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Review sheet  1 Review sheet 1 Document Transcript

  • Review Sheet #1 Modules 1 and 2 History and Methodology Module 1: History - Empiricism v. Structuralism; Pragmatism - Famous people: Wilhelm Wundt, William James, Sigmund Freud, John Watson, BF Skinner, Charles Darwin - Psychologists v. Psychiatrists - Types of research: Basic, Applied, Clinical - Types of descriptive research: case studies, naturalistic observation, surveys, correlation - The major psychological perspectives (to explain human behavior): o Biological o Cognitive o Behavioral o Socio-cultural o Psychoanalytic/Psychodynamic Module 2: Research/methodology Hindsight bias, confirmation bias, sample size, false consensus, overconfidence, illusory correlation, correlation does not imply causation, wording effect The Scientific Method - Understand the difference between correlation research methods (shows only predictability) such as the survey method and the scientific method (shows cause and effect). - Thesis and Hypothesis o Independent variable (what is tested) v. Dependent variable (what is measured) o Experimental v. Control groups (experimental is tested – receives the ID v. the control group; basis of comparison; no treatment or a placebo) o Controls (to reduce bias): Possibilities include random selection of all subjects, random assignment to groups, double-blind, replication, and a placebo (if a drug experiment). This methodology helps to overcome “hindsight bias” and “overconfidence” - Ethical considerations in psychological research: Guidelines to the APA requirements o Must have: informed consent, no harm to the subjects, debriefing afterwards and confidentiality of the results - The use of inferential statistics: used to measure the dependent variable and as an objective comparison of the experimental and control groups. o Central tendencies: the mean, median and mode o The bell curve and standard deviations and range o Correlation coefficients: -1.0 to 1.0 to show statistical relationships between variables o Percentile ranks: to show the percentages below a given ranking