KUMINTANGThe kumintang is the name given to several distinct styles, techniques and forms inmusic and dance probably originating in the areas used by early Spanish cartographersand chronicles to denote a large province centering around what is known asBatangas. Early 19th-century travelers accounts often mention the kumintang as aTagalog "chant national", describing them as dance-songs performed by pairs of menand women, with texts concerning love and courtship. All accounts mention a glass ofcoconut wine passed from hand to hand by the dancers as they sing.Jean Baptiste Mallat describes it as a pantomimic dance where the man runs aroundand gestures to a woman(not always decently), and finally pretends illness to get thewomans full attention.In the 20th century, Francisca Reyes-Aquino dubbed as kumintang the circular handand wrist movement also known as the kunday. Among present-day afficinados ofmusical and dance events called awitan and pandangguhan in and around the city ofBatangas, kumintang also refers to a guitar-plucking style, considered the mostmelodious and beautiful of all guitar styles accompanying the old kinanluran style ofpandangguhan dance songs. E. R. Mirano.BALITAWThe balitaw is an extemporaneous exchange of love verses between a man and awoman. Danced and mimed, it is accompanied by a song, or the dancers themselvessing, improvising the steps and verses. It may last for hours, ending with the womanaccepting or rejecting the mans suit. The balitaw is found mainly in the Tagalog andVisayan regions. The dancers may be costumed in balintawak or patadyong or incontemporary everyday clothes. Its accompaniments could be provided by thesubing(bamboo flute), castanets, coconut guitar, harp, the five-stringed guitar, or acombination of the three. The Visayan balitaw is usually in the minor key, while theTagalog is in the major. Both are related to the kumintang and kundiman in theirstyles of accenting.As sung in quatrain or ballad stanza in the Visayas, it is expansive and erotic incharacter with accompaniment similar to the bolero, a Spanish dance also in triple
time, accompanied by the dancers singing and castanet playing (Molina in FilipinoHeritage VIII, 2029). In words which may be humorous and full of energy, the typicalVisayan balitaw speaks of all domestic phases of life, from love and courtship,marriage and separation, gambling and employment, child rearing, envious neighbors,to the dignity of labor. The Cebuano couple Pedro Alfarara and Nicolasa Canibanwere titled the king and queen of the balitaw at the turn of the century.Kundiman (originally spelled Cundiman) is a genre of traditional Filipino love songs. The lyricsof the Kundiman are written in Tagalog. The melody is characterized by a smooth, flowing andgentle rhythm with dramatic intervals. Kundiman was the traditional means of serenade in thePhilippines.The Kundiman came around to be an art song at the end of the nineteenth century and by theearly part of the twentieth century, its musical structure was formalised by Filipino composerssuch as Francisco Santiago and Nicanor Abelardo (February 7, 1893-March 21, 1934); theysought poetry for their lyrics, blending verse and music in equal parts.Scholars and historians believed that the Kundiman originated from the Tagalog town ofBalayan, Batangas.  Dr. Francisco Santiago(1889–1947), the "Father of the Kundiman ArtSong", briefly explains in his scholarly work "The Development of Music in the Philippines" thereason why this Tagalog song is called Kundiman is because the first stanza of this song begunthus: "Cundiman, cundiman Cundiman si jele" "Hele ng Cundiman Hele ng Cundangan"In 1872, the illustrious Franciscan Tagalist and poet, Father Joaquin de Coria wrote the "NuevaGramatica Tagalog Teorica-Practica" which, besides treating grammar, also enumerates thecharacteristics of Tagalog language, and discusses Tagalog poetry. In this book, Father Coriaalso gave us a list of the names of the most important songs of the Tagalogs. They are: • Diona and Talingdao (songs in the homes and in ordinary work) • Indolanin and Dolayin (songs in the streets) • Soliranin (boat songs) • Haloharin, Oyayi, and Hele-hele (lullabies) • Sambotani (songs for festivals and social reunions) • Tagumpay (songs to commemorate victory in war) • Hiliraw and Balicungcung (sweet songs)
• Dopayinin (similar to Tagumpay; more serious and sincere) • Kumintang (love song; also a pantomimic "dance song" -Dr. F. Santiago) • Cundiman (love song; used especially in serenading)The Spanish scholar V.M. Avella described the Kundiman in his 1874 work "Manual de laConversación Familiar Español-Tagalog" as the "cancion indigena" (native song) of theTagalogs and characterized its melody as "something pathetic but not without some pleasantfeeling." In his 1883 book "Cuentos Filipinos", Don José Montero y Vidal recorded in Spanish the sadlyrics of a "popular" Kundiman of the "Tagalas" or Tagalogs : Cundiman, cundiman Cundiman si jele Mas que esta dormido Ta sona con ele. Desde que vos cara Yo ta mira Aquel morisqueta No puede traga. Cundiman, cundiman Cundiman, cundaman Mamatay, me muero Sacamay mo lamang.The Spanish writer and historian Wenceslao E. Retana recorded in 1888 the lyrics of a popularKundiman in Batangas. The melancholic lyrics in the Tagalog original as recorded in Retanasbook "El Indio Batangueño" reads:  Aco man ay imbi, hamac isang ducha Nasinta sa iyo, naghahasic nga Di ba guin si David ng una ay aba Pastor ay nag harin ng datnan ng awa?
Estrebillo: Hele ng Cundiman Hele ng Cundangan Mundo palibhasai, talinghaga lamang Ang mababa ngayon bucas ay marangal. Sa lahat ng hirap sintang dala-dala Salang cumilos isip coi icao na Acoi mananaog na hahanapin quita Estrebillo: Hele ng Cundiman Hele ng Cundangan Cundangan nga icao ang may casalanan Tataghoy-taghoy ni di mo pa paquingan.In 1916, Dr. Juan V. Pagaspas, a doctor of philosophy from Indiana University and a muchbeloved educator in Tanauan, Batangas described the Kundiman as "a pure Tagalog song whichis usually very sentimental, so sentimental that if one should listen to it carefully watching thetenor of words and the way the voice is conducted to express the real meaning of the verses, hecannot but be conquered by a feeling of pity even so far as to shed tears." [J.Pagaspas, "NativeAmusements in the Province of Batangas"]Dr. Francisco Santiago, the "Father of Filipino Musical Nationalism" declared in 1931 that theKundiman "is the love song par excellence of the Filipinos, the plaintive song which goesdeepest into their hearts, song which brings them untold emotions." [F. Santiago, "TheDevelopment of Music in the Philippines"]The melody and sentiment of the Kundiman tends not only toward the melancholy but also thecheerful , and the commitment of the heart to passion is celebrated in every piece. The singerof the kundiman expresses the pain and beauty of love felt by every listener, for the kundiman isnot merely entertainment but an embodiment of collective emotion.Endowed with such power, the Kundiman naturally came to serve as a vehicle for veiledpatriotism in times of colonial oppression, in which the undying love for a woman symbolizedthe love of country and desire for freedom.
Dr. Jose P. Rizal (1861–1896), the Philippine national hero, has consecrated the Kundiman in hissocial novel “Noli Me Tangere”. Not only this but he himself wrote a Kundiman which is not ofthe elegiac type because its rhythm sounds the threat, the reproach and the revindication of therights of the race. Kundiman ni Rizal Tunay ngayong umid yaring diwa at puso Ang bayan palibhasay api, lupig at sumuko. Sa kapabayaan ng nagturong puno Paglayay nawala, ligayay naglaho! Datapuwat muling sisikat ang maligayang araw Pilit na maliligtas ang inaping bayan Magbabalik man din at laging sisikat Ang ngalang Tagalog sa sandaigdigan! Ibubuhos namin ang dugoy ibabaha Ng matubos lamang ang sa Amang Lupa! Hanggang di sumapit ang panahong tadhana Sinta ay tatahimik, tutuloy ang nasa! Sinta ay tatahimik at tutuloy ang nasa! O Bayan kong mahal Sintang Filipinas!From 1896 to 1898 the most famous Kundiman, which fired the patriotic sentiments of theTagalog revolutionaries in the struggle for liberation from Spanish colonial rule, was JocelynangBaliuag. Officially known as Musica del Legitimo Kundiman Procedente del Campo Insurecto(Music of the Legitimate Kundiman that Proceeds from the Insurgents), Jocelynang Baliwag wasthe favorite Kundiman among the revolutionaries of Bulacan during the Philippine Revolution of1896 - earning it the title "Kundiman of the Revolution."In the guise of a love and courtship song, it features lyrics dedicated to a young and beautifulFilipina idolized in the Bulacan town of Baliuag named Josefa Pepita Tiongson y Lara whosymbolizes the image of the beloved Motherland, the Inang Bayang Katagalugan or Filipinas. JOCELYNANG BALIWAG
P- Pinopoong sinta, niring calolowa Nacacawangis moy mabangong sampaga Dalisay sa linis, dakila sa ganda Matimyas na bucal ng madlang ligaya. E- Edeng maligayang kinaloclocan Ng galak at tuwang catamis-tamisan Hada cang maningning na ang matunghayay Masamyong bulaclac agad sumisical. P- Pinananaligan niring aking dibdib Na sa paglalayag sa dagat ng sakit Di mo babayaang malunod sa hapis Sa pagcabagabag coy icaw ang sasagip. I- Icaw na nga ang lunas sa aking dalita Tanging magliligtas sa niluha-luha Bunying binibining sinucuang cusa Niring catawohang nangayupapa. T- Tanggapin ang aking wagas na pag-ibig Marubdob na ningas na taglay sa dibdib Sa buhay na itoy walang nilalangit Cung hindi ikaw lamang, ilaw niring isip. A- At sa cawacasay ang kapamanhikan Tumbasan mo yaring pagsintang dalisay Alalahanin mong cung di cahabagan Iyong lalasunin ang aba cong buhay.The Filipino composer, conductor and scholar Felipe M. De Leon Jr., wrote that the Kundiman isa "unique musical form expressing intense longing, caring, devotion and oneness with a beloved.
Or with a child, spiritual figure, motherland, ideal or cause. According to its text, a kundimancan be romantic, patriotic, religious, mournful. Or a consolation, a lullaby. Or a protest and othertypes. But of whatever type, its music is soulful and lofty, conveying deep feelings of devotionallove." [F.M. De Leon Jr., "But What Really Is The Kundiman?"] See alsoThe awit is a form of Filipino poetry. Its literal translation into English is "song," although in thecontext of poetry, it is closer to the narrative. CharacteristicsThe following are characteristics observed in the awit, Florante at Laura. 1. 4 lines/stanza; 2. a rhyme scheme of AAAA (in the Tagalog manner of rhyming described by Jose Rizal in Tagalische Verskunst); 3. a slight pause on the sixth syllable; 4. each stanza is usually a complete grammatically-correct sentence; 5. each stanza is full of figures of speech (according to Fernando Monleon, Balagtas used 28 types in 395 instances throughout the poem); 6. the author is usually anonymous;Moro-moro (Comedia) is a play that became popular in the Philippines during the Spanish colonialperiod. It depicted battles between Christians and Moros-as Muslims in the Philippines are popularlyknown-with the Moros as the perpetual villains who always lost to the Christians in the end.
zarzuela (Spanish pronunciation: [θarˈθwela]) is a Spanish lyric-dramatic genre that alternatesbetween spoken and sung scenes, the latter incorporating operatic and popular song, as well asdance. The name derives from a Royal hunting lodge, the Palacio de la Zarzuela near Madrid,where this type of entertainment was first presented to the court.There are two main forms of zarzuela: Baroque zarzuela (c.1630–1750), the earliest style, andRomantic zarzuela (c.1850–1950), which can be further divided into two. Main sub-genres aregénero grande and género chico, although other sub-divisions exist.Zarzuela spread to the Spanish colonies, and many Hispanic countries – notably Cuba –developed their own traditions. There is also a strong tradition in the Philippines where it is alsoknown as zarzuelta. Other regional and linguistic variants in Spain includes the Basquezartzuela and the Catalan sarsuela.A masque-like musical theatre had existed in Spain since the time of Juan del Encina. Thezarzuela genre was innovative in giving a dramatic function to the musical numbers, which wereintegrated into the argument of the work. Dances and choruses were incorporated as well as soloand ensemble numbers, all to orchestral accompaniment.