<ul><li>Abstract </li></ul><ul><li>This study was done in order to compare the motivations for playing video games between men and women. The sample population was derived from the morning students of the Psychology department at Mesa Community College. Each person was given a short survey which included their gender and ten motivations to choose one from. The measurement is nominal and the study is correlational. </li></ul>
Introduction <ul><li>Video games have been around since the 1980s and have been emerging continuously into the general cultural zeitgeist of the new millennium. There is a popular belief that video games are a more male oriented activity. But, it is becoming known that video game play is popular amongst females as well. There are many different motivations for gaming and they vary greatly. </li></ul><ul><li>It is obvious that video games main purpose is for entertaining, but a lot of things factor into the reasoning behind peoples will to game. Men and women operate very differently, and although they are both participating in equal amounts of time logged gaming, the question is whether or not their motivations differ. The research that is to be done is for the purpose of finding what are men and women’s strongest motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>Studies have been done that show how multiple online role-playing games (MORPG) are played in order to learn. The game based learning supports intrinsic motivation. When playing these games, small quests are given and achieved, through this exploration and manipulation stimulate knowledge. Additionally, through conversation and collaboration with other game players, understanding and learning are also stimulated. This is applied to both men and women alike (Dickey, 2006). </li></ul><ul><li>It is shown that people who play certain video games that are avatar based (an avatar is a customized cyber being you create on video games and consoles, such as the Wii. You play as this character and control “cyber world” as them) have a high sense of “self” (Park, Jin, 2009). People play as these avatars as if they were themselves, when interacting with and as them; they developed better social interaction than those who didn’t play with an avatar. This shows that some people may play video games in order to become in touch with themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>People play video games in order to interact and be social. In Effects of Prosocial Video Games on ProSocial Behavior (Greitemeyer, Osswald 2010) it is shown that if participants play social video games that they are more </li></ul><ul><li>likely to be willing to help in a social environment. They are also more likely to have more social/proactive thoughts. They also state that positive music helps in the same regards. Therefore, it is shown that when individuals play positive video games in a social environment, while all the game tunes are playing, these people will be more likely to assist other people. </li></ul><ul><li>Another reason for video game play is lack of motivation to do outdoor activities, and instead wanting to be leisurely. A Structural Model of Leisure Constraints Negotiation in Outdoor Recreation (White, 2001) it is shown that participants go through a leisure constraint negotiation in order to convince themselves that outdoor participation is not needed. The data was taken from a random sample of people in Arizona. Motivation is countered by constraint causing a negative psychological mishap. This is indirectly linked to participating in less strenuous activity such as video games. </li></ul><ul><li>Because of different motivations between men and women, there are also different skills put to work on tasks in video games. Is it shown (Ferguson, Cruz, Rueda, 2007) that men have a higher capability of performing visuospacial activities, which require visual memory. There is also questioning as to whether or not playing violent video games can improve this or not. The answer was yes in both men and women. But the motivation is questionable when asking whether or not men or women will play more in order to improve their visual memory, or because it’s already well rounded. </li></ul><ul><li>My hypothesis is that men will play video games for more personal reasons, and that women will engage in order to interact and be more social. Men game in order to achieve personal goals and/or to relieve stress from other personal things in their lives. Women are generally known as the social gender of the human race, so it would come as no surprised to find that their motivation behind gaming would be directly affected. </li></ul>
Method <ul><li>Participants </li></ul><ul><li>The participants used in this study were men and women between the ages of 18 and 25. All of the participants attend Mesa Community College, they all attend morning classes, and they are all Psychology students. There were a total of 20 men and 20 women. Quota sampling was used to collect participants. </li></ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul><ul><li>A brief survey was given to the participants in order to test the hypothesis. An nominal scale was used to make measurements. The survey consisted of a series of ten different motivations for video game play. Participants were asked to select their gender then were asked to select the one motivation out the ten that applied best to them as an individual. A sample motivation would be: “For relaxation”. </li></ul><ul><li>Procedure </li></ul><ul><li>Participants were found in a series of Psychology classes such as: Research Methods, Forensic Psychology, and Abnormal Psychology. These classes were all morning classes between the times of 8 AM to 12 PM. The teacher, of these classes, was asked permission to have her students take a survey at a set time during their class and the surveys were distributed accordingly. </li></ul>
Discussion <ul><li>This study was conducted in order to find the difference in motivations in men and women for playing video games. The hypothesis of this study was that men would engage in gaming for more personal motivations and that women would game in order to socialize. The results failed to reject the null hypothesis. There was no significance between men, women and their motivations. </li></ul><ul><li>In the study “Game design and learning: a conjectural analysis of how massively multiple online role-playing games (mmorpgs) foster intrinsic motivation” it was stated that men and women alike engage in video games in order to stimulate their brains and learn (Dickey, 2006). However, in my study there were a very small percentage of participants whose main motivation was to “challenge the brain”. Additionally, in “Effects of Prosocial Video Games on ProSocial Behavior” (Greitemeyer, Osswald 2010) it is discussed that women and men who play video games develop a higher sense of self and also are more inclined to help in a social setting. This was also incorporated into the study as a form of motivation; however, it proved to not be a motivation upon the participants. A lot of the </li></ul><ul><li>research done prior to the study had little appearance when the results were shown. </li></ul><ul><li>What was found in both women and men alike is the want for relaxation. Both genders had a strong outcome of relying on videogames to help relax. In the study “A Structural Model of Leisure Constraints Negotiation in Outdoor Recreation” (White, 2001) it was said that people generally engage in video games because they are putting off something else or because they would rather relax. This was shown in this study as fairly valid. </li></ul><ul><li>There were a few weaknesses in the method that could have been changed in order to perhaps strengthen the results, or perhaps even receive completely different results. The sample size was very small and didn’t give much variety. Additionally, the external validity was low because the sample consisted of only Mesa Community College Psychology students. It would have also been wise to give a larger variety of motivations and grouping them instead of asking for participants to choose only one out of the small selection of ten that were provided. The study was a good start, but it has potential to be taken to better heights. </li></ul>
Reference <ul><li>Cruz, A, Ferguson, C, & Rueda, S. (2007). Gender, video game playing habits and visual memory tasks. Sex Roles , 58 , 279-286. </li></ul><ul><li>Dickey, M. (2006). Game design and learning: a conjectural analysis of how massively multiple online role-playing games (mmorpgs) foster intrinsic motivation. Education Tech Research Dev , 55 , 253-273. </li></ul><ul><li>Greitemeyer, T, & Osswald, S. (2010). Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior. Interpersonal Relations and Group Processes , 98 , 211-221. </li></ul><ul><li>Jin, S, & Park, N. (2009). Parasocial interaction with my avatar: effects of interdependent self-construal and the mediating role of self-presence in an avatar-based console game, wii . CyberPsychology & Behavior , 12 , 723-727. </li></ul><ul><li>White, Dave. (2001). Effects of prosocial video games on prosocial behavior. Leisure Sciences , 30 , 342–359. </li></ul>
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