OBJECTIVE 1 | Define learning, and identify two forms of learning.
OBJECTIVE 2 | Explain how an unconditioned stimulus (US)
Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): A stimulus that automatically and naturally triggers a response. Unconditioned Response (UCR): A unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus, like salivation in the dog when food is in the mouth. Conditioned Stimulus (CS): Originally a neutral stimulus that, after association with an unconditioned stimulus, comes to trigger a conditioned response. Conditioned Response (CR): A learned response to a previously neutral conditioned stimulus.
OBJECTIVE 3 | Describe the timing requirements for the initial learning of a stimulus-response relationship.
OBJECTIVE 4 | Summarize the processes of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, and discrimination.
OBJECTIVE 5 | Discuss the survival value of extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization and discrimination.
OBJECTIVE 6 | Discuss the importance of cognitive processes in classical conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 7 | Describe some of the ways that biological predisposition can affect learning by classical conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 8 | Summarize Pavlov’s contribution to our understanding of learning.
OBJECTIVE 9 | Describe some uses of classical conditioning to improve human health and well-being.
OBJECTIVE 10 | Identify the two major characteristics that distinguish classical conditioning from operant conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 11 | State Thorndike’s law of effect, and explain its connection to Skinner’s research on operant conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 12 | Describe the shaping procedure, and how it can increase our understanding of what animals and babies can discriminate.
OBJECTIVE 13 | Compare positive and negative reinforcement, and give one example each of a primary reinforcer, a conditioned, an immediate, and a delayed reinforcer.
OBJECTIVE 14 | Discuss the strengths and weaknesses of continuous and partial reinforcement schedules, and identify four schedules of partial reinforcements.
OBJECTIVE 15 | Discuss the ways negative punishment, positive punishment, and negative reinforcement differ, and list some drawbacks of punishment as a behavior-control technique.
OBJECTIVE 16 | Explain how latent learning and the effect of external rewards demonstrate that cognitive processing is an important part of learning
OBJECTIVE 17 | Explain how biological predisposition place limits on what can be achieved through operant conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 18 | Describe the controversy over Skinner’s views of human behavior.
OBJECTIVE 19 | Describe some ways to apply operant conditioning principles at school, at work and at home.
OBJECTIVE 20 | Identify the major similarities and differences between classical and operant conditioning.
OBJECTIVE 21 | Describe the process of observational learning, and explain the importance of the discovery of mirror neurons.
OBJECTIVE 22 | Describe Bandura's findings on what determines whether we will imitate a model.
OBJECTIVE 23 | Discuss the impact of prosocial modeling.
Ideas of classical conditioning originate from old philosophical theories. However, it was the Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov who elucidated classical conditioning. His work provided a basis for later behaviorists like John Watson and B. F. Skinner.
Classical Conditioning Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936) Sovfoto
Pavlov’s Experiments Before conditioning, food (Unconditioned Stimulus, US) produces salivation (Unconditioned Response, UR). However, the tone (neutral stimulus) does not.
Pavlov’s Experiments During conditioning, the neutral stimulus (tone) and the US (food) are paired, resulting in salivation (UR). After conditioning, the neutral stimulus (now Conditioned Stimulus, CS) elicits salivation (now Conditioned Response, CR)
Tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization . Pavlov conditioned the dog’s salivation (CR) by using miniature vibrators (CS) on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog’s body, salivation dropped.
Pavlov and Watson believed that laws of learning were similar for all animals. Therefore, a pigeon and a person do not differ in their learning.
However, behaviorists later suggested that learning is constrained by an animal’s biology.
Biological Predispositions John Garcia Garcia showed that the duration between the CS and the US may be long (hours), but yet result in conditioning. A biologically adaptive CS (taste) led to conditioning and not to others (light or sound). Courtesy of John Garcia
Biological Predispositions Even humans can develop classically to conditioned nausea.
Classical conditioning involves respondent behavior that occurs as an automatic response to a certain stimulus. Operant conditioning involves operant behavior , a behavior that operates on the environment, producing rewarding or punishing stimuli.
The o perant chamber , or Skinner box , comes with a bar or key that an animal manipulates to obtain a reinforcer like food or water. The bar or key is connected to devices that record the animal’s response.
Immediate Reinforcer: A reinforcer that occurs instantly after a behavior. A rat gets a food pellet for a bar press.
Delayed Reinforcer: A reinforcer that is delayed in time for a certain behavior. A paycheck that comes at the end of a week.
Immediate & Delayed Reinforcers We may be inclined to engage in small immediate reinforcers (watching TV) rather than large delayed reinforcers (getting an A in a course) which require consistent study.
Evidence of cognitive processes during operant learning comes from rats during a maze exploration in which they navigate the maze without an obvious reward. Rats seem to develop cognitive maps , or mental representations, of the layout of the maze (environment).
Latent Learning Such cognitive maps are based on latent learning , which becomes apparent when an incentive is given (Tolman & Honzik, 1930).