least one-quarter the unit length. adoption or revision, and are declared to be part of this AH. Specified compressive strength of masonry, f ′m — Specification as if fully set forth in this document exceptMinimum compressive strength, expressed as force per as modified here.unit of net cross-sectional area, required of the masonryused in construction by the project documents, and upon American Concrete Institutewhich the project design is based. A. ACI 117-90 Standard Specifications for AI. Stack bond — For the purpose of this Tolerances for Concrete Construction and MaterialsSpecification, stack bond is other than running bond. B. ACI 315-99 Details and Detailing of ConcreteUsually the placement of masonry units is such that head Reinforcementjoints in successive courses are vertically aligned. AJ. Stone masonry — Masonry composed of field, American National Standards Institutequarried, or cast stone units bonded by mortar. C. ANSI A 137.1-88 Standard Specification for 1. Stone masonry, ashlar — Stone masonry composed Ceramic Tileof rectangular units having sawed, dressed, or squaredbed surfaces and bonded by mortar. ASTM International 2. Stone masonry, rubble — Stone masonry composed D. ASTM A 36/A 36M-01 Specification forof irregular shaped units bonded by mortar. Carbon Structural Steel AK. Submit, submitted — Submit, submitted to the E. ASTM A 82-01 Specification for Steel Wire,Architect/Engineer for review. Plain, for Concrete Reinforcement AL. Tendon anchorage — In post-tensioning, a device F. ASTM A 123/A 123M-02 Specification forused to anchor the prestressing tendon to the masonry or Zinc (Hot-Dip Galvanized) Coating on Iron and Steelconcrete member; in pretensioning, a device used to Productsanchor the prestressing tendon during hardening of G. ASTM A 153/A153M-02 Specification for Zincmasonry mortar, grout, prestressing grout, or concrete. Coating (Hot-Dip) on Iron and Steel Hardware
    • S-6 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 H. ASTM A 185-01 Specification for Steel AD. ASTM A 1008/ A 1008M-02ε1 SpecificationWelded Wire Reinforcement, Plain, for Concrete for Steel, Sheet, Cold-Rolled, Carbon, Structural, High- I. ASTM A 240/A 240M-02a Specification for Strength Low-Alloy, and High-Strength Low-Alloy withChromium and Chromium-Nickel Stainless Steel Plate, Improved FormabilitySheet, and Strip for Pressure Vessels and for General AE. ASTM B 117-02 Practice for Operating SaltApplications Spray (Fog) Testing Apparatus J. ASTM A 307-02 Specification for Carbon Steel AF. ASTM C 34-96 (2001) Specification forBolts and Studs, 60,000 psi Tensile Strength Structural Clay Load-Bearing Wall Tile K. ASTM A 416/A 416M-02 Specification for Steel AG. ASTM C 55-01a Specification for ConcreteStrand, Uncoated Seven-Wire for Prestressed Concrete Brick L. ASTM A 421/A 421M-02 Specification for AH. ASTM C 56-96 (2001) Specification forUncoated Stress-Relieved Steel Wire for Prestressed Structural Clay Non-Load-Bearing TileConcrete AI. ASTM C 62-01 Specification for Building M. ASTM A 480/A 480M-02 Specification for Brick (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale)General Requirements for Flat-Rolled Stainless and AJ.ASTM C 67-02c Test Methods for Sampling andHeat-Resisting Steel Plate, Sheet, and Strip Testing Brick and Structural Clay Tile N. ASTM A 496-01 Specification for Steel Wire, AK. ASTM C 73-99a Specification for CalciumDeformed, for Concrete Reinforcement Silicate Face Brick (Sand-Lime Brick) O. ASTM A 497-01 Specification for Steel AL. ASTM C 90-02 Specification for Load-BearingWelded Reinforcement, Deformed, for Concrete Concrete Masonry Units P. ASTM A510-02 General Requirements for Wire AM. ASTM C 109/C109M-02 Standard Test MethodRods and Coarse Round Wire, Carbon Steel for Compressive Strength of Hydraulic Cement Mortars Q. ASTM A 580/A 580M-98 Specification for (Using 2-in. or [50-mm] Cube Specimens)Stainless Steel Wire AN. ASTM C 126-99 Specification for Ceramic R. ASTM A 615/A 615M-01b Specification for Glazed Structural Clay Facing Tile, Facing Brick, andDeformed and Plain Billet-Steel Bars for Concrete Solid Masonry UnitsReinforcement AO. ASTM C 129-01 Specification for Non-Load- S. ASTM A 641/A 641M-98 Specification for Bearing Concrete Masonry UnitsZinc-Coated (Galvanized) Carbon Steel Wire AP. ASTM C 140-02a Test Methods for Sampling T. ASTM A 653/A 653M-02a Specification for and Testing Concrete Masonry UnitsSteel Sheet, Zinc-Coated (Galvanized) or Zinc-Iron AQ. ASTM C 143/C 143-00 Test Method for SlumpAlloy-Coated (Galvanealed) by the Hot-Dip Process of Hydraulic Cement Concrete U. ASTM A 666-00 Specification for Annealed or AR. ASTM C 144-02 Specification for AggregateCold-Worked Austenitic Stainless Steel, Sheet, Strip, for Masonry MortarPlate and Flat Bar AS. ASTM C150-02a Specification for Portland V. ASTM A 706/A 706M-01 Specification for CementLow-Alloy Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete AT. ASTM C 212-00 Specification for StructuralReinforcement Clay Facing Tile W. ASTM A 722/A 722M-98 Specification for AU. ASTM C 216-02 Specification for Facing BrickUncoated High-Strength Steel Bar for Prestressing (Solid Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale)Concrete AV. ASTM C 270-02 Specification for Mortar for X. ASTM A 767/ A 767M-00b Specification for Unit MasonryZinc-Coated (Galvanized) Bars for Concrete AW. ASTM C 476-02 Specification for Grout forReinforcement Masonry Y. ASTM A 775/A 775M-01 Specification for AX. ASTM C 482-02 Test Method for BondEpoxy-Coated Reinforcing Steel Bars Strength of Ceramic Tile to Portland Cement Z. ASTM A 884/A 884M-01 Specification for AY. ASTM C 503-99ε1 Specification for MarbleEpoxy-Coated Steel Wire and Welded Wire Fabric for Dimension Stone (Exterior)Reinforcement AZ. ASTM C 568-99 Specification for Limestone AA. ASTM A 899-91(2002) Specification for Steel Dimension StoneWire Epoxy-Coated BA. ASTM C 615-99 Specification for Granite AB. ASTM A 951-00 Specification for Masonry Dimension StoneJoint Reinforcement BB. ASTM C 616-99 Specification for Quartz- AC. ASTM A 996/A 996M-01a Specification for Based Dimension StoneRail-Steel and Axle-Steel Deformed Bars for Concrete BC. ASTM C 629-99 Specification for SlateReinforcement Dimension Stone
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-7 BD. ASTM C 652-01a Specification for Hollow CA. ASTM D 4289-97 Test Method for ElastomerBrick (Hollow Masonry Units Made from Clay or Shale) Compatibility of Lubricating Greases and Fluids BE. ASTM C 744-99 Specification for Prefaced CB. ASTM E 72-02 Standard Test Methods ofConcrete and Calcium Silicate Masonry Units Conducting Strength Tests of Panels for Building BF. ASTM C 901-01 Specification for Prefabricated ConstructionMasonry Panels CC. ASTM E 328-86 (1996)ε1 Test Methods for BG. ASTM C 920-02 Specification for Elastomeric Stress Relaxation Tests for Materials and StructuresJoint Sealants CD. ASTM E 518 E518-03 Standard Test Methods BH. ASTM C 1006-84 (2001) Test Method for for Flexural Bond Strength of MasonrySplitting Tensile Strength of Masonry Units CE. ASTM E519-02 Standard Test Method for BI. ASTM C 1019-02 Test Method for Sampling Diagonal Tension (Shear) in Masonry Assemblagesand Testing Grout CF. ASTM F 959-02 Specification for Compressible- BJ. ASTM C 1072-00a Standard Test Method for Washer-Type Direct Tension Indicators for Use withMeasurement of Masonry Flexural Bond Strength Structural Fasteners BK. ASTM C 1088-02 Specification for ThinVeneer Brick Units Made from Clay or Shale American Welding Society BL. ASTM C 1314-02a Test Method for CG. AWS D 1.4-98 Structural Welding Code –Compressive Strength of Masonry Prisms Reinforcing Steel BM. ASTM C 1386-98 Specification for PrecastAutoclaved Aerated Concrete (PAAC) Wall Federal Test Method StandardConstruction Units CH. FTMS 791B (1974) Oil Separation from BN. ASTM D 92-02b Test Method for Flash and Fire Lubricating Grease (Static Technique). Federal TestPoints by Cleveland Open Cup Tester Method Standard from the U.S. Army General Material BO. ASTM D 95-99ε1 Test Method for Water in and Parts Center, Petroleum Field Office (East), NewPetroleum Product and Bituminous Material by Cumberland Army Depot, New Cumberland, PA 17070Distillation BP. ASTM D 512-89 (1999) Test Method for 1.4 — System descriptionChloride Ion in Water 1.4 A. Compressive strength requirements — BQ. ASTM D 566-02 Test Method for Dropping Compressive strength of masonry in each masonry wythePoint of Lubricating Grease and grouted collar joint shall equal or exceed the BR. ASTM D 610-01 Test Method for Evaluating applicable f ′m or f ′AAC . For partially grouted masonry,Degree of Rusting on Painted Steel Surfaces the compressive strength of both the grouted and BS. ASTM D 638-02a Test Method for Tensile ungrouted masonry shall equal or exceed the applicableProperties of Plastics f ′m . At the transfer of prestress, the compressive strength BT. ASTM D 994-98 Specification for Preformed of the masonry shall equal f ′mi , which shall be less thanExpansion Joint Filler for Concrete (Bituminous Type) or equal to f ′m . BU. ASTM D 1056-00 Specification for FlexibleCellular Materials — Sponge or Expanded Rubber 1.4 B. Compressive strength determination 1. Alternatives for determination of compressive BV. ASTM D 1187-97 (2002)ε1 Specification for strength — Determine the compressive strengthAsphalt-Base Emulsions for Use as Protective Coatings for each wythe by the unit strength method or byfor Metal the prism test method as specified here. BW. ASTM D 1227-95 (2000) Specification for 2. Unit strength methodEmulsified Asphalt Used as a Protective Coating for a. Clay masonry — Determine the compressiveRoofing strength of masonry based on the strength of the BX. ASTM D 2000-01 Classification System for units and the type of mortar specified usingRubber Products in Automotive Applications Table 1. The following Articles must be met: BY. ASTM D 2265-00 Test Method for Dropping 1) Units conform to ASTM C 62, ASTM C 216,Point of Lubricating Grease Over Wide Temperature or ASTM C 652 and are sampled and testedRange in accordance with ASTM C 67. BZ. ASTM D 2287-96 (2001) Specification for 2) Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 in.Nonrigid Vinyl Chloride Polymer and Copolymer (15.9 mm).Molding and Extrusion Compounds
    • S-8 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 3) For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of c. AAC masonry — Determine the compressive the following requirements: strength of masonry based on the strength of the a) Grout conforms to ASTM C 476. AAC masonry unit only. The following Articles b) Grout compressive strength equals or must be met: exceeds f m but compressive strength is not 1) Units conform to ASTM C 1386. less than 2000 psi (13.79 MPa). Determine 2) Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 1/8 compressive strength of grout in in. (3.2 mm). accordance with ASTM C 1019. 3) For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of b. Concrete masonry — Determine the the following requirements: compressive strength of masonry based on the a) Grout conforms to ASTM C 476. strength of the unit and type of mortar specified b) Grout compressive strength equals or using Table 2. The following Articles must be exceeds f AAC but compressive strength is met: not less than 2000 psi (13.79 MPa). 1) Units conform to ASTM C 55 or ASTM C 90 Determine compressive strength of grout in and are sampled and tested in accordance accordance with ASTM C 1019. with ASTM C 140. 2) Thickness of bed joints does not exceed 5/8 in. 3. Prism test method — Determine the compressive (15.9 mm). strength of masonry by the prism test method in 3) For grouted masonry, the grout meets one of accordance with ASTM C 1314. the following requirements: 1.4 C. Adhered veneer requirements — Determine the a) Grout conforms to ASTM C 476. adhesion of adhered veneer unit to backing in b) Grout compressive strength equals or accordance with ASTM C 482. exceeds f m but compressive strength is not less than 2000 psi (13.79 MPa). Determine compressive strength of grout in accordance with ASTM C 1019. Table 1 — Compressive strength of masonry based on the compressive strength of clay masonry units and type of mortar used in construction Net area compressive strength of Net area compressive clay masonry units, psi (MPa) strength of masonry, psi (MPa) Type M or S mortar Type N mortar 1700 (11.72) 2100 (14.48) 1000 (6.90) 3350 (23.10) 4150 (28.61) 1500 (10.34) 4950 (34.13) 6200 (42.75) 2000 (13.79) 6600 (45.51) 8250 (56.88) 2500 (17.24) 8250 (56.88) 10,300 (71.02) 3000 (20.69) 9900 (68.26) — 3500 (24.13) 13,200 (91.01) — 4000 (27.58) Table 2 — Compressive strength of masonry based on the compressive strength of concrete masonry units and type of mortar used in construction Net area compressive strength of Net area compressive concrete masonry units, psi (MPa) strength of masonry, psi1 (MPa) Type M or S mortar Type N mortar 1250 (8.62) 1300 (8.96) 1000 (6.90) 1900 (13.10) 2150 (14.82) 1500 (10.34) 2800 (19.31) 3050 (21.03) 2000 (13.79) 3750 (25.86) 4050 (27.92) 2500 (17.24) 4800 (33.10) 5250 (36.20) 3000 (20.69) 1 For units of less than 4 in. (102 mm) height, 85 percent of the values listed.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-91.5 — Submittals 1.6 B. Inspection Agency’s services and duties 1.5 A. Obtain written acceptance of submittals prior to 1. Inspect and evaluate in accordance with Table 3,the use of the materials or methods requiring acceptance. 4, or 5, as specified for the project. 2. Unless otherwise required, report inspection 1.5 B. Submit the following: results to the Architect/Engineer, and Contractor 1. Mix designs and test results promptly after they are performed. Include in a. One of the following for each mortar mix, inspection reports a summary of conditions under excluding thin-bed mortar for AAC: which the inspections were made and state what 1) Mix designs indicating type and proportions portion of the construction is represented by each of ingredients in compliance with the inspection. proportion specification of ASTM C 270, or 3. Furnish inspection reports to the 2) Mix designs and mortar tests performed in Architect/Engineer and Contractor. accordance with the property specification of 4. When there is reason to believe that any material ASTM C 270. furnished or work performed by the Contractor b. One of the following for each grout mix: fails to fulfill the requirements of the Contract 1) Mix designs indicating type and proportions Documents, report such deficiency to the of the ingredients according to the proportion Architect/Engineer and to the Contractor. requirements of ASTM C 476, or 5. Submit a final signed report stating whether the 2) Mix designs and grout strength test Work requiring inspection was, to the best of the performed in accordance with ASTM C 476. Inspection Agencys knowledge, in conformance. 2. Material certificates — Material certificates for Submit the final report to the Architect/Engineer the following, certifying that each material is in and Contractor. compliance. 6. The Inspection Agency is neither authorized to a. Reinforcement revoke, alter, relax, enlarge, or release any b. Anchors, ties, fasteners, and metal accessories requirement of the Contract Documents, nor c. Masonry units authorized to approve or accept, or reject or d. Mortar, thin-bed mortar for AAC, and grout disapprove, any portion of the Work. materials 7. Unless otherwise required, these services will be 3. Construction procedures paid for by the Owner. a. Cold weather construction procedures b. Hot weather construction procedures 1.6 C. Contractor’s services and duties 1. Permit and facilitate access to the construction1.6 — Quality assurance sites and the performance of activities for quality 1.6 A. Testing Agency’s services and duties assurance by the Testing and Inspection Agencies. 1. Sample and test in accordance with Table 3, 4, or 2. The use of testing and inspection services does 5, as specified for the project. not relieve the Contractor of the responsibility to 2. Unless otherwise required, report test results to furnish materials and construction in full the Architect/Engineer, Inspection Agency, and compliance. Contractor promptly after they are performed. 3. To facilitate testing and inspection, comply with Include in test reports a summary of conditions the following: under which test specimens were stored prior to a. Furnish necessary labor to assist the designated testing and state what portion of the construction testing agency in obtaining and handling is represented by each test. samples at the Project. 3. When there is reason to believe that any material b. Advise the designated Testing Agency and furnished or work performed by the Contractor Inspection Agency sufficiently in advance of fails to fulfill the requirements of the Contract operations to allow for completion of quality Documents, report such deficiency to the assurance measures and for the assignment of Architect/Engineer, Inspection Agency, and personnel. Contractor. c. Provide masonry materials required for 4. The Testing Agency and its representatives are preconstruction and construction testing. neither authorized to revoke, alter, relax, enlarge, 4. Provide and maintain adequate facilities for the or release any requirement of the Contract sole use of the testing agency for safe storage Documents, or to accept or approve, or reject or and proper curing of test specimens on the disapprove, any portion of the Work. Project Site. 5. Unless otherwise required, these services will be 5. In the submittals, include the results of testing paid for by the Owner. performed to qualify the materials and to establish mix designs.
    • S-10 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 1.6 D. Sample panels 2. The acceptable standard for the Work is 1. For masonry governed by Level B or C Quality established by the accepted panel. Assurance (Table 4 or Table 5), construct sample 3. Retain sample panels at the job site until Work panels of masonry walls. has been accepted. a. Use materials and procedures accepted for the 1.6 E. Grout demonstration panel — Prior to masonry Work. construction, construct a grout demonstration panel if b. The minimum sample panel size is 4 ft proposed grouting procedures, construction techniques, (1.22 m) square. and grout space geometry do not conform to the requirements of Articles 3.5 C, 3.5 D, and 3.5 E.Table 3 — Level A Quality Assurance MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION Certificates for materials used in masonry construction Verify compliance with the approved submittals indicating compliance with the contract documentsTable 4 — Level B Quality Assurance MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION Certificates for materials used in masonry construction As masonry construction begins, verify that the following indicating compliance with the Contract Documents are in compliance: • proportions of site-prepared mortar Verification of f m or f AAC in accordance with Article 1.4 • construction of mortar joints B prior to construction, except where specifically • location of reinforcement, connectors, and exempted by this Code prestressing tendons and anchorages • prestressing technique Prior to grouting, verify that the following are in compliance: • grout space • grade and size of reinforcement, and prestressing tendons and anchorages • placement of reinforcement, connectors, and prestressing tendons and anchorages • proportions of site-prepared grout and prestressing grout for bonded tendons • construction of mortar joints Verify that the placement of grout and prestressing grout for bonded tendons is in compliance Observe preparation of grout specimens, mortar specimens, and/or prisms Verify compliance with the required inspection provisions of the contract documents and the approved submittals
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-11Table 5 — Level C Quality Assurance MINIMUM TESTS AND SUBMITTALS MINIMUM INSPECTION Certificates for materials used in masonry construction From the beginning of masonry construction and indicating compliance with the Contract Documents continuously during construction of masonry: a) verify that the following are in compliance: Verification of f m or f AAC in accordance with Article • proportions of site-mixed mortar, grout, and 1.4 B: prestressing grout for bonded tendons • prior to construction • grade and size of reinforcement, and prestressing • every 5000 sq. ft (464.5 m2) during construction tendons and anchorages • placement of masonry units and construction of Verification of proportions of materials in premixed or mortar joints preblended mortar, grout, and prestressing grout as • placement of reinforcement, connectors, and delivered to the site prestressing tendons and anchorages • grout space prior to grouting • placement of grout and prestressing grout for bonded tendons b) Observe preparation of grout specimens, mortar specimens, and/or prisms c) Verify compliance with the required inspection provisions of the contract documents and the approved submittals1.7 — Delivery, storage, and handling a. Do not lay masonry units having either a 1.7 A. Do not use damaged masonry units, damaged temperature below 20°F (-6.7°C) orcomponents of structure, or damaged packaged material. containing frozen moisture, visible ice, or snow on their surface. 1.7 B. Protect cementitious materials for mortar and b. Remove visible ice and snow from the topgrout from precipitation and groundwater. surface of existing foundations and masonry 1.7 C. Do not use masonry materials that are to receive new construction. Heat thesecontaminated. surfaces above freezing, using methods that do not result in damage. 1.7 D. Store different aggregates separately. 3. Construction — These requirements apply to work 1.7 E. Protect reinforcement, ties, and metal in progress and are based on ambient airaccessories from permanent distortions and store them temperature. Do not heat water or aggregates usedoff the ground. in mortar or grout above 140 F (60 C) Comply with the following requirements during1.8 — Project conditions construction during the following ambient air 1.8 A. Construction loads — Do not apply conditions:construction loads that exceed the safe superimposed a. 40°F to 32°F (4.4°C to 0°C): Heat sand orload-carrying capacity of the masonry and shores, if mixing water to produce mortar temperatureused. between 40°F (4.4°C) and 120°F (48.9°C) at the time of mixing. Grout does not require 1.8 B. Masonry protection — Cover top of unfinished heated materials, unless the temperature ofmasonry work to protect it from the weather. the materials is below 32°F (0°C). 1.8 C. Cold weather construction — When ambient air b. 32°F to 25°F (0°C to -3.9°C): Heat sand andtemperature is below 40°F (4.4°C), implement cold mixing water to produce mortar temperatureweather procedures and comply with the following: between 40°F (4.4°C) and 120°F (48.9°C) at 1. Do not lay glass unit masonry. the time of mixing. Maintain mortar 2. Preparation — Comply with the following temperature above freezing until used in requirements prior to conducting masonry work: masonry. Heat grout aggregates and mixing
    • S-12 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 water to produce grout temperature between 1.8 D Hot weather construction — Implement approved 70°F (21.1°C) and 120°F (48.9°C) at the time hot weather procedures and comply with the following of mixing. Maintain grout temperature above provisions: 70°F (21.1°C) at the time of grout placement. 1. Preparation — Prior to conducting masonry Heat AAC units to a minimum temperature of work: 40°F (4.4°C) before installing thin-bed a. When the ambient air temperature exceeds mortar. 100°F (37.8°C), or exceeds 90°F (32.2°C) with c. 25°F to 20°F (-3.9°C to –6.7°C): Comply a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (12.9 with Article 1.8 C.3.b and the following: km/hr): Heat masonry surfaces under construction to 1) Maintain sand piles in a damp, loose 40°F (4.4°C) and use wind breaks or condition. enclosures when the wind velocity exceeds 2) Provide necessary conditions and equipment 15 mph (24 km/h). Heat masonry to a to produce mortar having a temperature minimum of 40°F (4.4°C) prior to grouting. below 120°F (48.9°C). d. 20°F (-6.7°C) and below: Comply with b. When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F Article 1.8 C.3.c and the following: Provide (46.1°C), or exceeds 105°F (40.6°C) with a an enclosure and auxiliary heat to maintain wind velocity greater than 8 mph (12.9 km/hr), air temperature above 32°F (0°C) within the implement the requirements of Article 1.8 D.1.a enclosure. and shade materials and mixing equipment from 4. Protection — These requirements apply after direct sunlight. masonry is placed and are based on anticipated 2. Construction — While masonry work is in minimum daily temperature for grouted progress: masonry and anticipated mean daily a. When the ambient air temperature exceeds temperature for ungrouted masonry. Protect 100°F (37.8°C), or exceeds 90°F (32.2°C) with completed masonry in the following manner: a wind velocity greater than 8 mph a. Maintain the temperature of glass unit (12.9 km/hr): masonry above 40°F (4.4°C ) for the first 48 1) Maintain temperature of mortar and grout hr after construction. below 120°F (48.9°C). b. Maintain the temperature of AAC masonry 2) Flush mixer, mortar transport container, and above 32°F (0°C ) for the first 4 hr after thin- mortar boards with cool water before they bed mortar application. come into contact with mortar ingredients or c. 40°F to 25°F (4.4°C to -3.9°C): Protect mortar. newly constructed masonry by covering with 3) Maintain mortar consistency by retempering a weather-resistive membrane for 24 hr after with cool water. being completed. 4) Use mortar within 2 hr of initial mixing. d. 25°F to 20°F (-3.9°C to –6.7°C): Cover 5) Spread thin-bed mortar no more than four feet newly constructed masonry completely with ahead of AAC masonry units. weather-resistive insulating blankets, or equal 6) Set AAC masonry units within one minute protection, for 24 hr after completion of after spreading thin-bed mortar. work. Extend time period to 48 hr for grouted b. When the ambient temperature exceeds 115°F masonry, unless the only cement in the grout (46.1°C), or exceeds 105°F (40.6°C) with a is Type III portland cement. wind velocity greater than 8 mph (12.9 km/hr), e. 20°F (-6.7°C) and below: Maintain newly implement the requirements of Article 1.8 D.2.a constructed masonry temperature above 32°F and use cool mixing water for mortar and grout. (0°C) for at least 24 hr after being completed Ice is permitted in the mixing water prior to by using heated enclosures, electric heating use. Do not permit ice in the mixing water blankets, infared lamps, or other acceptable when added to the other mortar or grout methods. Extend time period to 48 hr for materials. grouted masonry, unless the only cement in 3. Protection — When the mean daily temperature the grout is Type III portland cement. exceeds 100°F (37.8°C) or exceeds 90°F (32.2°C) with a wind velocity greater than 8 mph (12.9 km/hr), fog spray newly constructed masonry until damp, at least three times a day until the masonry is three days old.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-13 PART 2 — PRODUCTS2.1 — Mortar materials 2.2 — Grout materials 2.1 A. Provide mortar of the type and color specified, Unless otherwise required, provide grout thatand conforming with ASTM C 270. conforms to the requirements of ASTM C 476. Do not use admixtures unless acceptable. 2.1 B. Glass unit masonry 1. Provide Type S or N mortar that conforms to 2.3 — Masonry unit materials Article 2.1 A. 2.3 A. Provide concrete masonry units that conform to 2. Comply with the other requirements of Article 2.6. ASTM C 55, C 73, C 90, C 129, or C 744 as specified. 2.1 C. AAC Masonry 2.3 B. Provide clay or shale masonry units that 1. Provide thin-bed mortar specifically conform to ASTM C 34, C 56, C 62, C 126, C 212, manufactured for use with AAC masonry. Testing C 216, C 652, or C 1088, or to ANSI A 137.1, as to verify mortar properties shall be conducted by specified. the thin-bed mortar manufacturer and confirmed by an independent testing agency. 2.3 C. Provide stone masonry units that conform to a. Provide thin-bed mortar with compressive ASTM C 503, C 568, C 615, C 616, or C 629, as strength that meets or exceeds the strength of specified. the AAC masonry units. Conduct 2.3 D. Provide hollow glass units that are partially compressive strength tests in accordance with evacuated and have a minimum average glass face ASTM C 109. thickness of 3/16 in. (4.8 mm). Provide solid glass block b. Provide thin-bed mortar with shear strength units when required. Provide units in which the surfaces that meets or exceeds the strength of the AAC intended to be in contact with mortar are treated with masonry units. Conduct shear strength tests in polyvinyl butyral coating or latex-based paint. Do not accordance with ASTM E 519. Cure the use reclaimed units. gypsum capping for at least 6 hours prior to testing. 2.3 E. Provide AAC masonry units that conform to c. For each specified strength class, provide ASTM C 1386 for the strength class specified in the thin-bed mortar with flexural tensile strength Contract Documents. that is not less than the smaller of: the maximum value specified in the governing 2.4 — Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and building code; and the modulus of rupture of metal accessories the masonry units. Conduct flexural strength 2.4 A. Reinforcing steel — Provide deformed tests in accordance with ASTM E 72, ASTM reinforcing bars that conform to one of the following as E518 Method A or ASTM C 1072. specified: 1) For conducting flexural strength tests in 1. ASTM A 615/A 615M accordance with ASTM E 518, construct 2. ASTM A 706/A 706M at least five test specimens as stack- 3. ASTM A 767/A 767M bonded prisms at least 32 in. (810 mm) 4. ASTM A 775/A 775M high. Use the type of mortar specified by 5. ASTM A 996/A 996M the AAC unit manufacturer. 2) For flexural strength tests in accordance 2.4 B. Prestressing tendons with ASTM C 1072, construct test 1. Provide prestressing tendons that conform to one specimens as stack-bonded prisms of the following standards, except for those comprised of at least 3 bed joints. Test a permitted in Articles 2.4 B.2 and 2.4 B.3: total of at least 5 joints. Use the type of a. Wire...............................................ASTM A 421 mortar specified by the AAC unit b. Low-relaxation wire......................ASTM A 421 manufacturer. c. Strand ............................. ASTM A 416/A 416M d. Perform splitting tensile strength tests in d. Low-relaxation strand ... ASTM A 416/A 416 M accordance with ASTM C 1006. e. Bar................................. ASTM A 722/A 722 M 2. Mortar for leveling course shall be Type M or S. 2. Wire, strands, and bars not specifically listed in Conform to the requirements of Article 2.1A. ASTM A 416/A416 M, A 421, or A 722/A 722M are permitted, provided they conform to the minimum requirements in ASTM A 416 A/416 M, A 421, or A 722/A 722M and are approved by the Architect/Engineer.
    • S-14 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 3. Bars and wires of less than 150 ksi (1034 MPa) 1. Galvanized coatings: tensile strength and conforming to ASTM A 82, a. Mill galvanized coatings: A 510/A 510M, A 615/A 615M, ASTM A 996/A 1) Joint reinforcement ........................................ 996M, or A 706/A 706M are permitted to be used ........ ASTM A 641(0.1 oz/ft2) (0.031 kg/m2) as prestressed tendons, provided that : 2) Sheet-metal ties and sheet-metal anchors ...... a. The stress relaxation properties have been ....... ASTM A 653 Coating Designation G60 assessed by tests according to ASTM E 328 for b. Hot-dip galvanized coatings: the maximum permissible stress in the tendon. 1) Joint reinforcement, wire ties, and wire b. Other non-stress-related requirements of Code anchors .......................................................... Chapter 4 addressing prestressing tendons are met. .......... ASTM A 153 (1.50 oz/ft2) (458 g/m2) 2) Sheet-metal ties and sheet-metal anchors ...... 2.4 C. Joint reinforcement ................................... ASTM A 153 Class B 1. Provide joint reinforcement that conforms to 3) Steel plates and bars (as applicable to size ASTM A 951. Maximum spacing of cross wires and form indicated) ........................................ in ladder-type joint reinforcement and of points of ....... ASTM A 123 or ASTM A 153, Class B connection of cross wires to longitudinal wires of truss-type joint reinforcement shall be 16 in. (400 2. Epoxy coatings: mm). a. Joint reinforcement ............................................. 2. Deformed reinforcing wire — Provide deformed ......................................... ASTM A 884 Class A reinforcing wire that conforms to ASTM A 496. Type 1 —≥ 7 mils (175 µm) 3. Welded wire fabric — Provide welded wire fabric b. Wire ties and anchors.......................................... that conforms to one of the following ........ASTM A 899 Class C — 20 mils (508 µm) specifications: c. Sheet-metal ties and anchors ............................... a. Plain .............................................ASTM A 185 .............................. 20 mils (508 µm) per surface b. Deformed ......................................ASTM A 497 or manufacturer’s specification 2.4 D. Anchors, ties, and accessories — Provide 2.4 G. Corrosion protection for tendons — Protectanchors, ties, and accessories that conform to the tendons from corrosion when they are in exterior wallsfollowing specifications, except as otherwise specified: exposed to earth or weather or walls exposed to a mean 1. Plate and bent-bar anchors..... ASTM A 36/A 36M relative humidity exceeding 75 percent (corrosive 2. Sheet-metal anchors and ties .................................. environment). Select corrosion protection methods for ...................................... ASTM A 1008/A 1008 M bonded and unbonded tendons from one of the following: 3. Wire mesh ties ..................................ASTM A 185 1. Bonded tendons — Encapsulate bonded tendons in 4. Wire ties and anchors .........................ASTM A 82 corrosion resistant and watertight corrugated ducts 5. Anchor bolts ..................... ASTM A 307, Grade A complying with Article 2.4 G.1.a. Fill ducts with 6.Panel anchors (for glass unit masonry) — Provide prestressing grout complying with Article 2.4 G.1.b. 1 3/4-in. (44.5-mm) wide, 24-in. (610-mm) long, a. Ducts — High-density polyethylene or 20-gage steel strips, punched with three staggered polypropylene. rows of elongated holes, galvanized after 1) Use ducts that are mortar-tight and non- fabrication. reactive with masonry, tendons, and grout. 2) Provide ducts with an inside diameter at least 2.4 E. Stainless steel —Stainless steel items shall be 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) larger than the tendonAISI Type 304 or Type 316, and shall conform to the diameter.following: 3) Maintain ducts free of water if members to be 1. Joint reinforcement ...........................ASTM A 580 grouted are exposed to temperatures below 2. Plate and bent-bar anchors...................................... freezing prior to grouting. ............................ ASTM A 480 and ASTM A 666 4) Provide openings at both ends of ducts for 3. Sheet-metal anchors and ties .................................. grout injection. ............................ ASTM A 480 and ASTM A 240 b. Prestressing grout 4. Wire ties and anchors .......................ASTM A 580 1) Select proportions of materials for 2.4 F. Coatings for corrosion protection — Unless prestressing grout using either of the followingotherwise required, protect carbon steel joint methods as accepted by thereinforcement, ties, and anchors from corrosion by Architect/Engineer:galvanizing or epoxy coating in conformance with the a) Results of tests on fresh and hardenedfollowing minimums: prestressing grout — prior to beginning grouting operations, or
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-15 b) Prior documented experience with similar b. Provide a corrosion-inhibiting coating material materials and equipment and under with the following properties: comparable field conditions. 1) Lubrication between the tendon and the 2) Use portland cement conforming to ASTM sheathing. C 150, Type I, II, or III, that corresponds to 2) Resist flow from the sheathing within the the type upon which selection of prestressing anticipated temperature range of exposure. grout was based. 3) A continuous non-brittle film at the lowest 3) Use the minimum water content necessary for anticipated temperature of exposure. proper pumping of prestressing grout; 4) Chemically stable and non-reactive with the however, limit the water-cement ratio to a tendon, sheathing material, and masonry. maximum of 0.45 by weight. 5) An organic coating with appropriate polar- 4) Discard prestressing grout that has begun to moisture displacing and corrosion-preventive set due to delayed use. additives. 5) Do not use admixtures, unless acceptable to 6) A minimum weight not less than 2.5 lb of the Architect/Engineer. coating material per 100 ft (37.2 g of coating 6) Use water that is potable and free of materials material per m) of 0.5-in. (12.7-mm) diameter known to be harmful to masonry materials and tendon and 3.0 lb of coating material per 100 reinforcement. ft (44.6 g of coating material per m) of 0.6-in. 7) Use sand that conforms to ASTM C 144. (15.2-mm) diameter tendon. Use a sufficient 2. Unbonded tendons — Coat unbonded tendons with amount of coating material to ensure filling of a material complying with Article 2.4 G.2b and the annular space between tendon and covered with a sheathing complying with Article sheathing. 2.4 G.2a. Acceptable materials include a corrosion- 7) Extend the coating over the entire tendon inhibiting coating material with a tendon covering length. (sheathing). 8) Provide test results in accordance with Table 6 a. Provide continuous tendon sheathing over the for the corrosion-inhibiting coating material. entire tendon length to prevent loss of coating 3. Alternative methods of corrosion protection that materials during tendon installation and stressing provide a protection level equivalent to Articles procedures. Provide a sheathing of medium or 2.4 G.1 and 2.4 G.2 are permitted. Stainless steel high density polyethylene or polypropylene with prestressing tendons or tendons galvanized the following properties: according to ASTM A 153, Class B, are 1) Sufficient strength to withstand damage acceptable alternative methods. If galvanized, during fabrication, transport, installation, and further evidence must be provided that the coating tensioning. will not produce hydrogen embrittlement of the 2) Water-tightness over the entire sheathing steel. length. 2.4 H. Prestressing anchorages, couplers, and end 3) Chemical stability without embrittlement or blocks softening over the anticipated exposure 1. Provide anchorages and couplers that develop at temperature range and service life of the least 95 percent of the specified breaking strength structure. of the tendons or prestressing steel when tested in 4) Non-reactive with masonry and the tendon an unbonded condition, without exceeding corrosion-inhibiting coating. anticipated set. 5) In normal (non-corrosive) environments, a 2. Place couplers where accepted by sheathing thickness of not less than 0.025 in. Architect/Engineer. Enclose with housing that (0.6 mm). In corrosive environments, a permits anticipated movements of the couplers sheathing thickness of not less than 0.040 in. during stressing. (1.0 mm). 3. Protect anchorages, couplers, and end fittings 6) An inside diameter at least 0.010 in. (0.3 against corrosion. mm) greater than the maximum diameter of 4. Protect exposed anchorages, couplers, and end the tendon. fittings to achieve the required mechanical 7) For applications in corrosive environments, protection and fire rating for the element as connect the sheathing to intermediate and specified by local building codes. fixed anchorages in a watertight fashion, thus providing a complete encapsulation of the tendon.
    • S-16 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05Table 6 — Performance specification for corrosion-inhibiting coating Test Test Method Acceptance Criteria Dropping Point, °F (°C) ASTM D 566 or Minimum 300 (148.9) ASTM D 2265 Oil Separation @ 160° F (71.1°C) FTMS 791B Maximum 0.5 % by weight Method 321.2 Water, % maximum ASTM D 95 0.1 Flash Point, °F (°C) ASTM D 92 Minimum 300 (148.9) (Refers to oil component) Corrosion Test ASTM B 117 For normal environments: Rust Grade 7 or better 5 % Salt Fog @ 100°F (37.8°C) after 720 hr of exposure according to ASTM 5 mils (0.13 mm), minimum hours D 610. For corrosive environments : Rust Grade 7 (Q Panel type S) or better after 1000 hr of exposure according to ASTM D 610.1 Water Soluble Ions2 a. Chlorides, ppm maximum ASTM D 512 10 b. Nitrates, ppm maximum 10 c. Sulfides, ppm maximum 10 Soak Test 5% Salt Fog at 100°F (37.8°C) ASTM B 117 No emulsification of the coating after 720 hr of 5 mils (0.13 mm) coating, Q panels, (Modified) exposure type S. Immerse panels 50% in a 5% salt solution and expose to salt fog Compatibility with Sheathing a. Hardness and volume change of ASTM D 4289 Permissible change in hardness 15% polymer after exposure to grease, Permissible change in volume 10% 40 days @ 150°F (65.6°C). b. Tensile strength change of polymer ASTM D 638 Permissible change in tensile strength 30% after exposure to grease, 40 days @ 150°F (65.6°C).1 Extension of exposure time to 1000 hours for greases used in corrosive environments requires use of more or better corrosion-inhibiting additives.2 Procedure: The inside (bottom and sides) of a 33.8 oz (1L) Pyrex beaker, approximate O.D. 4.1 in. (105 mm), height 5.7 in. (145 mm), is thoroughly coated with 35.3 ± 3.5 oz (100 ± 10 g) corrosion-inhibiting coating material. The coated beaker is filled with approximately 30.4 oz (900 cc) of distilled water and heated in an oven at a controlled temperature of 100°F ± 2°F (37.8°C ± 1°C) for 4 hours. The water extraction is tested by the noted test procedures for the appropriate water soluble ions. Results are reported as ppm in the extracted water.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-172.5 — Accessories 4. Glass unit masonry — Reduce the amount of 2.5 A. Unless otherwise required, provide contraction water to account for the lack of absorption. Do not(shrinkage) joint material that conforms to one of the retemper mortar after initial set. Discard unusedfollowing standards: mortar within 11/2 hr after initial mixing. 1. ASTM D 2000, M2AA-805 Rubber shear keys 2.6 B. Grout with a minimum durometer hardness of 80. 1. Unless otherwise required, proportion and mix 2. ASTM D 2287, Type PVC 654-4 PVC shear keys grout in accordance with the requirements of with a minimum durometer hardness of 85. ASTM C 476. 3. ASTM C 920. 2. Unless otherwise required, mix grout to a 2.5 B. Unless otherwise required, provide expansion consistency that has a slump between 8 and 11 in.joint material that conforms to one of the following (203 and 279 mm).standards: 2.6 C. Thin-bed mortar for AAC – Mix thin-bed 1. ASTM C 920. mortar for AAC masonry as specified by the thin-bed 2. ASTM D 994. mortar manufacturer. 3. ASTM D 1056, Class 2A1. 2.5 C. Asphalt emulsion — Provide asphalt emulsion 2.7 — Fabricationas follows: 2.7 A. Reinforcement 1. Metal surfaces...................ASTM D 1187, Type II 1. Fabricate bars used in masonry reinforcement in 2. Porous surfaces .. ASTM D 1227, Type III, Class 1 accordance with the fabricating tolerances of ACI 315. 2.5 D. Masonry cleaner 2. Unless otherwise required, bend bars cold and do 1. Use potable water and detergents to clean not heat bars. masonry unless otherwise acceptable. 3. The minimum inside diameter of bend for stirrups 2. Unless otherwise required, do not use acid or shall be five bar diameters. caustic solutions. 4. Do not bend Grade 40 bars in excess of 180 2.5 E. Joint fillers — Use the size and shape of joint degrees. The minimum inside diameter of bend isfillers specified. five bar diameters. 5. The minimum inside bend diameter for other bars2.6 — Mixing is as follows: 2.6 A. Mortar a. No. 3 through No. 8 (M#10 through 25) 6 bar 1. Mix cementitious materials and aggregates diameters between 3 and 5 min. in a mechanical batch mixer b. No. 9 through No. 11 (M#29 through 36) 8 bar with a sufficient amount of water to produce a diameters workable consistency. Unless acceptable, do not 6. Provide standard hooks that conform to the hand mix mortar. Maintain workability of mortar following: by remixing or retempering. Discard mortar which a. A standard 180-degree hook: 180-degree bend has begun to stiffen or is not used within 21/2 hr plus a minimum extension of 4 bar diameters or after initial mixing. 21/2 in. (64 mm), whichever is greater. 2. Limit the maximum percentage of mineral oxide b. A standard 135-degree hook: a 135-degree or carbon black job-site pigments by weight of bend plus a minimum extension of 6 bar cement as follows: diameters or 4 in. (102 mm), whichever is a. Pigmented portland cement-lime mortar greater. 1) Mineral oxide pigment 10 percent c. A standard 90-degree hook: 90-degree bend 2) Carbon black pigment 2 percent plus a minimum extension of 12 bar diameters. b. Pigmented mortar cement mortar d. For stirrups: a 90- or 135-degree bend plus a 1) Mineral oxide pigment 5 percent minimum of 6 bar diameters or 21/2 in. (64 mm), 2) Carbon black pigment 1 percent whichever is greater. c. Pigmented masonry cement mortar 7. Fabricate joint reinforcement, anchors, and ties in 1) Mineral oxide pigment 5 percent accordance with this Specification and with the 2) Carbon black pigment 1 percent published specifications of the accepted 3. Do not use admixtures containing more than 0.2 manufacturer. percent chloride ions.
    • S-18 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 2.7 B. Prefabricated masonry 2. Unless otherwise required, provide prefabricated 1. Unless otherwise required, provide prefabricated masonry lintels that have an appearance similar to masonry that conforms to the provisions of ASTM the masonry units used in the wall surrounding C 901. each lintel. 3. Mark prefabricated masonry for proper location and orientation.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-19 PART 3 — EXECUTION3.1 — Inspection 2. Construct cleanouts with an opening of sufficient 3.1 A. Prior to the start of masonry construction, the size to permit removal of debris. The minimumContractor shall verify: opening dimension shall be 3 in. (76.2 mm). 1. That foundations are constructed with tolerances 3. After cleaning, close cleanouts with closures conforming to the requirements of ACI 117. braced to resist grout pressure. 2. That reinforcing dowels are positioned in accordance with the Project Drawings. 3.3 — Masonry erection 3.3 A. Bond pattern — Unless otherwise required, lay 3.1 B. If stated conditions are not met, notify the masonry in running bond.Architect/Engineer. 3.3 B. Placing mortar and units3.2 — Preparation 1. Bed and head joints — Unless otherwise required, 3.2 A. Clean reinforcement by removing mud, oil, or construct 3/8-in. (9.5-mm) thick bed and headother materials that will adversely affect or reduce bond joints, except at foundation or with glass unitat the time mortar or grout is placed. Reinforcement with masonry. Construct bed joint of the startingrust, mill scale, or a combination of both are acceptable course of foundation with a thickness not less than 1without cleaning or brushing provided the dimensions /4 in. (6.4 mm) and not more than 3/4 in. (19.1and weights, including heights of deformations, of a mm). Provide glass unit masonry bed and headcleaned sample are not less than required by the ASTM joint thicknesses in accordance with Article 3.3specification covering this reinforcement in this B.5.c. Construct joints that also conform to theSpecification. following: a. Fill holes not specified in exposed and below 3.2 B. Prior to placing masonry, remove laitance, grade masonry with mortar.loose aggregate, and anything else that would prevent b. Unless otherwise required, tool joint with amortar from bonding to the foundation. round jointer when the mortar is thumbprint 3.2 C. Wetting masonry units hard. 1. Concrete masonry — Unless otherwise required, c. Remove masonry protrusions extending 1/2 in. do not wet concrete masonry or AAC masonry (12.7 mm) or more into cells or cavities to be units before laying. Wet cutting is permitted. grouted. 2. Clay or shale masonry — Wet clay or shale 2. Collar joints — Unless otherwise required, solidly masonry units having initial absorption rates in fill collar joints less than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) wide excess of 1 g per min. per in.2 (0.0016 g per min. with mortar as the job progresses. per mm2), when measured in accordance with 3. Hollow units — Place hollow units so: ASTM C 67, so the initial rate of absorption will a. Face shells of bed joints are fully mortared. not exceed 1 g per min. per in.2 (0.0016 g per min. b. Webs are fully mortared in all courses of piers, per mm2) when the units are used. Lay wetted columns and pilasters, in the starting course on units when surface dry. Do not wet clay or shale foundations, and when necessary to confine masonry units having an initial absorption rate grout or loose-fill insulation. less than 0.2 g per min. per in.2 (0.00031 g per c. Head joints are mortared, a minimum distance min. per mm2). from each face equal to the face shell thickness of the unit. 3.2 D. Debris — Construct grout spaces free of mortar d. Vertical cells to be grouted are aligned anddropping, debris, loose aggregates, and any material unobstructed openings for grout are provided indeleterious to masonry grout. accordance with the Project Drawings. 3.2 E. Reinforcement — Place reinforcement and ties 4. Solid units — Unless otherwise required, solidlyin grout spaces prior to grouting. fill bed and head joints with mortar and: a. Do not fill head joints by slushing with mortar. 3.2 F. Cleanouts — Provide cleanouts in the bottom b. Construct head joints by shoving mortar tightcourse of masonry for each grout pour when the grout against the adjoining unit.pour height exceeds 5 ft (1.52 m). c. Do not deeply furrow bed joints. 1. Construct cleanouts so that the space to be grouted can be cleaned and inspected. In solid grouted masonry, space cleanouts horizontally a maximum of 32 in. (813 mm) on center.
    • S-20 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 5. Glass units 3.3 C. Placing adhered veneer a. Apply a complete coat of asphalt emulsion, not 1. Brush a paste of neat portland cement on the exceeding 1/8 in. (3.2 mm) in thickness, to panel backing and on the back of the veneer unit. bases. 2. Apply Type S mortar to the backing and to the b. Lay units so head and bed joints are filled veneer unit. solidly. Do not furrow mortar. 3. Tap the veneer unit into place, completely filling c. Unless otherwise required, construct head and the space between the veneer unit and the bed joints of glass unit masonry 1/4-in. (6.4-mm) backing. Sufficient mortar shall be used to create thick, except that vertical joint thickness of a slight excess to be forced out between the edges radial panels shall not be less than 1/8 in. (3.2 of the veneer units. The resulting thickness of the mm). The bed-joint thickness tolerance shall be mortar in back of the veneer unit shall not be less minus 1/16 in. (1.6 mm) and plus 1/8 in. (3.2 than 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) nor more than 1¼ in. (31.8 mm). The head-joint thickness tolerance shall mm). be plus or minus 1/8 in. (3.2 mm). 4. Tool the mortar joint with a round jointer when d. Do not cut glass units. the mortar is thumbprint hard. 6. All units a. Place clean units while the mortar is soft and 3.3 D. Prefabricated concrete and masonry items — plastic. Remove and re-lay in fresh mortar any Erect prefabricated concrete and masonry items in unit disturbed to the extent that initial bond is accordance with the requirements. broken after initial positioning. b. Except for glass units, cut exposed edges or 3.3 E. Embedded items and accessories — Install faces of masonry units smooth, or position so embedded items and accessories as follows: that exposed faces or edges are unaltered 1. Construct chases as masonry units are laid. manufactured surfaces. 2. Install pipes and conduits passing horizontally c. When the bearing of a masonry wythe on its through nonbearing masonry partitions. support is less than two-thirds of the wythe 3. Place pipes and conduits passing horizontally thickness, notify the Architect/Engineer. through piers, pilasters, or columns. 7. AAC masonry 4. Place horizontal pipes and conduits in and parallel a. Place mortar for leveling bed joint in to plane of walls. accordance with the requirements of Article 5. Install and secure connectors, flashing, weep 3.3 B.1. holes, weep vents, nailing blocks, and other b. Lay subsequent courses using thin-bed mortar. accessories. Use special notched trowels manufactured for 6. Install movement joints. use with thin-bed mortar to spread thin-bed 7. Aluminum — Do not embed aluminum conduits, mortar so that it completely fills the bed joints. pipes, and accessories in masonry, grout, or Unless otherwise specified in the Contract mortar, unless effectively coated or covered to Documents, similarly fill the head joints. prevent chemical reaction between aluminum and Spread mortar and place the next unit before cement or electrolytic action between aluminum the mortar dries. Place each AAC unit as close and steel. to head joint as possible before lowering the 3.3 F. Bracing of masonry — Design, provide, and block onto the bed joint. Avoid excessive install bracing that will assure stability of masonry movement along bed joint. Make adjustments during construction. while thin-bed mortar is still soft and plastic by tapping to plumb and bring units into 3.3 G. Site tolerances — Erect masonry within the alignment. Set units into final position, in following tolerances from the specified dimensions. mortar joints approximately 1/16-in. (1.5-mm) 1. Dimension of elements thick, by striking on the end and top with a a. In cross section or elevation rubber mallet. .................... -1/4 in. (6.4 mm), +1/2 in. (12.7 mm) c. Lay units in alignment with the plane of the b. Mortar joint thickness wall. Align vertically and plumb using the first bed............................................ ±1/8 in. (3.2 mm) course for reference. Make minor adjustments head ............ - 1/4 in. (6.4 mm), + 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) by sanding the exposed faces of the units and collar ........... -1/4 in. (6.4 mm), + 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) the bed joint surface with a sanding board glass unit masonry.............. see Article 3.3 B.5.c manufactured for use with AAC masonry. c. Grout space or cavity width, except for masonry walls passing framed construction ..................... -1/4 in. (6.4 mm), + 3/8 in. (9.5 mm)
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-21 2. Elements 5. Unless accepted by the Architect/Engineer, do not a. Variation from level: bend reinforcement after it is embedded in grout bed joints or mortar. .......................±1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft (3.05 m) 6. Place joint reinforcement so that longitudinal ............................... ±1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximum wires are embedded in mortar with a minimum top surface of bearing walls cover of 1/2 in. (12.7 mm) when not exposed to .......................±1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft (3.05 m) weather or earth and 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) when ............................... ±1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximum exposed to weather or earth. 7. Placement tolerances b. Variation from plumb a. Tolerances for the placement of steel in walls .......................±1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft (3.05 m) and flexural elements shall be ± 1/2 in. (12.7 .......................±3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in 20 ft (6.10 m) mm) when the distance from the centerline of .................................. ±1/2 in. (13 mm) maximum steel to the opposite face of masonry, d, is equal c. True to a line to 8 in. (203 mm) or less, ± 1 in. (25.4 mm) for .......................±1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in 10 ft (3.05 m) d equal to 24 in. (610 mm) or less but greater .......................±3/8 in. (9.5 mm) in 20 ft (6.10 m) than 8 in. (203 mm), and ± 11/4 in. (31.8 mm) ............................... ±1/2 in. (12.7 mm) maximum for d greater than 24 in. (610 mm). b. Place vertical bars within 2 in. (50.8 mm) of the d. Alignment of columns and walls required location along the length of the wall. (bottom versus top) c. If it is necessary to move bars more than one .................... ±1/2 in. (12.7 mm) for bearing walls bar diameter or a distance exceeding the .............. ±3/4 in. (19.1 mm) for nonbearing walls tolerance stated above to avoid interference 3. Location of elements with other reinforcing steel, conduits, or a. Indicated in plan embedded items, notify the Architect/Engineer .....................±1/2 in. (12.7 mm) in 20 ft (6.10 m) for acceptance of the resulting arrangement of ............................... ±3/4 in. (19.1 mm) maximum bars. b. Indicated in elevation .......................... ±1/4 in. (6.4 mm) in story height 3.4 C. Wall ties ............................... ±3/4 in. (19.1 mm) maximum 1. Embed the ends of wall ties in mortar joints. Embed wall tie ends at least 1/2 in. (13 mm) into the 4. If the above conditions cannot be met due to outer face shell of hollow units. Embed wire wall previous construction, notify the Architect/ ties at least 11/2 in. (38.1 mm) into the mortar bed of Engineer. solid masonry units or solid grouted hollow units. 2. Unless otherwise required, bond wythes not3.4 — Reinforcement, tie, and anchor installation bonded by headers with wall ties as follows: 3.4 A. Basic requirements — Place reinforcement,wall ties, and anchors in accordance with the sizes, Wire Minimum number oftypes, and locations indicated on the Project Drawings size wall ties requiredand as specified. Do not place dissimilar metals in W1.7 (MW11) One per 2.67 ft2 (0.25 m2)contact with each other. W2.8 (MW18) One per 4.50 ft2 (0.42 m2) 3.4 B. Reinforcement The maximum spacing between ties is 36 in. (914 1. Support and fasten reinforcement together to mm) horizontally and 24 in. (610 mm) vertically. prevent displacement beyond the tolerances 3. Unless accepted by the Architect/Engineer, do not allowed by construction loads or by placement of bend wall ties after being embedded in grout or grout or mortar. mortar. 2. Completely embed reinforcing bars in grout in 4. Unless otherwise required, install adjustable ties accordance with Article 3.5. in accordance with the following requirements: 3. Maintain clear distance between reinforcing bars a. One tie for each 1.77 ft2 (0.16 m2) of wall area. and any face of masonry unit or formed surface, b. Do not exceed 16 in. (406 mm) horizontal or but not less than 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) for fine grout or vertical spacing. 1 /2 in. (12.7 mm) for coarse grout. c. The maximum misalignment of bed joints from 4. Splice only where indicated on the Project one wythe to the other is 11/4 in. (31.8 mm). Drawings, unless otherwise acceptable. When d. The maximum clearance between connecting splicing by welding, provide welds in parts of the ties is 1/16 in. (1.6 mm). conformance with the provisions of AWS D 1.4. e. When pintle legs are used, provide ties with at least two legs made of wire size W2.8 (MW18).
    • S-22 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 5. Install wire ties perpendicular to a vertical line on 6. Space anchors at a maximum of 32 in. (813 mm) the face of the wythe from which they protrude. horizontally and 18 in. (457 mm) vertically. Where one-piece ties or joint reinforcement are 7. Provide additional anchors around openings larger used, the bed joints of adjacent wythes shall align. than 16 in. (406 mm) in either dimension. Space 6. Unless otherwise required, provide additional unit anchors around the perimeter of opening at a ties around openings larger than 16 in. (406 mm) maximum of 3 ft (0.9 m) on center. Place anchors in either dimension. Space ties around perimeter within 12 in. (305 mm) of opening. of opening at a maximum of 3 ft (0.91 m) on 3.4 E. Glass unit masonry panel anchors — When center. Place ties within 12 in. (305 mm) of used instead of channel-type restraints, install panel opening. anchors as follows: 7. Unless otherwise required, provide unit ties 1. Unless otherwise required, space panel anchors at within 12 in. (305 mm) of unsupported edges at 16 in. (406 mm) in both the jambs and across the horizontal or vertical spacing given in Article 3.4 head. C.2. 2. Embed panel anchors a minimum of 12 in. (305 3.4 D. Veneer anchors — Place corrugated sheet-metal mm), except for panels less than 2 ft (0.61 m) inanchors, sheet-metal anchors, and wire anchors as the direction of embedment. When a panelfollows: dimension is less than 2 ft (0.61 m), embed panel 1. With solid units, embed anchors in mortar joint anchors in the short direction a minimum of 6 in. and extend into the veneer a minimum of 1 ½ in. (152 mm), unless otherwise required. (38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) cover 3. Provide two fasteners, capable of resisting the to the outside face. required loads, per panel anchor. 2. With hollow units, embed anchors in mortar or grout and extend into the veneer a minimum of 3.5 — Grout placement 1 ½ in. (38.1 mm), with at least 5/8 in. (15.9 mm) 3.5 A. Placing time — Place grout within 11/2 hr from mortar or grout cover to outside face. introducing water in the mixture and prior to initial set. 3. Install adjustable anchors in accordance with the 3.5 B. Confinement — Confine grout to the areas requirements of Articles 3.4 C.4.c, d, and e. indicated on the Project Drawings. Use material to 4. Provide at least one adjustable two-piece anchor, confine grout that permits bond between masonry units anchor of wire size W 1.7 (MW11), or 22 gage and mortar. (0.8 mm) corrugated sheet-metal anchor for each 2.67 ft2 (0.25 m2) of wall area. 3.5 C. Grout pour height — Do not exceed the 5. Provide at least one anchor of all other types for maximum grout pour height given in Table 7. each 3.5 ft2 (0.33 m2) of wall area. Table 7 — Grout space requirements Grout type1 Maximum grout Minimum width of Minimum grout space pour height, grout space,2,3 dimensions for grouting ft (m) in. (mm) cells of hollow units,3,4,5 in. x in. (mm x mm) 3 Fine 1 (0.30) /4 (19.1) 11/2 x 2 (38.1 x 50.8) Fine 5 (1.52) 2 (50.8) 2 x 3 (50.8 x 76.2) Fine 12 (3.66) 21/2 (63.5) 21/2 x 3 (63.5 x 76.2) Fine 24 (7.32) 3 (76.2) 3 x 3 (76.2 x 76.2) Coarse 1 (0.30) 11/2 (38.1) 11/2 x 3 (38.1 x 76.2) Coarse 5 (1.52) 2 (50.8) 21/2 x 3 (63.5 x 76.2) Coarse 12 (3.66) 21/2 (63.5) 3 x 3 (76.2 x 76.2) Coarse 24 (7.32) 3 (76.2) 3 x 4 (76 .2x 102) 1 Fine and coarse grouts are defined in ASTM C 476. 2 For grouting between masonry wythes. 3 Grout space dimension is the clear dimension between any masonry protrusion and shall be increased by the diameters of the horizontal bars within the cross section of the grout space. 4 Area of vertical reinforcement shall not exceed 6 percent of the area of the grout space. 5 Minimum grout space dimension for AAC masonry units shall be 3-in. x 3-in. or a 3-in. diameter cell.
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-23 3.5 D. Grout lift height — Where the following 3.6 B. Application and measurement of prestressing conditions are met, place grout in lifts not exceeding force 12.67 ft (3.86 m). 1. Determine the prestressing force by both of the 1. The masonry has cured for at least 4 hours. following methods: 2. The grout slump is maintained between 10 and 11 a. Measure the prestressing tendon elongation and in. (254 and 279 mm). compare it with the required elongation based on 3. No intermediate reinforced bond beams are placed average load-elongation curves for the between the top and the bottom of the pour height. prestressing tendons. b. Observe the jacking force on a calibrated gage Otherwise, place grout in lifts not exceeding 5 ft or load cell or by use of a calibrated(1.52 m). dynamometer. For prestressing tendons using 3.5 E. Consolidation — Consolidate grout at the time bars of less than 150 ksi (1034 MPa) tensileof placement. strength, Direct Tension Indicator (DTI) washers 1. Consolidate grout pours 12 in. (305 mm) or less complying with ASTM F 959 are acceptable. in height by mechanical vibration or by puddling. 2. Ascertain the cause of the difference in force 2. Consolidate pours exceeding 12 in. (305 mm) in determined by the two methods described in height by mechanical vibration, and reconsolidate Article 3.6.B.1. when the difference exceeds 5 by mechanical vibration after initial water loss and percent for pretensioned elements or 7 percent for settlement has occurred. post-tensioned elements, and correct the cause of the difference. 3.5 F. Alternate grout placement — Place masonry 3. When the total loss of prestress due to unreplacedunits and grout using construction procedures employed broken prestressing tendons exceeds 2 percent ofin the accepted grout demonstration panel. total prestress, notify the Architect/Engineer. 3.5 G. Grout for AAC masonry -- Use grout 3.6 C. Grouting bonded tendonsconforming to ASTM C 476. Wet AAC masonry 1. Mix prestressing grout in equipment capable ofthoroughly before grouting to ensure that the grout flows continuous mechanical mixing and agitation so asto completely fill the space to be grouted. Grout slump to produce uniform distribution of materials, passshall be between 8 in. and 11 in. (203 and 279 mm) through screens, and pump in a manner that willwhen determined in accordance with ASTM C 143. completely fill tendon ducts. 2. Maintain temperature of masonry above 35°F3.6 — Prestressing tendon installation and stressing (1.7°C) at time of grouting and until field-cured 2 procedure in. (50.8 mm) cubes of prestressing grout reach a 3.6 A. Site tolerances minimum compressive strength of 800 psi (5.52 1. Tolerance for prestressing tendon placement in the MPa). out-of-plane direction in beams, columns, pilasters, and walls shall be ± 1/4 in. (6.4 mm) for masonry 3. Keep prestressing grout temperatures below 90°F cross-sectional dimensions less than nominal 8 in. (32.2°C) during mixing and pumping. (203 mm) and ± 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) for masonry cross- 3.6 D. Burning and welding operations — Carefully sectional dimensions equal to or greater than perform burning and welding operations in the nominal 8 in. (203 mm). vicinity of prestressing tendons so that tendons and 2. Tolerance for prestressing tendon placement in sheathings, if used, are not subjected to excessive the in-plane direction of walls shall be ± 1 in. temperatures, welding sparks, or grounding (25.4 mm). currents. 3. If prestressing tendons are moved more than one tendon diameter or a distance exceeding the 3.7 — Field quality control tolerances stated in Articles 3.6 A.1 and 3.6 A.2 to 3.7 A. Verify f m and f AAC in accordance with avoid interference with other tendons, Article 1.6. reinforcement, conduits, or embedded items, notify 3.7 B. Sample and test grout as required by Articles the Architect/Engineer for acceptance of the 1.4 B and 1.6. resulting arrangement of prestressing tendons. 3.8 — Cleaning Clean exposed masonry surfaces of stains, efflorescence, mortar or grout droppings, and debris.
    • S-24 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 FOREWORD TO SPECIFICATION CHECKLISTS F1. Checklists that follow do not form a part of including the Architect/Engineer’s decision on each itemSpecification ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05. as a mandatory requirement in the project specifications.The purpose of these Checklists is to assist the F3. The Checklists that follow are addressed toArchitect/Engineer in properly choosing and specifying each item of this Specification where thethe necessary mandatory and optional requirements for Architect/Engineer must or may make a choice ofthe project specifications. alternatives; may add provisions if not indicated; or may F2. Building codes (of which this standard is a part take exceptions. The Checklists consist of two columns;by reference) set minimum requirements necessary to the first identifies the sections, parts, and articles of theprotect the public. Project specifications often stipulate Specification, and the second column contains notes torequirements more restrictive than the minimum. the Architect/Engineer to indicate the type of actionAdjustments to the needs of a particular project are required by the Architect/Engineer.intended to be made by the Architect/Engineer byreviewing each of the items in the Checklists and then
    • SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES S-25 MANDATORY REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST Section/Part/Article Notes to the Architect/Engineer PART 1 — GENERAL1.4 A Compressive strength requirements Specify f ′m and f ′AAC , except for veneer, glass unit masonry, and empirically designed masonry. Specify f ′mi for prestressed masonry. 1.4 B.2 Unit strength method Specify when strength of grout is to be determined by test. 1.6 Quality assurance Define the submittal reporting and review procedure. 1.6 A.1 Testing Agency’s services and duties Specify which of Tables 3, 4, or 5 applies to the project. 1.6 B.1 Inspection Agency’s services and Specify which of Tables 3, 4, or 5 applies to the project. duties PART 2 — PRODUCTS 2.1 Mortar materials Specify type, color, and cementitious materials to be used in mortar and mortar to be used for the various parts of the project and the type of mortar to be used with each type of masonry unit. 2.3 Masonry unit materials Specify the masonry units to be used for the various parts of the projects. 2.4 Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, Specify type and grade of reinforcement, tendons, connectors, and and metal accessories accessories. 2.4 C.3 Welded wire fabric Specify when welded wire fabric is to be plain. 2.4 E Stainless steel Specify when stainless steel joint reinforcement, anchors, ties, and/or accessories are required. 2.4 F Coating for corrosion protection Specify which interior walls are governed by this provision. 2.4 G Corrosion protection for tendons Specify the corrosion protection method. 2.4 H Prestressing anchorages, couplers, and Specify the anchorages and couplers and their corrosion end blocks protection. 2.5 E Joint fillers Specify size and shape of joint fillers. 2.7 B Prefabricated masonry Specify prefabricated masonry and requirements in supplement of those of ASTM C 901. PART 3 — EXECUTION 3.3 E.2 Pipes and conduits Specify sleeve sizes and spacing. 3.3 E.6 Accessories Specify accessories not indicated on the project drawings. 3.3 E.7 Movement joints Indicate type and location of movement joints on the project drawings.
    • S-26 ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 OPTIONAL REQUIREMENTS CHECKLIST Section/Part/Article Notes to the Architect/Engineer PART 1 — GENERAL 1.5 B Specify required submittals. 1.6 Quality assurance Define who will pay for testing and inspection services, if other than the Owner. PART 2 — PRODUCTS 2.2 Specify grout requirements at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. Specify admixtures. 2.5 A Movement joint Specify requirements at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. and 2.5 B 2.5 D Masonry cleaner Specify where acid or caustic solutions are allowed and how to neutralize them. 2.6 A Mortar Specify if hand mixing is allowed and the method of measurement of material. 2.6 B.1 Grout proportioning and mixing Specify requirements at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602 PART 3 — EXECUTION 3.2 C Wetting masonry units Specify when units are to be wetted. 3.3 A Bond pattern Specify bond pattern other than running bond. 3.3 B.1 Bed and head joints Specify thickness and tooling differing from ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. 3.3 B.2 Collar joints Specify the filling of collar joints less than 3/4 in. (19.1 mm) thick differing from ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. 3.3 B.3 Hollow units Specify when cross webs are to be mortar bedded. 3.3 B.4 Solid units Specify mortar bedding at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. 3.3 B.5 Glass units Specify mortar bedding at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602. 3.3 E.2 Embedded items and accessories Specify locations where sleeves are required for pipes or conduits. 3.4 C.2, 3, and 4 Specify requirements at variance with ACI 530.1/ASCE 6/TMS 602.
    • Commentary on Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05) Reported by the Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) Richard E. Klingner Jason J. Thompson Chair SecretaryVoting Members of Main Committee1:Ronald E. Barnett Thomas A. Gangel John H. Matthys Arturo E. SchultzRichard M. Bennett David C. Gastgeb W. Mark McGinley John G. TawreseyFrank Berg Satyendra K. Ghosh David McLean Margaret ThomsonDavid T. Biggs H. R. Hamilton, III Donald G. McMican Diane B. ThroopJ. Gregg Borchelt Craig Henderson John M. Melander Brian J. WalkerDean Brown Ronald J. Hunsicker Vilas Mujumdar Scott W. WalkowiczRussell H. Brown Keith Itzler Robert L. Nelson Terence A. WeigelRobert N Chittenden Rochelle C. Jaffe James L. Nicholos Rhett WhitlockJohn Chrysler Eric N. Johnson Jerry M. Painter Thomas D. WrightGerald A. Dalrymple Rashod R. Johnson Max L. Porter Daniel S. ZechmeisterVoting Members of Subcommittees Only2:Felipe Babbitt Steve Dill Mervyn Kowalsky Raymond T. MillerJim Bryja Edgar F. Glock, Jr. Walt Laska Keith PeetzGeorge Crow Dennis Graber Nick Loomis Dave WoodhamTerry M. Curtis John Kariotis Ali MemariSubcommittee Associate Members (A) and Main Committee Consulting Members(C)3:Ghassan Al-Chaar (A) Augustin Dukuze (A) John Kiland (A) Malcolm Phipps (A)Amde Amde (A) Jeffrey L. Elder (A) Waseem Khan (A) Joseph E. Saliba (A)James E. Amrhein (A & C) Hany Elshafie (A) Fred Kinateder Daniel Shapiro (A & C)Bruce Barnes (A) Rick Filloramo (A) Steve Lawrence (A) Nigel Shrive (A)Bill Bailey (A) Fouad Fouad (A) Hugh C. MacDonald (A & C) + Christine A. Subasic (A)Christine Beall (A) Chrs Galitz (A) Darrell McMillian (A) John Swink (A)John Bufford (A) Hans Ganz (A) George Miller (A) + Mike Tate (A)Leroy Caldwell (A) Felix Goldman (A) W. Thomas Munsell Itzhak Tepper (A)I-Kwang Chang (A) Clayford T. Grimm (C) + Colin C. Munro (A & C) Charles Tucker (A)James Colville (A & C) Ahmad A. Hamid (A) Javeed Munshi (A) Robert E. VanLaningham (A)Robert W. Crooks (A & C) Augusto Holmberg (A) Tony Nanni (A) William A. Wood (A)Walter Dickey (C) + Edwin T. Huston (A) Mel Oller (A) Barry Woodard (A)Howard L. Droz (A) Jason Ingham (A) Adrian Page (A)SYNOPSIS Keywords: clay brick; concrete block; construction; constructionThis Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6- materials; curing; glass unit masonry; grout; grouting; inspection; joints;05/TMS 602-05) is written as a master specification and is required by masonry; materials handling; mortars (material and placement);Building Code Requirements for Masonry Structures (ACI 530/ASCE prestressed masonry; quality assurance and quality control; reinforcing5/TMS 402) to control materials, labor, and construction. This steel; specifications; tests; tolerances; veneer (anchored and adhered).commentary discusses some of the considerations of the committee indeveloping this Specification with emphasis given to the explanation of This Commentary is intended for guidance in designing, planning,new or revised provisions that may be unfamiliar to code users. executing, or inspecting construction and in preparing specifications. References to much of the research data used to prepare this References to this document should not be made in the ProjectSpecification are cited for the user desiring to study individual items in Documents. If items in this document are desired to be a part of thegreater detail. Other documents that provide suggestions for carrying Project Documents, they should be phrased in mandatory language andout the provisions of this Specification are also cited. The subjects incorporated into the Project Documents.covered are those given in this Specification. The chapter and articlenumbering of this Specification are followed throughout.1 Main Committee Members participate in Subcommittee and Main Committee activities, including correspondence and voting.2 Subcommittee Members participate in Committee activities, vote on Subcommittee Ballots, and can comment on Main Committee ballots.3 Associate and Consulting Members participate in Committee activities.+Deceased.SI equivalents shown in this document are calculated conversions. Equations are based on U.S. Customary (inch-pound) Units; SI equivalents for equations are listed atthe end of the Code.
    • SC-2 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 CONTENTSINTRODUCTION, pg. SC-3PART 1 — GENERAL, pg. SC-4 1.1 — Summary .......................................................................................................................................SC-4 1.2 — Definitions .....................................................................................................................................SC-4 1.3 — Reference standards .......................................................................................................................SC-4 1.4 — System description ........................................................................................................................SC-4 1.5 — Submittals ......................................................................................................................................SC-7 1.6 — Quality assurance ..........................................................................................................................SC-7 1.7 — Delivery, storage, and handling .....................................................................................................SC-7 1.8 — Project conditions ..........................................................................................................................SC-8 References ................................................................................................................................................SC-8PART 2 — PRODUCTS, pg. SC-10 2.1 — Mortar materials ..........................................................................................................................SC-10 2.2 — Grout materials ............................................................................................................................SC-11 2.3 — Masonry unit materials ................................................................................................................SC-11 2.4 — Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and metal accessories ......................................................SC-13 2.5 — Accessories ..................................................................................................................................SC-15 2.6 — Mixing .........................................................................................................................................SC-16 2.7 — Fabrication ...................................................................................................................................SC-16 References ..............................................................................................................................................SC-17PART 3 — EXECUTION, pg. SC-18 3.1 — Inspection ....................................................................................................................................SC-18 3.2 — Preparation ..................................................................................................................................SC-18 3.3 — Masonry erection .........................................................................................................................SC-18 3.4 — Reinforcement, tie, and anchor installation .................................................................................SC-19 3.5 — Grout placement ..........................................................................................................................SC-20 3.6 — Prestressing tendon installation and stressing procedure ............................................................SC-21 3.7 — Field quality control ....................................................................................................................SC-21 References ...............................................................................................................................................SC-21
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-3 INTRODUCTION Chapter 1 of the Building Code Requirements for which the Architect/Engineer may cite in the contractMasonry Structures (ACI 530-05/ASCE 5-05/TMS 402- documents for any project. Owners, through their05) makes the Specification for Masonry Structures (ACI representatives (Architect/Engineer), may write530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05) an integral part of requirements into contract documents that are morethe Code. ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 stringent than those of ACI 530.1-05/ASCE 6-05/TMSSpecification sets minimum construction requirements 602-05. This can be accomplished with supplementalregarding the materials used in and the erection of specifications to this Specification.masonry structures. Specifications are written to set The contractor should not be required throughminimum acceptable levels of performance for the contract documents to comply with the Code or tocontractor. This commentary is directed to the assume responsibility regarding design (Code)Architect/Engineer writing the project specifications. requirements. The Code is not intended to be made a part This Commentary covers some of the points that the of the contract documents.Masonry Standards Joint Committee (MSJC) considered The Preface and the Foreword to Specificationin developing the provisions of the Code, which are Checklists contain information that explains the functionwritten into this Specification. Further explanation and and use of this Specification. The Checklists are adocumentation of some of the provisions of this summary of the Articles that require a decision by theSpecification are included. Comments on specific Architect/Engineer preparing the contract documents.provisions are made under the corresponding part or Project specifications should include the information thatsection and article numbers of this Code and relates to those Checklist items that are pertinent to theSpecification. project. All projects require response to the mandatory As stated in the Preface, Specification ACI 530.1- requirements.05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 is a reference standard
    • SC-4 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 PART 1 — GENERAL1.1 — Summary American Welding Society 1.1 C The scope of the work is outlined in this 550 N.W. LeJeune Roadarticle. All of these tasks and materials will not appear in Miami, Florida 33126every project. www.aws.org1.2 — Definitions Federal Test Method Standard from: For consistent application of this Specification, it is U.S. Army General Material and Parts Centernecessary to define terms that have particular meaning in Petroleum Field Office (East)this Specification. The definitions given are for use in New Cumberland Army Depotapplication of this Specification only and do not always New Cumberland, PA 17070correspond to ordinary usage. Definitions have beencoordinated between the Code and Specification. 1.4 — System description The permitted tolerances for units are given in the 1.4 A. Compressive strength requirements — Designappropriate materials standards. Permitted tolerances for is based on a certain f ′m or f ′AAC and this compressivejoints and masonry construction are given in this strength value must be achieved or exceeded. In aSpecification. Nominal dimensions are usually used to multiwythe wall designed as a composite wall, theidentify the size of a masonry unit. The thickness or compressive strength of masonry for each wythe orwidth is given first, followed by height and length. grouted collar joint must equal or exceed f ′m or f ′AAC .Nominal dimensions are normally given in wholenumbers nearest to the specified dimensions. Specified 1.4 B. Compressive strength determinationdimensions are most often used for design calculations. 1.4 B.1 There are two separate methods to determine compressive strength of masonry. The unit1.3 — Reference standards strength method eliminates the expense of prism tests but This list of standards includes material is more conservative than the prism test method. The unitspecifications, sampling, test methods, detailing strength method was generated by using prism test datarequirements, design procedures, and classifications. as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. When the method is notStandards produced by ASTM International (ASTM) are specified by the architect or engineer, the Specificationreferenced whenever possible. Material manufacturers permits the contractor to select the method ofand testing laboratories are familiar with ASTM determining the compressive strength of masonry.standards that are the result of a consensus process. In 1.4 B.2 Unit strength method — Compliancethe few cases not covered by existing standards, the with the requirement for f ′m , based on the compressivecommittee generated its own requirements. Specific strength of masonry units, grout, and mortar type, isdates are given since changes to the standards alter this permitted instead of prism testing.Specification. Many of these standards require The influence of mortar joint thickness is noted bycompliance with additional standards. the maximum joint thickness. Grout strength greater than or equal to f ′m fulfills the requirements of SpecificationContact information for these organizations is given Article 1.4 A and Code Section 1.15.7.1.below: 1.4 B.2.a Clay masonry — The values of net area compressive strength of clay masonry in Table 1 American Concrete Institute were derived using the following equation taken from 38800 Country Club Drive Reference 1.1: Farmington Hills, MI 48331 f m′ = A(400 + B f u ) www.aci-int.org where American National Standards Institute A = 1 (inspected masonry) 25 West 43rd Street, B = 0.2 for Type N portland cement-lime New York, NY 10036 mortar, 0.25 for Type S or M portland www.ansi.org cement-lime mortar fu = average compressive strength of brick, psi ASTM, Inc. f ′m = specified compressive strength of masonry 100 Barr Harbor Drive West Conshohocken, PA 19428-2959 Rearranging terms and letting A = 1.0 www.astm.org f ′ − 400 fu = m B
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-5 (These equations are for inch-pound units only.) Code uses a different method to design for axial stress so it was necessary to change the basic prism h/t ratio toThese values were based on testing of solid clay masonry two. This corresponds to the h/t ratio used for concreteunits1.1 and portland cement-lime mortar. Further testing1.2 masonry in the Code and for all masonry in other codes.has shown that the values are applicable for hollow clay The net effect is to increase the net area compressivemasonry units and for both types of units with all mortar strength of brick masonry by 22 percent over that intypes. A plot of the data is shown in Fig. 1. Reference 1.1. Reference 1.1 uses a height-to-thickness ratio of fiveas a basis to establish prism compressive strength. The Fig. 1 — Compressive strength of masonry versus clay masonry unit strength
    • SC-6 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 Fig. 2 — Compressive strength of masonry versus concrete masonry unit strength 1.4 B.2.b Concrete masonry — In building Table 2 lists compressive strength of masonry ascodes1.3, 1.4 prior to the Code, the compressive strength of related to concrete masonry unit strength and mortarconcrete masonry was based on the net cross-sectional type. These relationships are plotted in Fig. 2 along witharea of the masonry unit, regardless of whether the prism data from 329 tests1.5 - 1.11. The curves in Fig. 2 arewas constructed using full or face shell mortar bedding. shown to be conservative when masonry strength isFurthermore, in these previous codes, the designer was based on unit strength and mortar type. In order to userequired to base axial stress calculations on the net area face shell bedded prism data in determining the unitof the unit regardless of the type of mortar bedding used. strength to masonry compressive strength relationshipThe Code has developed a standard compressive strength used in the Specification, a correlation factor betweenof masonry test procedure based on full mortar bedding face shell prisms and full bedded prisms was developed.of the prism. Strength calculations are based on dividing Based on 125 specimens tested with full mortar beddingthe maximum load on the prism by the net cross- and face shell mortar bedding, the correlation factor wassectional area of the masonry unit. determined to be 1.291.5 - 1.7,1.12. The face shell bedded Design of concrete masonry sections is based on net prism strength multiplied by this correlation factorcross-sectional area, which requires the designer to determines the full mortar bedded prism strength whichdifferentiate between the face shell mortar bedded area is used in the Code.and the full mortar bedded area. These revisions to the 1.4 B.2.c – AAC masonry – The strength ofmethods of determining prism strength and calculating AAC masonry, f ′AAC , is controlled by the strength classstresses altered the relationship between the unit of the AAC unit as defined by ASTM C 1386. Thecompressive strength and the compressive strength of strength of the thin-bed mortar and its bond inmasonry to that listed in Table 2 in this Specification. compression and shear will exceed the strength of the unit.
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-7 1.4 B.3 Prism test method — The prism test Laboratories that comply with the requirements ofmethod described in ASTM C 1314 was selected as a ASTM C 1093 are more likely to be familiar withuniform method of testing masonry to determine its masonry materials and testing. Specifying that the testingcompressive strength. The prism test method is used as agencies comply with the requirements of ASTM C 1093an alternative to the unit strength method. is suggested. Compliance with the specified compressive strength 1.6 B. Inspection Agency’s services and duties —of masonry can be determined by the prism method The Code and this Specification require that all masonryinstead of the unit strength method. ASTM C 1314 uses be inspected. The allowable stresses used in the Code arethe same materials and workmanship to construct the based on the premise that the work will be inspected, andprisms as those to be used in the structure. References that quality assurance measures will be implemented.1.13 through 1.17 discuss prism testing. Many more Minimum testing and minimum inspection requirementsreferences on the prism test method parameters and results are given in Specification Tables 3, 4, and 5. Thecould be added. The adoption of ASTM C 1314 alleviates Architect/Engineer may increase the amount of testingmost of the concerns stated in the above references. and inspection required. The method of payment forASTM C 1314 replaced ASTM E 447, which was inspection services is usually addressed in generalreferenced in editions of the Specification prior to 1999. conditions or other contract documents and usually is not 1.4 C. Adhered veneer requirements — Adhesion governed by this article.should be verified if a form release agent, an applied 1.6 C. Contractor’s services and duties — Thecoating, or a smooth surface is present on the backing. contractor establishes mix designs, the source for supply of materials, and suggests change orders.1.5 — Submittals The listing of duties of the inspection agency, Submittals and their subsequent acceptance or testing agency, and contractor provide for a coordinationrejection on a timely basis will keep the project moving of their tasks and a means of reporting results. Thesmoothly. contractor is bound by contract to supply and place the If the specifier wishes to require a higher level of materials required by the contract documents. Perfectionquality assurance than the minimum required by this is obviously the goal, but factors of safety included inSpecification, submittals may be required for one or the design method recognize that some deviation frommore of the following: shop drawings for reinforced perfection will exist. Engineering judgment must be usedmasonry and lintels; sample specimens of masonry units, to evaluate reported deficiencies. Items that influencecolored mortar, each type of movement joint accessory, structural performance are controlled by the dimensionalanchor, tie, fastener, and metal accessory; and test results tolerances of Specification Article 3.3G.for masonry units, mortar, and grout. 1.6 D. Sample panels — Sample panels should1.6 — Quality assurance contain the full range of unit and mortar color. All Quality assurance consists of the actions taken by an procedures, including cleaning and application ofowner or owner’s representative, including establishing coatings and sealants, should be demonstrated on thethe quality assurance requirements, to provide assurance sample panel. The effect of these materials andthat materials and workmanship are in accordance with procedures on the masonry can then be determinedthe contract documents. Quality assurance includes before large areas are treated. Since it serves as aquality control measures as well as testing and inspection comparison of the finished work, the sample panelto verify compliance. The term quality control was not should be maintained until all work has been accepted.used in the Specification because its meaning varies with The specifier has the option of permitting a segment ofthe perspective of the parties involved in the project. the masonry construction to serve as a sample panel or The owner and Architect/Engineer may require a requiring a separate stand-alone panel.testing laboratory to provide some or all of the testsmentioned. See also the Commentary for Article 1.4. 1.7 — Delivery, storage, and handling The quality objectives are met when the building is The performance of masonry materials can beproperly designed, completed using materials complying reduced by contamination by dirt, water, and otherwith product specifications using adequate construction materials during delivery or at the jobsite.practices, and is adequately maintained. Inspection and Reinforcement and metal accessories are less pronetesting are important components of the quality to problems from handling than masonry materials.assurance program, which is used to meet the objectiveof quality in construction.
    • SC-8 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-051.8 — Project conditions improper curing and associated reduction of masonry 1.8 C. Cold weather construction — The procedure strength development. The preparation, construction, anddescribed in this article represents the committee’s protection requirements in the Specification areconsensus of current good construction practice and has minimum requirements to avoid dryout of mortar andbeen framed to generally agree with masonry industry grout and to allow for proper curing. They are based onrecommendations1.18. industry practice1.20 - 1.22. More stringent and extensive hot The provisions of Article 1.8 C are mandatory, even weather practices may be prudent where temperatures areif the procedures submitted under Article 1.5 B.3.a are high, winds are strong, and humidity is low.not required. The contractor has several options to During hot weather, shading masonry materials andachieve the results required in Article 1.8 C. The options equipment reduces mortar and grout temperatures.are available because of the climatic extremes and their Scheduling construction to avoid hotter periods of theduration. When the air temperature at the jobsite or unit day should be considered.temperatures fall below 40 F (4.4 C), the cold weather See Specification Commentary Article 2.1 forprotection plan submitted becomes mandatory. Work considerations in selecting mortar materials. The moststoppage may be justified if a short cold spell is effective way of reducing mortar and grout batchanticipated. Enclosures and heaters can be used as temperatures is by using cool mixing water. Smallnecessary. batches of mortar are preferred over larger batches to Temperature of the masonry mortar may be minimize drying time on mortar boards. Mortar shouldmeasured using a metal tip immersion thermometer not be used after a maximum of 2 hr after initial mixinginserted into a sample of the mortar. The mortar sample in hot weather conditions. Retempering with cool watermay be mortar as contained in the mixer, in hoppers for restores plasticity and reduces the mortar temperature.transfer to the working face of the masonry or as Most mason’s sand is delivered to the project in aavailable on mortar boards currently being used. The damp, loose condition with a moisture content of about 4critical mortar temperatures are the temperatures at the to 6 percent. Sand piles should be kept cool and in amixer and mortar board locations. The ideal mortar damp, loose condition by sprinkling and by coveringtemperature is 60 F to 80 F (15.6 C to 26.7 C). with a plastic sheet to limit evaporation. Temperature of the masonry unit may be measured Research suggests that covering and moist curing ofusing a metallic surface contact thermometer. concrete masonry walls dramatically improves flexural The contractor may choose to enclose the entire area bond strength compared to walls not covered or moistrather than make the sequential materials conditioning cured1.23.and protection modifications. Ambient temperatureconditions apply while work is in progress. Minimum Referencesdaily temperatures apply to the time after grouted 1.1. “Recommended Practice for Engineered Brickmasonry is placed. Mean daily temperatures apply to the Masonry,” Brick Institute of America (formerly Structuraltime after ungrouted masonry is placed. Clay Products Association), Reston, VA, 1969. Grout made with Type III portland cement gains 1.2. Brown, R.H., and Borchelt, J.G., “Compressionstrength more quickly than grout mixed with Type I Tests of Hollow Brick Units and Prisms,” Masonryportland cement. This faster strength gain eliminates the Components to Assemblages, ASTM STP 1063, J.H.need to protect masonry for the additional 24 hr period. Matthys, editor, American Society for Testing and Construction experience, though not formally Materials, Philadelphia, PA, 1990, pp. 263 - 278.documented, strongly indicates that AAC thin-bed 1.3. ACI Committee 531, Building Codemortar reaches full strength significantly faster than Requirements for Concrete Masonry Structures (ACImasonry mortar; however, it is more sensitive to cold 531-79) (Revised 1983)," American Concrete Institute,weather applications. AAC masonry also holds heat Detroit, MI, 1983, 20 pp.considerably longer than concrete masonry. Cold weather 1.4. “Specification for the Design and Constructionrequirements are therefore different for thin-bed mortar of Load Bearing Concrete Masonry,” (TR-75B),applications as compared to conventional mortar. Cold National Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, VA,weather requirements for leveling course mortar and grout 1976.remain the same as for other masonry products. 1.5. Redmond, T.B., “Compressive Strength of Load Bearing Concrete Masonry Prisms,” National Concrete 1.8 D. Hot weather construction — As temperature Masonry Association Laboratory Tests, Herndon, VA,increases, the relative humidity at the masonry surface 1970, Unpublished.decreases and the evaporation rate increases. These 1.6. Nacos, C.J., “Comparison of Fully Bedded andconditions can lead to “dryout” (drying of the mortar or Face-Shell Bedded Concrete Block,” Report No. CE-grout before sufficient hydration has taken place) of the 495, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, 1980,mortar and grout.1.19 Dryout adversely affects the Appendix p. A-3.properties of mortar and grout because dryout signals
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-9 1.7. Maurenbrecher, A.H.P., “Effect of Test 1.15. Miller, D.E.; Noland, J.L.; and Feng, C.C.,Procedures on Compressive Strength of Masonry “Factors Influencing the Compressive Strength ofPrisms,” Proceedings, 2nd Canadian Masonry Hollow Clay Unit Prisms,” Proceedings, 5thSymposium, Carleton University, Ottawa, June 1980, pp. International Brick Masonry Conference, Washington119-132. DC, 1979. 1.8. Self, M.W., “Structural Properties of Loading 1.16. Noland, J.L., “Proposed Test Method forBearing Concrete Masonry,” Masonry: Past and Determining Compressive Strength of Clay-UnitPresent, STP-589, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1975, Table Prisms,” Atkinson-Noland & Associates, Inc., Boulder,8, p. 245. CO, June 1982. 1.9. Baussan, R., and Meyer, C., “Concrete Block 1.17. Hegemier, G.A., Krishnamoorthy, G., Nunn,Masonry Test Program,” Columbia University, New R.O., and Moorthy, T.V., “Prism Tests for theYork, NY, 1985. Compressive Strength of Concrete Masonry,” 1.10. Seaman, J.C., “Investigation of the Structural Proceedings, North American Masonry Conference,Properties of Reinforced Concrete Masonry,” National University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Aug. 1978, pp.Concrete Masonry Association, Herndon, VA, 1955. 18-1 through 18-17. 1.11. Hamid, A.A., Drysdale, R.G., and 1.18. “Recommended Practices and GuideHeidebrecht, A.C., “Effect of Grouting on the Strength Specifications for Cold Weather Masonry Construction,”Characteristics of Concrete Block Masonry,” International Masonry Industry All-Weather Council,Proceedings, North American Masonry Conference, Washington, DC, 1973.University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Aug. 1978, pp. 1.19. Tomasetti, A.A., “Problems and Cures in11-1 through 11-17. Masonry” ASTM STP 1063, Masonry Components to 1.12. Hatzinikolas, M., Longworth, J., and Assemblages, ASTM, Philadelphia. PA ,1990, 324-338.Warwaruk, J., “The Effect of Joint Reinforcement on 1.20. “All Weather Construction” Technical NotesVertical Load Carrying Capacity of Hollow Concrete on Brick Construction Number 1 Revised, Brick InstituteBlock Masonry,” Proceedings, North American Masonry of America, Reston, VA, March 1992Conference, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO, Aug. 1.21. “Hot Weather Masonry Construction,” Trowel1978. Tips, Portland Cement Association, Skokie, IL, 1993 1.13. Atkinson, R.H., and Kingsley, G.R., “A 1.22. Panarese, W.C., S.H. Kosmatka, and F.A.Comparison of the Behavior of Clay and Concrete Randall Jr “Concrete Masonry Handbook for Architects,Masonry in Compression,” Atkinson-Noland & Engineers, and Builders,” Portland Cement Association,Associates, Inc., Boulder, CO, Sept. 1985. Skokie, IL, 1991, pp. 121-123. 1.14. Priestley, M.J.N., and Elder, D.M., “Stress- 1.23. “Research Evaluation of Flexural TensileStrain Curves for Unconfined and Confined Concrete Strength of Concrete Masonry,” National ConcreteMasonry,” ACI JOURNAL, Proceedings V. 80, No. 3, Masonry Association, Herndon, VA, 1994.Detroit, MI, May-June 1983, pp. 192-201.
    • SC-10 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 PART 2 — PRODUCTS2.1 — Mortar materials water demand of the mortar increases when coloring ASTM C 270 contains standards for all materials pigments are used. Admixtures containing excessiveused to make mortar. Thus, component material amounts of chloride ions are detrimental to steel itemsspecifications need not be listed. The Architect/Engineer placed in mortar or grout.may wish to include only certain types of materials, or ASTM C 270 specifies mortar testing underexclude others, to gain better control. laboratory conditions only for acceptance of mortar There are two methods of specifying mortar under mixes under the property specifications. Field samplingASTM C 270: proportions and properties. The and testing of mortar is conducted under ASTM C 780proportions specification directs the contractor to mix the and is used to verify consistency of materials andmaterials in the volumetric proportions given in ASTM procedures, not mortar strength.C 270. These are repeated in Table C-1. The properties 2.1 B. Glass unit masonry — In exteriorspecification instructs the contractor to develop a mortar applications, certain exposure conditions or panel sizesmix that will yield the specified properties under may warrant the use of mortar type with high bondlaboratory testing conditions. Table C-2 contains the strength. Type S mortar has a higher bond strength thanrequired results outlined in ASTM C 270. The results are Type N mortar. Portland cement-lime mortars andsubmitted to the owner’s representative and the mortar-cement mortars have a higher bond strength thanproportions of ingredients as determined in the lab are some masonry cement mortars of the same type. Themaintained in the field. Water added in the field is specified mortar type should take into account thedetermined by the mason for both methods of specifying performance of locally available materials and the sizemortar. A mortar mixed by proportions may have the and exposure conditions of the panel. Manufacturers ofproperties of a different mortar type. Higher lime content glass units recommend using mortar containing a water-increases workability and water retentivity. ASTM repellent admixture or a cement containing a water-C 270 has an Appendix with information that can be repellent addition.2.1 – 2.3 A workable, highly water-useful in selecting mortar. retentive mortar is recommended during high heat and Either proportions or properties, but not both, low humidity conditions.should be specified. A good rule of thumb is to specifythe weakest mortar that will perform adequately, not the 2.1 C. AAC masonry — ASTM E 72 measures thestrongest. Excessive amounts of pigments used to flexural strength of a full-sized panel, whereas ASTM Eachieve mortar color may reduce both the compressive 518 and ASTM C 1072 measure the flexural strength ofand bond strength of the masonry. Conformance to the small scale test specimens. ASTM E 72 provides themaximum percentages indicated will limit the loss of most realistic assessment of a wall’s performance understrength to acceptable amounts. Due to the fine particle flexural loading.size, theTable C-1 — ASTM C 270 mortar proportion specification requirements Proportions by volume (cementitious materials) Aggregate ratio Mortar Type Portland cement or Mortar cement Masonry cement Hydrated lime (measured in damp, blended cement M S N M S N or lime putty loose conditions) Cement-lime M 1 - - - - - - ¼ S 1 - - - - - - over ¼ to ½ N 1 - - - - - - over ½ to 1¼ O 1 - - - - - - over 1¼ to 2½ Mortar cement M 1 - - 1 - - - - Not less than 2 ¼ M - 1 - - - - - - and not more than S ½ - - 1 - - - - 3 times the sum of the S - - 1 - - - - - separate volumes of N - - - 1 - - - - cementitious materials. O - - - 1 - - - - Masonry cement M 1 - - - - - 1 - M - - - - 1 - - - S ½ - - - - - 1 - S - - - - - 1 - - N - - - - - - 1 - O - - - - - - 1 - Two air entraining materials shall not be combined in mortar.
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-11Table C-2 — ASTM C 270 property specification requirements for laboratory prepared mortar Average compressive Aggregate ratio strength at 28 days, Water retention min, Air content max, (measured in damp, Mortar Type psi (MPa) percent percent loose conditions) Cement-lime M 2500 (17.2) 75 12 S 1800 (12.4) 75 12 N 750 (5.2) 75 141 O 350 (2.4) 75 141 Not less than 2¼ and Mortar cement M 2500 (17.2) 75 12 not more than 3½ times the sum of the S 1800 (12.4) 75 12 separate volumes of N 750 (5.2) 75 141 cementitious O 350 (2.4) 75 141 materials Masonry cement M 2500 (17.2) 75 18 S 1800 (12.4) 75 18 N 750 (5.2) 75 202 O 350 (2.4) 75 202 1 When structural reinforcement is incorporated in cement-lime or mortar cement mortar, the maximum air content shall be 12 percent. 2 When structural reinforcement is incorporated in masonry cement mortar, the maximum air content shall be 18 percent.2.2 — Grout materials specified separately by the purchaser. Local suppliers ASTM C 476 contains standards for all materials should be consulted as to the availability of units havingused to make grout. Thus, component material the desired features.specifications need not be listed. Concrete brick specified in ASTM C 55 and sand- Admixtures for grout include those to increase flow lime brick specified in ASTM C 73 are specified byand to reduce shrinkage. grade. ASTM C 55 designates two grades: Grade N and This article does not apply to prestressing grout; see Grade S. Grade N units are for general use, such as inArticle 2.4 G.1.b exterior walls above or below grade, which may or may not be exposed to the weather. Grade S units are limited2.3 — Masonry unit materials to use above grade in exterior walls with weather- 2.3 A. Concrete masonry units are made from protective coatings and in walls not exposed to weather.lightweight and normal weight aggregate, water, and ASTM C 73 designates sand-lime brick as eithercement. The units are available in a variety of shapes, Grade SW or Grade MW. Grade SW brick are intendedsizes, colors, and strengths. Since the properties of the for use where they will be exposed to freezingconcrete vary with the aggregate type and mix temperatures in the presence of moisture. Grade MWproportions, there is a range of physical properties and brick are limited to applications in which they may beweights available in concrete masonry units. subjected to freezing temperature but in which they are Masonry units are selected for the use and unlikely to be saturated with water.appearance desired, with minimum requirements Table C-3 summarizes the requirements for variousaddressed by each respective ASTM standard. When concrete masonry units given in the referencedparticular features are desired such as surface textures standards.for appearance or bond, finish, color, or particular ASTM C 744 covers the properties of units thatproperties such as weight classification, higher have a resin facing on them. The units must meet thecompressive strength, fire resistance, thermal or requirements of one of the other referenced standards.acoustical performance, these features should be Table C-3 — Concrete masonry unit requirements ASTM Specification Unit name Strength Weight Type Grade C 55 Concrete brick yes yes yes yes C 73 Sand lime brick yes no no yes C 90 Load-bearing yes yes yes no C 129 Nonload bearing yes yes yes no C 744 Prefaced — — — —
    • SC-12 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 2.3 B. Clay or shale masonry units are formed from 2.3 C. Stone masonry units are typically selected bythose materials and referred to as brick or tile. Clay color and appearance. The referenced standards classifymasonry units may be molded, pressed, or extruded into building stones by the properties shown in Table C-5.the desired shape. Physical properties depend upon the The values given in the standards serve as minimumraw materials, the method of forming, and the firing requirements. Stone is often ordered by a particulartemperature. Incipient fusion, a melting and joining of quarry or color rather than the classification method inthe clay particles, is necessary to develop the strength the standard.and durability of clay masonry units. A wide variety ofunit shapes, sizes, colors, and strengths is available. 2.3 D. Hollow glass masonry units are formed by The intended use determines which standard fusing two molded halves of glass together to produce aspecification is applicable. Generally, brick units are partial vacuum in the resulting cavity. The resulting glasssmaller than tile, tile is always cored, and brick may be block units are available in a variety of shapes, sizes, andsolid or cored. Brick is normally exposed in use and patterns. Underwriters Laboratories inspects themost tile is covered. Grade or class is determined by manufacturing and quality control operations of glassexposure condition and has requirements for durability, block production on a regular basis for UL-approvedusually given by compressive strength and absorption. units. The minimum face thickness is part of thatDimensional variations and allowable chips and cracks inspection2.4.are controlled by type. The block edges are usually treated in the factory Table C-4 summarizes the requirements given in the with a coating that can be clear or opaque. The primaryreferenced standards. purpose of the coating is to provide an expansion/contraction mechanism to reduce stress cracking and to improve the mortar bond.Table C-4 — Clay brick and tile requirements Minimum ASTM % Grade Specification Unit name solid Strength Weight Type C 34 Load bearing wall tile a yes yes no C 56 Nonload bearing wall tile b no yes no C 62 Building brick (solid) 75 yes yes no C 126 Ceramic glazed units c yes no yes C 212 Structural facing tile b yes no yes C 216 Facing brick (solid) 75 yes yes yes C 652 Hollow brick a yes yes yesNotes:a A minimum percent is given in this specification. The percent solid is a function of the requirements for size and/or number of cells as well as the minimum shell and web thicknesses.b No minimum percent solid is given in this specification. The percent solid is a function of the requirements for the number of cells and weights per square foot.c Solid masonry units minimum percent solid is 75 percent. Hollow masonry units — no minimum percent solid is given in this specification. Their percent solid is a function of the requirements for number of cells and the minimum shell and web thicknesses.Table C-5 — Stone requirements ASTM Compressive Modulus of Abrasion Acid Specification Stone Absorption Density strength rupture resistance resistance C 503 Marble minimum range minimum minimum minimum none C 568 Limestone range range range range range none C 615 Granite minimum minimum minimum minimum minimum none C 616 Sandstone range range range range range none C 629 Slate range none none minimum minimum range
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-132.4 — Reinforcement, prestressing tendons, and corrosion protection, such as the use of stainless steel metal accessories tendons or galvanized tendons, are permitted. Evidence See Table C-6 for a summary of properties. should be provided that the galvanizing used on the tendons does not cause hydrogen embrittlement of the 2.4 B. Prestressing tendons — The constructability prestressing tendon.aspects of prestressed masonry favor the use of rods or Protection of prestressing tendons against corrosionrigid strands with mechanical anchorage in ungrouted is provided by a number of measures. Typically, aconstruction. Mild strength steel bars have been used in proprietary system is used that includes sheathing theprestressed masonry installations in the United States2.5. prestressing tendon with a waterproof plastic tape or duct.If mild strength bars (of less than 150 ksi [1034 MPa]) Discussion of the various corrosion protection systemsare used, determine the stress-relaxation characteristics used for prestressed masonry is available in theby tests and document the results. literature2.10. One example of a corrosion protection 2.4 E. Stainless steel — Corrosion resistance of system for the prestressing tendon is shown in Fig. 3.stainless steel is greater than that of the other steels Chlorides, fluorides, sulfites, nitrates, or otherlisted. Thus, it does not have to be coated for corrosion chemicals in the prestressing grout may harmresistance. prestressing tendons and should not be used in harmful concentrations. 2.4 F. Coatings for corrosion protection — Amountof galvanizing required increases with severity of 2.4 H. Prestressing anchorages, couplers, and endexposure2.6 – 2.8. blocks — Typical anchorage and coupling devices are shown in Fig. 4. Strength of anchorage and coupling 2.4 G. Corrosion protection for tendons — The devices should be provided by the manufacturer.specified methods of corrosion protection for unbonded Protection of anchorage devices typically includesprestressing tendons are consistent with corrosion filling the opening of bearing pads with grease, groutingprotection requirements developed for single-strand the recess in bearing pads, and providing drainage ofprestressing tendons in concrete2.9. Unit, mortar, and cavities housing prestressing tendons with base flashinggrout cover is not sufficient corrosion protection for and weep holes.bonded prestressing tendons in a corrosive environment. When anchorages and end fittings are exposed,Therefore, complete encapsulation into plastic ducts is additional precautions to achieve the required firerequired. This requirement is consistent with corrosion ratings and mechanical protection for these elementsprotection for unbonded tendons. Alternative methods of must be taken. Table C-6 — Reinforcement and metal accessories ASTM Yield strength, ksi Yield stress, specification Material Use (MPa) MPa A 36/A 36M Structural steel Connectors 36 (248.2) 250 A 82 Steel wire Joint reinforcement, ties 70 (482.7) 485 A 167 Stainless steel Bolts, reinforcement, ties 30 (206.9) 205 A 185 Steel wire Wire fabric, ties 75 (517.1) 485 A 307 Carbon steel Connectors 60 (413.7) — A 366/A 366M Carbon steel Connectors — — A 496 Steel wire Reinforcement 75 (517.1) 485 A 497 Steel wire fabric Reinforcement, wire fabric 70 (482.7) 485 A 615/A 615M Billet steel Reinforcement 40, 60 (275.8, 413.7) 300, 420 Reinforcement 40, 50, 60 (275.8, 300, 350, 420 A 996/A 996M Rail and axle steel 344.8, 413.7) Reinforcement 60 (413.7) — A 706/A 706M Low alloy steel
    • SC-14 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 Fig. 3 — An example of a corrosion protection system for an unbonded tendon Fig. 4 — Typical anchorage and coupling devices for prestressed masonry
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-152.5 — Accessories ASTM C 920 covers elastomeric joint sealants, 2.5 A. and B. Movement joints are used to allow either single or multi-component. Grade NS, Class 25,dimensional changes in masonry, minimize random wall Use M is applicable to masonry construction. Expansioncracks, and other distress. Contraction joints (also called joint fillers must be compressible so the anticipatedcontrol joints or shrinkage joints) are used in concrete expansion of the masonry can occur without imposingmasonry to accommodate shrinkage. These joints are stress.free to open as shrinkage occurs. Expansion joints permit 2.5 D. Masonry cleaner — Adverse reactions canclay brick masonry to expand. Material used in occur between certain cleaning agents and masonryexpansion joints must be compressible. units. Hydrochloric acid has been observed to cause Placement of movement joints is recommended by corrosion of metal ties. Care should be exercised in itsseveral publications2.11 - 2.13. Some general rules are: use to minimize this potential problem. Manganeseplace at returns and jambs of wall openings, maximum staining, efflorescence, “burning” of the units, whitespacing of 25 ft (7.62 m) or 3 times wall height. Typical scum removal of the cement paste from the surface of themovement joints are illustrated in Fig. 5. Shear keys joints, and damage to metals can occur through improperkeep the wall sections on either side of the movement cleaning. The manufacturers of the masonry units shouldjoint from moving out of plane. Proper configuration be consulted for recommended cleaning agents.must be available to fit properly. Fig. 5 — Movement joints
    • SC-16 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-052.6 — Mixing required. A slump of at least 8 in. (203 mm) provides a 2.6 B. Grout — ASTM C 476 is strictly a mix fluid enough to be properly placed and suppliesproportion specification, with fine and coarse grout as the sufficient water to satisfy the water demand of theonly choices. Their proportions are given in Table C-7. masonry units. The permitted ranges in the required proportions Small cavities or cells require grout with a higherof fine and coarse aggregates are intended to slump than larger cavities or cells. As the surface areaaccommodate variations in aggregate type and and unit shell thickness in contact with the groutgradation. As noted in Specification Table 7, the decrease in relation to the volume of the grout, theselection of the grout type depends on the size of the slump of the grout should be reduced. Segregation ofspace to be grouted. Fine grout is selected for grout materials should not occur.spaces with restricted openings. Coarse grout specified The grout in place will have a lower water-cementunder ASTM C 476 has a maximum aggregate size that ratio than when mixed. This concept of high slump andwill pass through a 3/8 in. (9.5 mm) opening. Larger absorptive forms is different from that of concrete.aggregate, conforming to ASTM C 33, can be specifiedif the grout is placed in areas of unobstructed 2.7 — Fabricationdimensions greater than 6 in. (152 mm). 2.7 A. Reinforcement — These requirements have Grout meeting the proportion specifications of ASTM been industry standards for a long period of time.C 476 typically has compressive strength ranges shown in 2.7 B. Prefabricated masonry — ASTM C 901Table C-8 when measured by ASTM C 1019. Grout covers the requirements for prefabricated masonrycompressive strength is influenced by the water cement panels, including materials, structural design,ratio, aggregate content, and the type of units used. dimensions and variations, workmanship, quality Since grout is placed in an absorptive form control, identification, shop drawings, and handling.made of masonry units, a high water content isTable C-7 — Grout proportions by volume Aggregate damp, loose1 Grout type Cement Lime Fine Coarse 2¼ to 3 —Coarse 1 0 to 1/10 2¼ to 3 1 to 21 Times the sum of the volumes of the cementitious materialsTable C-8 — Grout strengths Compressive strength, psi (MPa) Grout type Location Low Mean High ReferenceCoarse Lab 1965 (13.55) 3106 (21.41) 4000 (27.58) 2.14Coarse Lab 3611 (24.90) 4145 (28.58) 4510 (31.10) 2.15Coarse Lab 5060 (34.89) 5455 (37.61) 5940 (40.96) 2.16
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-17References 2.10. Garrity, S.W., "Corrosion Protection of 2.1. “PC Glass Block Products,” (GB 185), Prestressing Tendons for Masonry,” Proceedings,Pittsburgh Corning Corp., Pittsburgh, PA, 1992. Seventh Canadian Masonry Symposium, McMaster 2.2. “WECK Glass Blocks,” Glashaus Inc., University, Hamilton, Ontario, June 1995, pp. 736-750.Arlington Heights, IL, 1992. 2.11. Grimm, C.T., "Masonry Cracks: A Review of 2.3. Beall, C., "Tips on Designing, Detailing, and the Literature,” Masonry: Materials, Design,Specifying Glass Block Panels,” The Magazine of Construction, and Maintenance, STP-992, ASTM,Masonry Construction, 3-89, Addison, IL, pp 92 - 99. Philadelphia, PA, 1988. 2.4. “Follow up Service Procedure,” (File R2556), 2.12. “Movement,” Technical Notes on Brick andUnderwriters Laboratories, Inc., Northbrook, IL, Ill.1, Tile No. 18 and 18A, Brick Institute of America, Reston,Sec. 1, Vol. 1. VA, 1991. 2.5 Schultz, A.E. and Scolforo, M.J., ‘An Overview 2.13. “Control Joints for Concrete Masonry Walls,”of Prestressed Masonry,” The Masonry Society Journal, NCMA TEK 10-2A, National Concrete MasonryV. 10, No. 1, The Masonry Society, Boulder, CO, Association, Herndon, VA, 1998, 6 pp.August 1991, pp. 6-21. 2.14. ACI-SEASC Task Committee on Slender 2.6. Grimm, C.T., “Corrosion of Steel in Brick Walls, "Test Report on Slender Walls,” ACI SouthernMasonry,” Masonry: Research, Application, and California Chapter/Structural Engineers Association ofProblems, STP-871, ASTM, Philadelphia, PA, 1985, pp. Southern California, Los Angeles, CA, 1982, 125 pp.67-87. 2.15. Li, D., and Neis, V.V., “The Performance of 2.7. Catani, M.J., “Protection of Embedded Steel in Reinforced Masonry Beams Subjected to ReversalMasonry,” Construction Specifier, V. 38, No. 1, Cyclic Loadings,” Proceedings, 4th Canadian MasonryConstruction Specifications Institute, Alexandria, VA, Symposium, Fredericton, New Brunswick, Canada, JuneJan. 1985, p. 62. 1986, V. 1, pp. 351-365. 2.8. “Steel for Concrete Masonry Reinforcement,” 2.16. Unpublished Field Test Report, File 80-617,NCMA TEK 12-4A, National Concrete Masonry BNai BRith Housing, Associated Testing Laboratories,Association, Herndon, VA, 1995, 6 pp. Houston, TX, 1981. 2.9. “Specifications for Unbonded Single StrandTendons,” Post-Tensioning Manual, 5th Edition, Post-Tensioning Institute, Phoenix, AZ, 1990, pp. 217-229.
    • SC-18 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 PART 3 — EXECUTION3.1 — Inspection 3.2 F. Cleanouts — Cleanouts can be constructed 3.1 A. The tolerances in this Article are taken from by removing the exposed face shell of units in hollowReference 3.1. The dimensional tolerances of the unit grouted masonry or individual units when groutingsupporting concrete are important since they control such between wythes. The purpose of cleanouts is to allow theaspects as mortar joint thickness and bearing area grout space to be adequately cleaned prior to grouting.dimensions, which influence the performance of the They can also be used to verify reinforcement placementmasonry. Tolerances for variation in grade or elevation and tying.are shown in Fig. 6. The specified width of thefoundation is obviously more critical than its specified 3.3 — Masonry erectionlength. A foundation wider than specified will not Article 3.3 B applies to masonry construction innormally cause structural problems. which the units support their own weight. Face shell mortar bedding of hollow units is standard, except in3.2 — Preparation locations detailed in Specification 3.3 B.3.b. If full 3.2 C. Wetting masonry units — Concrete masonry mortar beds throughout are required for structuralunits increase in volume when wetted and shrink upon capacity, for example, the specifier must so stipulate insubsequent drying. Water introduced during wet cutting the project documents.is localized and does not significantly affect the Article 3.3 C applies to adhered veneer in which theshrinkage potential of concrete masonry. Clay masonry backing supports the weight of the units. This basicunits with high absorption rates dry the mortar/unit method has served satisfactorily since the early 1950s.interface. This may result in a lower extent of bond Properly filled and tooled joints (3.3 C.4) are essentialbetween the units and mortar, which may create paths for for proper performance of adhered veneer.moisture intrusion. Selection of compatible units and Tolerances are established to limit eccentricity ofmortar can mitigate this effect. applied load and load carrying capacity of the masonry construction. Since masonry is usually used as an 3.2 D. Debris — Continuity in the grout is critical exposed material, it is subjected to tighter dimensionalfor uniform stress distribution. A clean space to receive tolerances than those for structural frames. Thethe grout is necessary for this continuity. Inspection of tolerances given are based on structural performance, notthe bottom of the space prior to grouting is critical to aesthetics.ensure that it is substantially clean and does not have The provisions for cavity width shown are for theaccumulations of materials that would prevent continuity space between wythes of non-composite masonry. Theof the grout. provisions do not apply to situations where masonry 3.2 E. Reinforcement — Loss of bond and extends past floor slabs, spandrel beams, or othermisalignment of the reinforcement can occur if it is not structural elements.placed prior to grouting. The remaining provisions set the standard for quality of workmanship and ensure that the structure is not overloaded during construction. Fig. 6 — Tolerance for variation in grade or elevation
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-19 3.3.B.7 AAC Masonry – AAC masonry can be cut,shaped and drilled with tools that are capable of cuttingwood; however, saws, sanding boards, and raspsmanufactured for use with AAC are recommended forfield use. Since thin-bed mortar joints do not readilyallow for plumbing of a wall, the ability of AACmasonry to be easily cut and shaped allows for fieldadjustment to attain required tolerances.3.4 — Reinforcement, tie, and anchor installation The requirements given ensure that:a. galvanic action is inhibited,b. location is as assumed in the design,c. there is sufficient clearance for grout and mortar to surround reinforcement, ties, and anchors so stresses are properly transferred,d. corrosion is delayed, ande. compatible lateral deflection of wythes is achieved.Tolerances for placement of reinforcement in masonryfirst appeared in the 1985 Uniform Building Code3.2.Reinforcement location obviously influences structuralperformance of the member. Fig. 7 illustrates severaldevices used to secure reinforcement. 3.4 C. Wall ties — The Code does not permit the useof cavity wall ties with drips, nor the use of Z-ties inungrouted, hollow unit masonry. The requirements foradjustable ties are shown in Fig. 8. Fig. 7 — Typical reinforcing bar positioners Fig. 8 — Adjustable ties
    • SC-20 ACI 530.1R-05/ASCE 6-05/TMS 602-05 3.4 D. Veneer anchors — Minimum embedment procedures to verify grout placement duringrequirements have been established for each of the construction. These inspection procedures should includeanchor types to ensure load resistance against push- destructive or non-destructive evaluation to confirm thatthrough or pullout of the mortar joint. filling and adequate consolidation have been achieved. 3.5 D. Grout lift height — A lift is the height to3.5 — Grout placement which grout is placed into masonry in one continuous Grout may be placed by pumping or pouring from operation. After placement of a grout lift, water islarge or small buckets. The amount of grout to be placed absorbed by the masonry units. Following this waterand contractor experience will influence the choice of loss, a subsequent lift may be placed on top of the stillplacement method. plastic grout. If a lift of grout is permitted to set prior to Grout placement requirements of this Article are not placing the subsequent lift, then that height is the pourapplicable to prestressing grout. height. This setting normally occurs if the grouting is 3.5 B. Confinement — Certain locations in the wall stopped for more than one hour.may not be grouted in order to reduce dead loads or Grouted construction develops fluid pressure in theallow placement of other materials such as insulation or grout space. Grout pours composed of several lifts maywiring. Cross webs adjacent to cells to be grouted can be develop this fluid pressure for the full pour height. Thebedded with mortar to confine the grout. Metal lath, faces of hollow units with unbraced ends can break out.plastic screening, or other items can be used to plug cells Wythes may separate. The wire ties between wythes maybelow bond beams. not be sufficient to prevent this occurrence. The 4-hour time period is stipulated for grout lifts 3.5 C. Grout pour height — Table 7 in the over 5 ft (1.52 m) to provide sufficient curing time toSpecification has been developed as a guide for grouting minimize potential displacement of units during theprocedures. The designer can impose more stringent consolidation and reconsolidation process. The 4 hours isrequirements if so desired. The recommended maximum based on typical curing conditions and may be increasedheight of grout pour corresponds with the least clear based on local climatic conditions at the time ofdimension of the grout space. The minimum width of construction. For example, during cold weathergrout space is used when the grout is placed between construction, consider increasing the 4-hour curingwythes. The minimum cell dimensions are used when period. Cleanouts are required for pours over 5 ft (1.52grouting cells of hollow masonry units. As the height of m). If intermediate, reinforced bond beams are present inthe pour increases, the minimum grout space increases. the wall to be grouted, the lift height would be limited toThe grout space dimensions are clear dimensions. See the spacing between the bond beams or 5 ft (1.52 m),the Commentary for Section 1.16.1 of the Code for whichever is greater.additional information. Grout pour heights and minimum dimensions that 3.5 E. Consolidation — Consolidation of grout ismeet the requirements of Table 7 do not automatically necessary to achieve complete filling of the grout space.mean that the grout space will be filled. The top of a Reconsolidation returns the grout to a plastic state andgrout pour should not be located at the top of a unit, but eliminates the voids resulting from the water loss fromwithin 1½ in. (38 mm) of the bed joint. the grout by the masonry units. It is possible to have a Grout spaces smaller than specified in Table 7 have height loss of 8 in. (203 mm) in 8 ft (2.44 m).been used successfully in some areas. When the Consolidation and reconsolidation are normallycontractor asks for acceptance of a grouting procedure achieved with a mechanical vibrator. A low velocitythat does not meet the limits in Table 7, construction of a vibrator with a ¾ in. (19.1 mm) head is used. Thegrout demonstration panel is required. Destructive or vibrator is activated for one to two seconds in eachnon-destructive evaluation can confirm that filling and grouted cell of hollow unit masonry. When double open-adequate consolidation have been achieved. The end units are used, one cell is considered to be formed byArchitect/Engineer should establish criteria for the grout the two open ends placed together. When groutingdemonstration panel to assure that critical masonry between wythes, the vibrator is placed in the grout atelements included in the construction will be represented points spaced 12 to 16 in. (305 to 406 mm) apart. Excessin the demonstration panel. Because a single grout vibration does not improve consolidation and may blowdemonstration panel erected prior to masonry out the face shells of hollow units or separate the wythesconstruction cannot account for all conditions that may when grouting between wythes.be encountered during construction, theArchitect/Engineer should establish inspection
    • COMMENTARY ON SPECIFICATION FOR MASONRY STRUCTURES SC-213.6 — Prestressing tendon installation and stressing 3.7 — Field quality controlprocedure 3.7 A. The frequency of testing given has long been Installation of tendons with the specified tolerances an industry standard.is common practice. The methods of application andmeasurement of prestressing force are common 3.7 B. ASTM C 1019 requires a mold for the grouttechniques for prestressed concrete and masonry specimens made from the masonry units that will be inmembers. Designer, contractor, and inspector should be contact with the grout. Thus, the water absorption fromexperienced with prestressing and should consult the the grout by the masonry units is simulated. SamplingPost-Tensioning Institute’s Field Procedures Manual for and testing frequency may be based on the volume ofUnbonded Single Strand Tendons3.3 or similar literature grout to be placed rather than the wall area.before conducting the Work. Critical aspects of theprestressing operation that require inspection include Referenceshandling and storage of the prestressing tendons and 3.1. ACI Committee 117, "Standard Specificationsanchorages, installation of the anchorage hardware into for Tolerances for Concrete Construction and Materialsthe foundation and capping members, integrity and (ACI 117-90)," American Concrete Institute, Detroit,continuity of the corrosion protection system for the MI, 1981, 10 pp.prestressing tendons and anchorages, and the 3.2. Uniform Building Code, Internationalprestressing tendon stressing and grouting procedures. Conference of Building Officials, Whittier, CA, 1985. The design method in Code Chapter 4 is based on an 3.3. Field Procedures Manual for Unbonded Singleaccurate assessment of the level of prestress. Tendon Strand Tendons, 2nd Edition, Post-Tensioning Institute,elongation and tendon force measurements with a Phoenix, AZ, 1994, 62 pp.calibrated gauge or load cell or by use of a calibrateddynamometer have proven to provide the requiredaccuracy. For tendons using steels of less than 150 ksi(1034 MPa) strength, Direct Tension Indicator (DTI)washers also provide adequate accuracy. These washershave dimples that are intended to compress once apredetermined force is applied on them by theprestressing force. These washers were first developedby the steel industry for use with high-strength bolts andhave been modified for use with prestressed masonry.The designer should verify the actual accuracy of DTIwashers and document it in the design. Burning and welding operations in the vicinity ofprestressing tendons must be carefully performed sincethe heat may lower the tendon strength and cause failureof the stressed tendon.
    • INDEXA Anchor(s)...................................................................S-14AAC masonry........... C-57—53, CC-81—85, S-13, SC-6 adjustable........................... see Adjustable anchors/ties anchor bolts in ..........................................C-57, CC-82 bolts ................................................. see Anchor bolt(s) coefficients of thermal expansion.............C-13, CC-10 corrugated sheet metal .......................................... C-52 compressive strength requirements... C-58, S-8, CC-82 definition .............................................................. C-10 construction ...............................................S-20, SC-19 drawings ................................................................. C-7 creep coefficient ................................................... C-13 installation ....................................... S-21, S-22, SC-19 definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 material specifications ...........................................S-14 design ....................................... C-57—63, CC-81—84 panel anchors, for glass unit masonry........................... design strength..........................................C-57, CC-81 .................................................... C-56, S-14, CC-78 empirical limitation .............................................. C-45 pintle..................................................................... C-53 grout ......................................................................S-23 protection.....................................................C-15, S-14 modulus of elasticity.................................C-13, CC-10 pullout............... C-10, C-31, C-32, C-53, C-57, CC-26 mortar for..................................................... S-13, S-20 tests...........................................................C-23, CC-25 protection in cold weather ...........................S-12, SC-8 veneer ............................................. C-52, S-22, CC-73 protection in hot weather .......................................S-12 wire....................................................................... C-52 seismic anchorage/requirements.......C-16—18, CC-20 shear walls ....................... C-16—18,C- CC-20, CC-84 Anchor bolts ..(see also Bent bar anchors, Headed anchor strength of joints .......................................C-57, CC-81 bolts, and Plate anchors) strength-reduction factor ..........................C-57, CC-81 AAC masonry provisions .........................C-57, CC-82 tolerances...................................................S-20, SC-19 ASD provisions ....................... C-23, C-24, CC25—28 wetting...................................................................S-19 embedment length .................. C-23, C-32, CC-26—28 in columns, seismic requirements......................... C-18Acceptable, accepted material specifications ...........................................S-14 definition .................................................................S-4 protection.....................................................C-15, S-14 SD provisions .............................. C-32, CC-47, CC-48Adhered veneer..........C-51, C-54, CC-69, CC-73, CC-74 seismic requirements ............................................ C-18 adhesion requirements ............ C-54, S-8, CC-74, SC-7 specifications ................................................. S-6, S-14 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 test requirements.......................................C-23, CC-25 placement........................................ C-54, S-20, CC-74 thickness, maximum ............................................. C-54 Anchorage details ..................................................................... C-7Adhesion....... see Adhered veneer adhesion requirements empirical design ................................................... C-49 seismic .................................. C-16, C-17, C-18, CC-21Adjustable anchors/ties...........C-25, C-52, CC-31, SC-19 tendon ...see Tendon anchorages, couplers, end blocksAdmixtures Anchored veneer........................... C-51—54, CC-71—74 for grout .....................................................S-13, SC-11 definition .............................................................. C-12 for mortar ...................................................S-17, SC-10 design ....................................... C-51—54, CC-71—74 seismic requirements ................................C-53, CC-74Allowable forces, load, strengths, and stresses anchor bolts ....................... C-23, C-24, CC-27, CC-28 Architect compression, axial and flexural .................................... definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 C-27—29, C-41, C-46, C-47, CC-39, CC-41, CC-62 empirical requirements ............................... C-46, C-47 Area notations ................................................................. C-8 bearing......................................................C-25, CC-35 prestressing tendon ................................ CC-41, CC-62 bearing, for AAC masonry .......................C-58, CC-83 reinforced masonry............ C-29, C-30, CC-41, CC-42 cross-sectional ....................... See Cross-sectional area shear .................................................C-28—30, CC-41 definition .............................................................. C-10 steel reinforcement ...................................C-29, CC-41 net cross-sectional .................. see Cross-sectional area tension ........................................................ C-28, C-29 projected ................................. C-8, C-24, C-32, CC-26 unreinforced masonry............. C-27, C-28, CC-39—41 section properties......................................C-14, CC-14 transformed...............................................C-14, CC-12Allowable stress design method ....................................... wall, per tie ... C-24, C-48, C-49, C-53, CC-30, CC-31 ............................... C-7, C-23—30, CC-6, CC-25—44 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-2 INDEXAshlar stone masonry strength-reduction factor ............................ C-31, C-57 allowable compressive stress (empirical design).. C-47 stress ..................................................................... C-25 bonding................................................................. C-49 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 Bearing walls, (Loadbearing walls) definition .............................................................. C-12Autoclaved aerated concrete............... see AAC masonry empirical requirements ...................C-46, C-48, CC-67 definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 Bed jointAxial compression construction ...........................................................S-19 empirically designed masonry ......C-45—C-47, CC-67 definition .............................................................. C-10 prestressed masonry..................................C-41, CC-62 optional specification requirements.......................S-26 reinforced AAC masonry ..................................... C-60 reinforcement in glass unit masonry..................... C-56 reinforced masonry (ASD) .......................C-29, CC-41 thickness ...................................................... S-19, S-26 reinforced masonry (SD) ..................................... C-36 tolerances...............................................................S-20 unreinforced AAC masonry.................................. C-59 unreinforced masonry (ASD) ...........C-27, CC-39—41 Bend, minimum diameter............................C-15, , CC-18 unreinforced masonry (SD) .................................. C-34 Bent-bar anchors............................. see also Anchor boltsAxial tension allowable stress design .......................................CC-28 anchor bolts (ASD)...........................C-23, CC-25—27 AAC masonry...........................................C-57, CC-82 anchor bolts (SD)......................................C-32, CC-48 ASD provisions ....................... C-23, C-24, CC25—28 prestressed masonry..................................C-42, CC-63 embedment length .................. C-23, C-32, CC-26—28 reinforced masonry (ASD) ................................... C-29 material specificaitons ...........................................S-14 unreinforced masonry (ASD) ...................C-28, CC-41 strength design..........................................C-32, CC-48 specifications ................................................. S-6, S-14BBacking..................................................................... C-54 Bond concrete ............................. C-53, C-54, CC-72, CC-74 empirical design ......................................... C-48, C-49 definition .............................................................. C-10 headers........................................................ C-24, C-48 deflection ..................................................C-52, CC-72 optional specification requirement ......................S-426 design requirements..................................C-53, CC-74 pattern....................................................................S-26 masonry ............................. C-53, C-54, CC-72, CC-74 running .............................................see Running bond steel stud ...................................... C-53, CC-71, CC-74 stack...................................................... see Stack bond wood .........................................................C-53, CC-74 stone, empirical design ......................................... C-49 wall intersections ................................... CC-12, CC-13Bar, reinforcing ...................................see Reinforcement wall ties ................................. C-24 (see also Wall ties)Base surface treatment, for glass unit masonry ................ Bonded prestressing tendon................C-42, C-43, CC-64 ..................................................................C-56, CC-75 corrosion protection...............................................S-14 definition .......................................................C-10, S-4Beams ....................................................................... C-29 grouting .................................................................S-23 ASD requirements .C-29, C-30, CC-36, CC-38, CC-42 AAC masonry.................................C-60, C-61, CC-83 Bonder .............................................................see Header cantilevered .......................................................... C-30 definition .............................................................. C-11 column intersection .............................................. C-25 deflection ........................................C-14, C-31, CC-14 Bracing ......................................................................S-20 strength design................................C-36, C-37, CC-52 Brick specifications ...................................................S-13Bearing calcium silicate ............................................................S-6 AAC masonry.................................C-57, C-58, CC-81 clay or shale......................................................... S-6, S-7 area ...........................................................C-25, CC-35 concrete .......................................................................S-6 concentrated loads ............ C-25, C-32, C-58, CC-35 notation............................................................... C-8 Buckling, Euler floors and roofs on AAC masonry............C-58, CC-83 equation ..............................................................CC-39 length for reinforced beams......................C-29, CC-42 notation................................................................... C-7 nominal strength ................................................... C-32 prestressed masonry.............................................. C-42 Building code, general................................................ C-7 strength design................................C-31, C-32, CC-47 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-3Building official Column(s)............................................. C-25, C-36, C-62 definition .............................................................. C-10 AAC masonry.................................C-60, C-62, CC-83 allowable stress design .............................C-25, CC-32Bundling of reinforcing bars......................C-15, , CC-17, definition .............................................................. C-10 prohibition against for AAC masonry and SD.............. eccentricity .........................................................CC-32 ........................................................C-36, C-60, CC-52 effective height ...........................................C-9, CC-32 lateral ties (see also lateral ties) ........ C-25, C-37, C-62 load transfer.......................................................... C-25C reinforcement placement ...................................... C-15Calculations ......................................................C-7, CC-6 seismic requirements ................... C-18, CC-21, CC-32 strength design..........................................C-37, CC-52Camber ..................................................................... C-10 thickness ...................................................C-25, CC-32Cantilevered beams/members............... C-26, C-30, C-46 Composite action................... C-14, C-24, CC-29, CC-30............................................................... (see also Beams) definition .............................................................. C-10Cantilevered walls, empirical requirements ............. C-46 Composite masonry .............C-24, CC-29, CC-30, CC-48 definition .................................................................. C-10Cavity wall (non-composite wall) .................................... definition .............................................................. C-10 Compression area, width ..............................C-29, CC-42Cavity width ..................................... S-20, CC-30, SC-18 Compression, axial ....................... see Axial compressionChannel-type restraints, for glass unit masonry................ Compressive strength ....(see also Specified compressive ..................................................................C-56, CC-79 strength of masonry).............................. S-7, S-7, C-20 AAC masonry......................... C-58, S-8, CC-82, SC-6Chases.......................................... C-46, C-49, C-56, S-20 acceptance ................................................C-20, CC-22 compliance.................................................. C-20, SC-4Clay masonry definition ............................................. C-10, C-11, S-4 coefficient of moisture expansion.............C-13, CC-10 determination............................... C-20, S-7, S-8, SC-4 coefficients of thermal expansion......................... C-13 notation................................................................... C-9 compressive strength .......................... S-7, SC-4, SC-5 of grout ......................... C-33, C-58, S-8, CC-48, SC-4 creep coefficient ................................................... C-13 of units........................................... S-7, , S-8, SC-4—6 modulus of elasticity...................................C-13, CC-9 prism strength method ...................................S-8, SC-7 tests..........................................................................S-7 SD requirements .......................................C-33, CC-48 unit specifications.......................S-6, S-7, S-13, SC-12 shown on drawings ................................................. C-7 wetting.......................................................S-19, SC-18 unit strength method .............................. S-7, S-8, SC-4Cleaning ..........................., S-4, S-19, S-23, SC-7, SC-15 Compressive strength of masonry definition .......................................................C-11, S-4Cleanouts .......................................................S-19, SC-18 definition .................................................................S-4 Compressive stress ....... (see also Allowable compressive stress)Coatings for corrosion protection ........................... SC-13 allowable bearing ..................................................C-25, CC-33Coefficient(s) empirical requirements ............................. C-45—47 creep .................................................C-9, C-13, CC-11 notation............................................................... C-6 expansion..........................................C-9, C-13, CC-10 prestressed masonry..............................C-41, CC-62 friction, AAC masonry .............................C-58, CC-82 for reinforced masonry .........................C-29, CC-41 shrinkage for concrete masonry........C-9, C-13, CC-11 for unreinforced masonry ... C-27, C-28, CC-39—41 notations ................................................................. C-8Cold weather construction...............................S-12, SC-8 steel reinforcement ...................................C-29, CC-41Collar joints ........................ C-14—15, C-20, C-30, S-19, Concentrated loads .......................................C-25, CC-33 ......................... CC-22, CC-29, CC-30, CC-38, CC-44 on AAC masonry......................................C-58, CC-79 allowable shear in ................................................. C-24 definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 construction ...........................................................S-19 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-4 INDEXConcrete masonry definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 coefficient of shrinkage ............................C-13, CC-11 transformed...............................................C-14, CC-12 coefficients of thermal expansion.............C-13, CC-10 gross cross-sectional area ................. C-10, S-4, CC-11 compressive strength .....................................S-8, SC-6 net cross-sectional area..................... C-10, S-4, CC-11 creep coefficient .......................................C-13, CC-11 notation................................................................... C-8 modulus of elasticity...................................C-13, CC-9 unit specifications.............................. S-13, S-6, SC-11 D wetting.......................................................S-19, SC-18 Dead load, definition ................................................ C-11Conduits ........................................................................... Definitions .................................. C-10, S-4, CC-8, SC-13 embedded................................ C-7, C-20, S-20, CC-23 mandatory specifications .......................................S-25 Deflection AAC masonry....................................................... C-63Connectors/connections backing, for veneer ...................................C-52, CC-72 definition .............................................................. C-11 beams and lintels ......................................C-14, CC-14 seismic requirements ................................C-16, CC-20 design story drift............................... C-11, C-17, C-23 shown on drawings ................................................. C-7 lateral.................................................................... C-25 members supporting glass unit masonry............... C-56Consolidation of grout...................................S-23, SC-20 members supporting veneer..............C-52, CC-72—74 prestressed masonry..................................C-42, CC-63Construction loads .....................................................S-11 reinforced AAC masonry .........................C-57, CC-82 renforced masonry (SD) ...........................C-31, CC-48Contract documents ................................C-7, C-11, CC-6 structural frames ................................................... C-14 definition .................................................................S-4 unrienforced (plain) AAC masonry..........C-57, CC-82 unrenforced (plain) masonry (SD)............C-31, CC-48Contraction (shrinkage) joint.....................................S-17 walls (SD).................................................C-38, CC-53Contractor Deformation...................................................... C-7, C-13 definition .................................................................S-4 Deformation requirements .............. C-31, C-57, CC-47,Contractor’s services and duties ........................S-9, SC-7 CC-52—55, CC-61, CC-63, CC-81Control joints.......................................................... SC-15 Delivery of materials/products ........................S-11, SC-7Conversion of Inch-pound units to SI nits................ C-65 Depth, definition....................................................... C-11Corbels ........... C-11, C-14, CC-2, CC-15, CC-16, CC-36 Depth of backfill (empirical requirements) ..C-48, CC-78Corrosion/ corrosion protection.....................S-14, SC-13 Design...............................................................C-7, CC-6 coatings for protection...........................................S-14 (see AAC masonry, Allowable stress design, Empirical joint reinforcement ......................................C-15, S-14 design, Glass unit masonry, Prestressed masonry prestressing tendons........................ C-43, S-14, CC-63 design,Seismic design, Strength design, Veneer, and) reinforcement.................................. C-15, CC-17, S-14 resistance ............................................................CC-17 Design story drift.................................. C-11, C-17, C-23 screws ................................................................... C-53 steel framing ......................................................... C-53 Design strength...... C-3, C-11, C-23, C-31, C-57, CC-25, ties, anchors and inserts...............................C-15, S-14 CC-47, CC-77Corrugated sheet metal anchors................................ C-52 Detailed plain (unreinforced) AAC MSW....C-16, CC-20Coupled shear walls..................................................CC-8 Detailed plain (unreinforced) MSW ..C-16, C-17, CC-19, CC-20Creep ...............................................C-7, C-9, C-13, C-41 DevelopmentCreep coefficient ....................................C-7, C-9, CC-11 bonded tendons.........................................C-43, CC-64 reinforcement, AAC masonry............................... C-60Cross-sectional area reinforcement, ASD.........C-26, CC-33, CC-36, CC-37 net ........................................... C-10, C-14, CC-11, S-4 reinforcement, SD.....................................C-35, CC-49 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-5Diaphragm Epoxy-coating .................................................C-35, S-14 anchorage (empirical)........................................... C-49 definition .............................................................. C-11 Euler buckling floors and roofs (empirical requirements) .C-46, CC-8, equation ..............................................................CC-39 CC-67 notation.......................................................C-7, CC-34Differential movement.................C-13, C-51, C-54, C-55 Expansion coefficient.........................................C-9, C-13, CC-10Dimension joints .......................C-56, S-17, CC-74, CC-77, SC-15 definition .............................................................. C-11 moisture ....................................................C-13, CC-10 nominal....................................................................S-4 thermal......................................................C-13, CC-10 specified ..................................................................S-4 Expansion joints .........C-56, S-17, CC-74, CC-77, SC-15Dimension stone ...........................................C-51, CC-71 for glass unit masonry .......................................... C-56Dimensional changes.................................................. C-7 F Fabrication.....................................................S-17, SC-16Drawings content, including anchorage, conduits, connectors, Field quality control ......................................S-23, SC-21 pipes, sleeves, reinforcement and specified compressive, strength of masonry.................C-7, CC-6 Flanges, of intersecting walls C-13, C-14, CC-12, CC-13 definition, project...........................................C-11, S-5 Flexural reinforcement ......... C-26, C-27, CC-33, CC-36,Drift limits ................... C-17, C-31, C-57, CC-47, CC-81 CC-37Dryout....................................................................... SC-8 Flexural tension reinforced masonry C-23, C-29, CC-37, CC-47, CC-81E unreinforced masonry...................................................Earthquake.... (see also Seismic load and Seismic design) ................... C-23, C-28, C-34, C-58, CC-49, CC-81loads ...............................................................C-8, CC-18 FlexureEccentricity.....................................................C-8, CC-32 prestressed masonry...................CC-41, CC-62, CC-63 reinforced AAC masonry .............................................Effective compressive width ..............C-29, C-38, CC-42 ............................. C-59, C-61, C-57, CC-82, CC-84 reinforced masonry, ASD .............................................Effective height ............................................C-11, CC-32 ...................................C-29, C-30, C-36, C-41, C-42 reinforced masonry, SD................................................Effective prestress ...................... C-3, C-11, C-41, CC-60 .............. C-31, C-37, CC-47, CC-52, CC-55, CC-56 stressElastic deformation..................................................... C-7 allowable ................................................ C-28, C-29 notation............................................................... C-8Elastic moduli (see also Modulus of elasticity) ........ C-13 unreinforced masonry........................................... C-28 unreinforced AAC masonry.. C-57, C-58, C-59, CC-72Embedded items ........................................................S-20 unreinforced masonry, ASD .............C-28, CC-39—41 unreinforced masonry (SD) ........................ C-31, C-34Embedment length veneer .................................................................CC-72 anchor bolts ....................................C-23, C-32, CC-25 anchors ...........................................C-23, C-32, CC-25 Floors/ floor diaphragms hooks ........................................................C-26, CC-38 empirical anchorage.............................................. C-49 notation................................................................... C-9 seismic anchorage................. C-16, C-17, C-18, CC-21 reinforcement...................C-26, CC-33, CC-36, CC-37 seismic anchorage, AAC masonry.............. C-17, C-18Empirical design........ C-7, C-45—49, CC-6, CC-67—69 Foundation(s).................................................S-19, SC-18End-bearing splices ......................................C-27, CC-38 Foundation pier(s) definition .............................................................. C-11Engineer empirical requirements ............... C-46, CC-67, CC-68 definition .......................................................C-10, S-4 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-6 INDEXFoundation wall(s) standards and specifications ......................................... empirical requirements ...................C-46, C-48, CC-66 ................................. S-6, S-13, S-17, SC-11, SC-16 strength .............................................. S-8, S-25, SC-16Frame, anchorage to ................ C-7, C-14, CC-14, CC-20 strength limits for AAC masonry ......................... C-58 strength limits for SD ........................................... C-33G testing .............................S-8, S-23, S-25, SC-7, SC-21Galvanized coatings/requirements.................................... ............................................... C-15, S-14, S-15, SC-13 Grout lift........................................................S-23, SC-20 definition .................................................................S-4Glass unit masonry ..................... C-55, C-56, CC-77—79 construction ...........................................................S-20 Grout pour ...........................................C-21, S-22, SC-20 definition .......................................................C-11, S-4 definition .................................................................S-4 empirical limitation .............................................. C-45 maximum height.......... C-20, C-21, S-20, S-21, SC-20 mortar for......................................... S-13, S-17, SC-10 mortar joints ..........................................................S-19 Grouting ................................................................... C-20 panel anchors.................................. C-56, S-22, CC-78 placement...............................................................S-20 Grouting bonded tendons ..........................................S-23 protection in cold weather .....................................S-11 reinforcement................................ C-56,CC-78, CC-79 H support......................................... C-56, CC-77, CC-78 Handling of materials/products .......................S-11, SC-7 thickness ............................................................... C-55 unit specifications......................................S-13, SC-12 Head joint construction ...........................................................S-19Gross cross-sectional area definition .............................................................. C-11 definition .......................................... C-10, S-4, CC-11 optional specification requirement ........................S-26 thickness ................................................................S-19Grout admixtures .................................................S-13, SC-11 Headed anchor bolts .................... (see also Anchor bolts) alternate placement procedures .............................S-23 allowable stress design .......................................CC-28 collar joint, allowable stress ................................. C-24 AAC masonry...........................................C-57, CC-82 composite walls ........................... C-24, CC-29, CC-30 ASD provisions ....................... C-23, C-24, CC25—28 compressive strength ...............................................S-8 embedment length .................. C-23, C-32, CC-26—28 compressive strength requirements for AAC masonry material specificaitons ...........................................S-14 ..............................................................C-58, CC-78 SD provisions ...........................................C-32, CC-48 compressive strength requirements for SD................... specifications ................................................. S-6, S-14 ..............................................................C-33, CC-48 confinement ...............................................S-22, SC-20 Header (s) consolidation .............................................S-23, SC-20 allowable stress..................................................... C-24 cover ..................................................................... C-15 composite action.......................................C-24, CC-29 demonstration panel...................................S-10, SC-22 definition .............................................................. C-11 for AAC masonry ..................................................S-23 empirical requirements .............................C-48, CC-68 lift ..............................................................S-23, SC-20 materials ................................................................S-13 Height minimum dimensions ............................... CC-21, S-22 effective mix designs.......................................... S-9, S-10, SC-7 definition ..............................................C-11, CC-32 mixing........................................................S-17, SC-16 notation............................................................... C-9 modulus of elasticity............................................. C-13 empirical requirements, placement...................................................S-23, SC-20 buildings ........................................................... C-45 pour............................................................S-22, SC-20 fill, unbalanced (empirical requirements)......... C-48 preparation.................................................S-19, SC-18 foundation walls (empirical requirements) ...... C-46, protection in cold weather ...........................S-12, SC-8 height/thickness ratios (empirical requirements) protection in hot weather .............................S-12, SC-8 .......................................................................... C-48 quality assurance .................................................. C-19 parapets (empirical requirements) .................... C-47 sampling ............................................................. SC-21 grout pour .............................................. See Gout pour slump ............................................... S-17, S-23, SC-16 veneer limitations ................................................. C-52 spaces/ space requirements........................................... ...... C-21, S-19, S-22, CC-22, CC-23, SC-16, SC-18 Hooks .................................................. see Standard hook * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-7Horizontal reinforcement, seismic requirements .............. empirical design .............................C-46, C-48, CC-66................................................. C-16—18, CC-20, CC-21 glass unt masonry .....................................C-56, CC-78Hot weather construction.................................S-12, SC-8 Lateral ties ............................................ C-18, C-25, C-62 definition .............................................................. C-12 for columns........................... C-25, C-37, C-38, CC-32I seismic design....................................................... C-18Impact....................................................................... C-13 Laterally restrained prestressing tendon ......... C-11, C-42Inch-pounds translation table............................ C-65⎯73 Laterally unrestrained prestressing tendon .... C-11, C-41,Inserts, protection for................................................ C-15 C-42Inspection ................. C-19, C-20, S-9—11, S-19, CC-21, Lintels ................................. CC-22, SC-9, SC-12, SC-18—21 deflection ..................................................C-14, CC-14 empirical requirements ......................................... C-49Inspection Agency’s services and duties . S-9, S-25, SC-7 veneer ................................................................... C-52Intermediate reinforced MSW .......................................... Live load, definition ................................................. C-11 ...................C-12, C16—18, C-26, CC-19—21, CC-51 Load(s)/Loading .......................................................CC-8Intersecting walls allowable .................. See Allowable forces, loads, etc. design .......................................................C-14, CC-12 combinations, ASD...................................C-23, CC-25 empirical, anchorage............................................. C-49 concentrated....................... C-25, C-58, CC-33, CC-79 construction ...........................................................S-11 dead ...................................................................... C-11J definition .............................................................. C-11Jacking force, prestressed masonry ......C-12, C-41, C-42, distribution..................................................C-13, CC-8 CC-61, CC-62 drawings, shown on ................................................ C-7 empirical limitations............................................. C-45Joint ..................... see Bed joint, Collar joint, Head Joint, lateral..........................................................C-13, CC-8.............................Expansion joint, Contraction joint, etc. live........................................................................ C-11 notation........................................................... C-8, C-9Joint fillers....................................S-7, S-17, S-25, SC-15 seismic ................ C-13, C-31, C-45, C-57, CC-19—21 service...................................................................CC-6Joint reinforcement...... C-27, C-49, C-52, CC-17, CC-30 transfer........................................... C-25, CC-8, CC-33 allowable stress..................................................... C-29 wind...................................................................... C-13 cover ..................................................................... C-15 empirical design, maximum ............................. C-45 cross wires ................................................C-15, CC-24 glass unit masonry, maximum ..............C-55, CC-74 for glass unit masonry .......................................... C-56 veneer, maximum .......................C-51, C-53, CC-74 material specifications ................................. S-14, S-25 minimum wire size ............................................... C-15 Load transfer...................................... C-25, CC-8, CC-33 protection...............................C-15, CC-17, S-14, S-21 seismic design..............................................C-16, S-17 Loadbearing Wall veneer ..............................................C-52,C-53, CC-74 definition .............................................................. C-12 wire size................................................................ C-15 empirical requirements ............................... C-47, C-49 Longitudinal reinforcement ...................................... C-11LLap splices.......................................................see Splices MLateral force-resisting system.............C-16, C-45, CC-19 Masonry glass ..........................................see Glass unit masonryLateral load distribution .................................C-13, CC-8 plain .................................... see Unreinforced masonry prestressed...............................see Prestressed masonryLateral stability, empirical design ................C-45, CC-65 reinforced................................ see Reinforced masonry unreinforced ........................ see Unreinforced masonryLateral support veneer...........................................................see Veneer * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-8 INDEXMasonry bonded hollow wall ............... C-12, C-14, C-46 Modulus of elasticity ............................C-11, C-13, CC-9Masonry breakout, definition ................................... C-11 Modulus of rigidity................................................... C-11Masonry cement Modulus of rupture ................ C-33, C-58, CC-49, CC-78 allowable flexural tension .........................C-28, CC-40 modulus of rupture................................................ C-33 Moisture ..................................................................... C-7 prohibited.............................................................. C-18 Moisture expansion ......................................C-13, CC-10Masonry cleaners...........................................S-17, SC-15 Moment of inertia, notation........................................ C-9Masonry erection.......................................................S-21 cold weather construction ............................S-12, SC-8 Moment, notation ....................................................... C-9 field quality control....................................S-23, SC-21 grout placement..........................................S-23, SC-20 Mortar hot weather construction ..............................S-12, SC-8 admixtures .................................................S-17, SC-10 placing mortar .............................................. S-19, S-20 allowable flexural tension.........................C-28, CC-40 preparation .............................................................S-19 empirical design requirements.............................. C-46 reinforcement installation ................ S-19, S-21, SC-19 for glass unit masonry .....................C-56, S-13, SC-10 site tolerances..........................S-20, S-21, S-23, SC-18 inspection.........................................................S-9—11 mandatory specifications ............................. S-25, S-26Masonry materials .........................................S-13, SC-11 materials ....................................................S-13, SC-10 mix designs..............................................................S-9Material(s) mixing........................................................S-17, SC-16 certificates ...............................................................S-9 pigments ................................................................S-17 delivery........................................................S-11, SC-7 placing ......................................................... S-19, S-20 handling .......................................................S-11, SC-7 protection in cold weather ...........................S-12, SC-8 properties ....................................... C-13, CC-9, CC-48 protection in hot weather .............................S-12, SC-8 samples ....................................................................S-9 retempering........................................................... SC-8 seismic restrictions ............................................... C-18 seismic restrictions ............................................... C-18 specifications ................................... S-5⎯7, S-13⎯18 specifications ..................................... S-6, S-13, SC-10 storage .........................................................S-11, SC-7 thin-bed mortar ............................................................. ...................C-12, S-9, S-12, S-13, S-17, S-20, SC-8Maximum value, definition .........................................S-4 Movement joints..................................................... SC-15Maximum wind load empirical design, maximum ............................. C-45 Multiwythe walls ...................C-24, CC-3, CC-29, CC-30 glass unit masonry, maximum ..............C-55, CC-74 empirical design.................................................... C-48 veneer, maximum .......................C-51, C-53, CC-74 NMean daily temperature, definition .............................S-4 Negative moment reinforcement ..... C-26, CC-33, CC-37Mechanical connections/splicesC-27, C-36, C-60, CC-38 Net cross-sectional area, definition .............................S-4Metal accessories................................SC-2, SC-7, SC-13 Nominal dimension, definition ..........................C-11, S-4Minimum inside bend diameter for reinforcing bars ........ Nominal strength(s) .................................................. C-61............................................................ C-15, S-19, CC-18 axial and flexural, AAC masonry ......................... C-60 axial and flexural strength (URM)............C-34, CC-49Minimum thickness, empirical design...................... C-46 axial tensile strength of anchor bolts .................... C-32 axial, unreinforced (plain) AAC masonry ............ C-59Minimum daily temperature, definition.......................S-4 bearing......................................................C-32, CC-48 definition .............................................................. C-11Minimum value, definition ..........................................S-4 shear (prestressed masonry).................................. C-42 shear strength (unreiforced masonry) ................... C-34Mix designs .................................................................S-9 shear, AAC masonry ............ C-59, C-60, C-61, CC-79 shear, reinforced (SD) ..............................C-37, CC-52Mixing ...........................................................S-17, SC-16 when using ASD................................................... C-23 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-9Noncomposite action ....................................C-24, CC-30 Post-tensioning, post-tensioned ............C-41, CC-61—64 definition .......................................................C-11, S-5Noncontact lap splices.................................... C-27, C-35 Prefabricated masonry ......................... S-18, S-20, SC-16Notation............................................................C-8, CC-8 Prestressed masonry definition .............................................................. C-11O deflection ...................................... C-42, CC-62,CC-63Ordinary plain (unreinforced) MSW ......................CC-19 design .......................................................C-43, CC-63 seismic design.............................. C-17, CC-19, CC-20Ordinary reinforced MSW......................... CC-19, CC-20 strength requirements .....................C-41, C-42, CC-63Otherwise required, definition.....................................S-4 Prestressing grout .... C-10, C-19, C-20, S-5, S-14, SC-11Owner Prestressing steel ..........................................C-13, CC-11 definition..................................................................S-4 modulus of elasticity............................................. C-13 quality assurance...................... S-9, S-26, SC-7, SC-10 Prestressing tendon(s) allowable stresses ...............................................CC-60P corrosion protection........................ C-43, S-14, CC-63Panel anchors for glass unit masonry ..CC-75, S-14, S-22 definition .......................................................C-11, S-5 installation .................................................S-23, SC-21Parapet walls laterally restrained ...................................... C-11, C-42 empirical requirements ......................................... C-46 laterally unrestrained ............................................ C-11 materals .................................................................S-13Partition walls specifications ...................................................... SC-13 definition .................................................................S-5 stressing .............................................................. SC-21 seismic design....................................................... C-17 unbonded, definition............................................. C-12Pigments ........................................................S-17, SC-10 Prestressing tendon anchorages, couplers, and end blocks ............................................. C-42, S-15,CC-63, SC-13Pier(s) ................................................... C-36, C-37, C-62 AAC masonry............................................C-60 CC-79 Pretensioning definition .............................................................. C-11 definition .......................................................C-11, S-5 foundation (empirical) ...... C-11, C-46, CC-67, CC-68 SD requirements .............................C-36, C-37, CC-52 Prism test method ..............................................S-8, SC-7Pilasters ........................................................C-25, CC-34 Project conditions ............................................S-11, SC-8 effective height .........................................C-11, CC-32 load transfer................................... C-25, CC-8, CC-33 Project drawings, definition...............................C-11, S-5 reinforcement placement ...................................... C-15 .......................................................(see also Drawings)Pintle anchors ........................................................... C-53 Project specifications, definition .......................C-11, S-5 ................................................(see also Specifications)Pipes ................................... C-2, C-7, C-20, CC-23, S-20 Projected area for anchor boltsPlain (unreinforced) masonry ... see Unreinforced (plain) description ..........................................C-24, C-32, CC-26 masonry formulas.......................................................... C-24, C-32 definition .............................................................. C-12 notation....................................................................... C-8Plate anchors.................................(see also Anchor bolts) Protection allowable stress design .......................................CC-28 corrosion............ C-15, C-43, C-53, S-13, S-14, CC-17 ASD provisions ....................... C-23, C-24, CC25—28 from weather....... S-11 (see also Cold weather and Hot embedment length .................. C-23, C-32, CC-26—28 weather construction) material specificaitons ...........................................S-14 of materials ................................................. S-11, SC-7 specifications ........................................................ S-14 prestressing tendons and accessories ........C-43, CC-63 reinforcement............................................C-15, CC-17Positive moment reinforcement....................C-26, CC-36 steel............C-15, S-14 (see also Corrosion protection) * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-10 INDEXQ seismic requirements ................................C-18, CC-21Quality assurance .................C-1, C-7, C-18, C-19, C-20, for anchored veneer ..............................C-53, CC-74.................................................. C-32, S-11, CC-22, SC-7 shear ...................................... see Shear, reinforcement definition .......................................................C-11, S-5 shear wall............................................... see Shear wall size, limitations (SD) ............................................ C-35Quality control.. S-23, SC-1, SC-7, SC-12, SC-16, SC-21 size, maximum................... C-15, C-35, CC-17, CC-49 spacing, notation................................................... C-10 specifications ...................................S-13—S17, SC-13R splices ..........................................................see SplicesRadius of gyration ............................................ C-2, C-14 stirrups........................................................see Stirrups notation ................................................................... C-9 strength (SD) ............................................C-33, CC-49 strength, for AAC masonry ......................C-58, CC-78Reinforced AAC masonry ....... C-59—64, CC-83, CC-84 strength ............................................. C-29, C-33, C-58 stress ......................... C-26, C-29, C-30,CC-33, CC-42Reinforced masonry ties, lateral .............................................see Lateral ties ASD........................................ C-29, C-30, CC-41—44 tolerances...................................................S-21, SC-19 strength design...................... C-35—C-39, CC-49—57 transverse, defined................................................ C-12 shear wall............................................... see Shear wallReinforcement wire........................C-15.C-16, C-24—27, C-29, C-48, allowable stress..................................................... C-29 ......................... C-49, C-52 C-53, C-56, S-13, S-14, bend requirements ................................................ C-15 ............... S-21, S-22, CC-17, CC-33, CC-38, SC-13 bond.................................................................... SC-18 yield strength notation, fy ........................................ C-9 bundling....................................................C-36, CC-52 cleaning .................................................................S-19 Reinforcing steel................................. See Reinforcement clearance between, minimum ............................... C-15 cover ..................................................................... C-15 Required strength .........................C-3, C-12, C-23, C-31, cross-sectional area, notation.................................. C-8 ........................................................C-41, C-57, CC-25 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 details ................................ C-15, C-35, CC-17, CC-49 Response modification factor ................ C-9, C-23, C-31, details, on drawings ................................................ C-7 ..................................................................C-57, CC-20 development ......................................see Development diameter .................................................................. C-8 Retempering ............................................................. SC-8 diameter of bend, minimum............ C-15, S-19, CC-18 distance from extreme compression fiber, d........... C-8 Roof anchorage fabrication..................................................S-17, SC-16 empirical requirements ......................................... C-49 for glass unit masonry .......................................... C-56 seismic anchorage................. C-16, C-17, C-18, CC-21 hook................................................see Standard hooks seismic anchorage, AAC masonry.............. C-17, C-18 installation .................................................S-21, SC-19 joint.......................................... see Joint reinforcement Rubble stone masonry lap length .....................................................see Splices allowable compressive stress (empirical design).. C-47 lateral ties ..............................................see Lateral ties bonding................................................................. C-49 longitudinal, defination......................................... C-11 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 materials ................................................................S-15 maximum area (SD) .................................C-36, CC-51 Running bond .... C-29, C-34, C-58, C-59, CC-15, CC-79 maximum, AAC masonry..................................... C-60 definition .......................................................C-11, S-5 modulus of elasticity............................................. C-13 for empirically designed masonry ........................ C-47 embedment .......................... C-26, CC-33, CC-36⎯37 load distribution.................................................... C-25 length, ld, notation............................................... C-9 wall intersection .......................................C-14, CC-12 negative moment reinforcement .. C-26, CC-33, CC-37 physical properties..............................................CC-17 placement requirements...... C-15, S-21, CC-17, SC-19 S positve moment reinforcement .................C-26, CC-36 Sample panels..................................................S-10, SC-7 preperation.................................................S-19, SC-18 prestressing..................................see Prestressing steel Samples .......................................................................S-9 protection..................................................C-15, CC-17 quality assurance .................................................. C-19 requirements and details ....................................... C-60 requirements and details (SD) .............................. C-37 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-11Sampling................................................................... SC-4 intersections........................................... CC-12, CC-13brick.............................................................................S-6 lateral load distribution.........................................CC-8concrete masonry.........................................................S-6 ordinary plain (unreinforced) MSW .......... C-12, C-16,grout ................................................................S-7, SC-21 ....................................................C-17, C-23, CC-19mortar ..............................................................S-8, SC-10 ordinary reinforced MSW.................C-12, C-16, C-17,structural clay ..............................................................S-6 ................................................. C-18, CC-19, CC-20 reinforced masonry, design.............C-29, C-38, CC-51Sealant, specification...................................................S-7 special reinforced MSW .........C-12, C-16, C-17, C-18, ................................................. C-36, CC-19, CC-20Section properties .........................................C-14, CC-11 seismic requirement.................. C-16—18, CC-19—21 strength design..........................................C-39, CC-54Seismic design............................ C-16—18, C-31, CC-21 stiffness.................................................................CC-9 anchorage.............................. C-16, C-17, C-18, CC-21 unreinforced....................................C-28, C-34, CC-41 categories.............................................................. C-16 empirical design restrictions................................. C-45 Sheet metal anchors.............................. C-15, C-52, C-53 prestressed masonry..................... C-17, CC-19, CC-20 reinforcement (minimum requirements)... C-16—C-18 Shrinkage................................................................ SC-15 veneer requirements..................................C-53, CC-74 coefficient.........................................C-9, C-13, CC-11 deformation .......................................................... C-13Seismic load (earthquake load, seismic force).................. notation................................................................... C-9................................ C-13, C-31, C-45, C-57, CC-19—21 provisions, drawings............................................... C-7 empirical requirements.......................................... C-45 SI equivalents ............................................................. C-7Service loads.........................................C-11, C-13, CC-6 Site tolerances.............................S-20, S-21, S-23, SC-18Settlement................................................................. C-13 Sleeves..........................................C-2, C-7, C-20, CC-23Shale masonry ...................................... see Clay masonry Slump .................................................. S-17, S-23, SC-16Shear AAC masonry.................... C-60, C-61, CC-77, CC-79 Span.................. C-24-26, CC-30, CC-31, CC-42, CC_72 bolts .......................C-24, C-32, CC-27, CC-28, CC-48 clear, notation ............................................................. C-9 force, notation....................................................... C-10 reinforcement................C-26, C-27, C-30, C-37, C-61, Special boundary elements C-12, C-38, C-40, C-63, C-64 ...............................................CC-37, CC-38, CC-52 nominal strength ................................................... C-36 Special reinforced MSW ..............C-12, C-16—18, C-36, nominal strength (unreiforced masonry................ C-34 ............................................................... CC-19, CC-20 prestressed masonry..................................C-42, CC-62 reinforced masonry............... C-30, C-36, C-37, CC-37 Special systems................................................ C-7, CC_7 strength-reduction factor ...................................... C-31 transfer at wall interfaces...................................... C-14 Specifications for materials ....... S-5⎯7, S-13⎯18, S-24, unreinforced....................................C-28, C-34, CC-41 SC-10Shear stress Specified compressive strength of masonry anchors ........................................ C-24, CC-27, CC-28 acceptance requirements...........................C-20, CC-22 composite action.......................................C-24, CC-29 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 reinforced members .................................... C-29, C-30 mandatory specifications .......................................S-25 unreinforced members .......................................... C-28 methods to shown compliance with................. S-7, S-8 notation................................................................... C-9Shear wall(s) shown on drawings ................................................. C-7 definition .............................................................. C-12 design for in-plane loads, AAC masonry .C-63, CC-84 Specified dimension, definition.........................C-11, S-4 detailed plain (unreinforced) AAC MSW.C-16, CC-20 detailed plain (unreinforced) MSW ........... C-12, C-16, Splices, reinforcement ..................................C-27, CC-38 ................................................. C-17, CC-19, CC-20 SD.......................................................................CC-49 empirical design .............................C-45, C-46, CC-19 intermediate reinforced MSW ..........C-12, C-16, C-17, Splitting tensile strength ....................................... C-18, C-36, CC-19, CC-20 of AAC masonry .................................................. C-58 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-12 INDEXStack bond (and other than running bond) .... C-14, C-29, Strength design .........................................................CC-6C-34, CC-15 of clay and concrete masonry (Chapter 3)... C-31⎯38, basic requirements ....................................C-14, CC-15 ............................................................... CC-47⎯57 bearing, AAC masonry......................................... C-58 of AAC masonry ...................... C57⎯-64, CC-81⎯84 definition ......................................................C-12, S-5 of prestressed masonry .....................C-42, CC-62⎯64 reinforcement requirements, minimum ....C-14, CC-15 seismic requirements ............................................ C-18 Strength reduction factor(s)........C-10, C-12, C-23, C-31, unreiforced masonry, SD..........................C-33, CC-49 .................................C-42, C-57, CC-6, CC-25, CC-47 veneer, for other than running bond) ........C-53, CC-74 AAC masonry...........................................C-57, CC-81 definition .............................................................. C-12Stainless steel ................................................S-14, SC-13 moment, prestressed masonry...................C-42, CC-65Standard hook(s)C-2, C-15, C-18, C-26, C-35, C-59, CC- Stress 18, CC-37 allowable ...see Allowable forces, loads, strengths, and fabrication..............................................................S-17 stresses seismic requirements ............................................ C-18 compressive ......... C-27—29, CC-39—41, CC-45—47 computations ........................................................ C-14Standards, cited ......................... C-7, S-5⎯7 CC-7, SC-4 bearing............................................C-25, C-42, CC-33 computation ..............................................C-14, CC-11Steel flexural ......................................................... C-27—29 bars............................................... ( see Reinforcement) notation........................................................... C-8, C-9 bolts.....................................................see Anchor bolts from perstressing jacking force ............................ C-41 coatings .......................... C-15, S-14—16, S-25, SC-13 reinforcement........................................................ C-29 fabrication ..................................................S-17, SC-16 shear .....................................................C-24, CC28-30 stainless......................................................S-14, SC-13 tensile ............................................... C-23, C-28, C-29 wire ............................... S-13, S-14, S-21, S-22, SC-13 Structural elements, size and location ........................ C-7Steel reinforcement..............................see Reinforcement Submit/ submitted/ submittals ................... S-5, S-9, SC-7Steel plates and bars ................................................. C-15Stiffness..................................... C-2, C-14, CC-9, CC-12 anchors, ties ....................................C-48, C-53, CC-73 T design.................................C-14, CC-9, CC-12, CC-30 Temperature................................................................ C-7 walls...............................C-24, C-31, C-36, C-57, C-60 ambient ............................................................ S-11, S-12 mean daily ............................................... S-4, S-12, SC-8Stirrup(s)................................ C-12, C-26, CC-37, CC-38 Temperature change ............C-13, CC-10, CC-17, CC-39Stone masonry allowable stress (empirical) .................................. C-47 Tendon anchorage .............................................C-12, S-5 ashlar, definition............................................C-12, S-5 bond...................................................................... C-49 Tendon coupler..................................................C-12, S-5 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 minimum thickness............................................... C-46 Tendon, jacking force........................................C-12, S-5 rubble, definition ...........................................C-12, S-5 Tension/tensile (strength) specifications ............................... S-5⎯7, S-13, SC-12 allowable .................................................... C-28, C-29 notation....................................................... C-8, C-9Storage of materials/products ..........................S-11, SC-7 axial bolts .................................................................. C-23Strength prestressed masonry.......................................... C-42 bearing, of AAC masoanry................................... C-58 reinforced masonry........................................... C-29 design strength..........................................C-11, CC-25 unreinforceded masonry ................................... C-28 bolts ................................... C-23, C-32, CC-25, CC-47 flexural compressive .........................see Compressive strength prestressed masonry.......................................... C-41 nominal.....................................................C-11, CC-25 reinforced masonry........................................... C-29 required.....................................................C-12, CC-25 unreinforceded masonry ................................... C-28 specified ................see Specified compressive strength tensile .................... see Tension/tensile stress, strength * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • INDEX I-13Test(s)/testing U agency...........................................................S- 9, SC-7 Unbonded prestressing tendon anchor bolts ..............................................C-23, CC-25 corrosion protection...................................S-15, SC-14 compressive strength .............................................S-23 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 field tests................................................................S-23 grout ......................................................................S-23 Unit strength method .......................................S-7, SC-14 prisms .............................................................. S-7, S-8 reporting ..................................................................S-9 Units, translation table...................................... C-65⎯73 slump .......................................................................S-6 units ................................................................. S-7, S-8 Unreinforced (plain) AAC masonry ......................... C-59Testing Agency’s services and duties..........................S-9 Unreinforced (plain) masonry allowable stress design .............................C-28, CC-41Thermal expansion .......................................C-10, CC-13 definition .............................................................. C-12 notation ................................................................... C-9 strength design..........................................C-34, CC-49Thickness columns ....................................................C-25, CC-32 V empirical requirements ...................C-46, C-48, CC-68 Veneer ..........................................................C-54, CC-73 foundation walls (empirical requirements) . C-44, C-48 anchors ......................................................S-22, SC-20 glass units ............................................................. C-51 definition .............................................................. C-12 parapets (empirical requirements) ........................ C-46 deflection of supporting members ....C-52, CC-72—74 veneer units................................................. C-52, C-54 seismic requirements ................................C-53, CC-74 walls (empirical requirements) ............................. C-46 .... (see also Adhered veneer and Anchored veneers)Thin-bed mortar for AAC masonry S-9, S-13, S-17, S-20 Vertical support ................................................................ definition .............................................................. C-12 anchored masonry veneer ...............C-51, C-52, CC-73 protection in cold weather .................................... SC-8 glass unit masonry ....................................C-56, CC-77 protection in hot weather .......................................S-12 Vibrations ................................................................. C-13Ties adjustable..................................................C-25, CC-31 Volume changes .....................................................CC-17 corrosion protection.....................................C-15, S-14 definition .............................................................. C-12 fabrication..............................................................S-17 W hooks .................................................................... C-15 Wall(s) installation .................................................S-22, SC-19 anchorage.............................................................. C-14 lateral................ C-12, C-18, C-25, C-37, C-62, CC-32 composite................................ see Composite masonry material specifications ...........................................S-14 definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 protection.....................................................C-15, S-21 design fo in-plane loads, AAC masonry...C-64, CC-80 specifications .............................................S-14, SC-13 design for in-plane loads ...................................... C-38 wall tie ............................................ C-12, S-22, CC-30 design for out-of-plane loads (SD) ....................... C-38 design for out-of-plane loads, AAC masonry....... C-63Tile, structural clay.................................. S-5, S-6, SC-12 effective height .........................................C-11, CC-32 empirical requirements ............. C-45—49, CC-67—70Tolerances .............................................................. SC-18 flange................................. C-13, C-14, CC-12, CC-13 concrete .................................................... S-19, SC-18 foundation.......................................C-46, C-48, CC-66 masonry ..................................S-20, S-21, S-23, SC-18 height, notation....................................................... C-9 foundations ............................................................S-19 intersections................................. C-14, CC-12, CC-13 prestressing tendon placement...............................S-23 Intersecting ,empirical requirements .................... C-49 reinforcement.............................................S-21, SC-19 lateral support, empirical design........................... C-48 units ...................................................................... SC-4 loadbearing ..............................................................S-5 masonry bonded hollow ..........................................S-5Transfer, of prestressing force ........................ C-12, C-41 multiwythe...............C-24, CC-3, CC-29, CC-30, C-48 partition ................................................................ C-17Transformed net cross-sectional area ...........C-14, CC-12 seismic anchorage................................................. C-17 shear .....................................................see Shear wallsTransverse reinforcement, defined ........................... C-12 thickness (empirical) ......................C-46, C-48, CC-68 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design
    • I-14 INDEXWall tie(s) ................................. C-15, C-25, C-48, CC-30 Wind bonding................................................................. C-48 empirical limitations............................................. C-45 definition .............................................................. C-12 glass unit masonry ....................................C-55, CC-74 installation .................................................S-22, SC-19 limitations for veneer............................................ C-51 veneer limitations .....................................C-53, CC-72Weather cold ..............................................................S-12, SC-8 Wire anchors............................................................. C-52 hot ................................................................S-12, SC-8 protection .....................................................S-11, SC-7 Wire coatings............................. C-15, S-14, S-25, SC-13Welded splices....................C-7, C-27, C-36, C-49, C-52, Wood .............................................. C-56, C-60, S-21, CC-38 backing for veneer ................................................ C-53 support of glass unit masonry............................... C-56Welding ........................................................... S-21, S-23 support on, empirical requirements ...................... C-49Wetting masonry units...................................S-19, SC-18 Work definition .................................................................S-5When required, definition............................................S-5 WytheWidth definition .......................................................C-12, S-5 cavity ............................................ S-20, CC-30, SC-18 compression area ......................................C-29, CC-42 definition .............................................................. C-12 Y flange.................................................................... C-14 Yield strength, notation .............................................. C-9 grout space............................C-21, S-19, S-22, CC-22, ............................................... CC-23, SC-16, SC-18 Young’s modulus, chord test method ....................... C-13 notation................................................................... C-8 * AAC = Autoclaved Aerated Concrete, ASD = Allowable Stress Design, MSW = Masonry Shear Wall, SD = Strength Design