AP Government FRQs [2006-2010]

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  • 1. Norman
  • 2. 1. Individuals often form groups in order to promote their interests. The Constitution contains several provisions that protect the rights of individuals who try to promote their interests in a representative democracy. [6 total points][6 total points] (a) Explain 2 provisions in the Bill of Rights that protect individuals who try to influence politics. (b) Interest groups engage in a variety of activities to affect public policy. Explain how each of the following is used by interest groups to exert influence over policy. -Grassroots mobilization -Lobbying of government institutions -Litigation [2 pts] 1. (a) One point is earned for each of two provisions of the Bill of Rights identified.[2 pts] 1. (a) One point is earned for each of two provisions of the Bill of Rights identified. Each provision must be identified and include a discussion of what the provision protects.Each provision must be identified and include a discussion of what the provision protects. Answers may include but are not limited:Answers may include but are not limited: -Speech – allows citizens to say almost anything they want-Speech – allows citizens to say almost anything they want -Press – allows citizens access to info, each other & policymakers; printed advocacy-Press – allows citizens access to info, each other & policymakers; printed advocacy -Assembly – allows citizens to come together-Assembly – allows citizens to come together -Petition – allows citizens to address government-Petition – allows citizens to address government -Various due process/criminal justice provisions (e.g., grand jury indictment, jury of peers,-Various due process/criminal justice provisions (e.g., grand jury indictment, jury of peers, search and seizure) – protects citizens from retribution/harassment from governmentsearch and seizure) – protects citizens from retribution/harassment from government [3 points] 1. (b) One point is earned for each of 3 explanations. They must include a[3 points] 1. (b) One point is earned for each of 3 explanations. They must include a description of the interest group activity and how that activity may influence the action of adescription of the interest group activity and how that activity may influence the action of a governmental body, official or policy.governmental body, official or policy. -Grassroots mobilization – interest groups organize citizens, who act to influence-Grassroots mobilization – interest groups organize citizens, who act to influence policymakerspolicymakers -Lobbying – direct contact with policy makers for the purpose of persuasion through the-Lobbying – direct contact with policy makers for the purpose of persuasion through the provision of information, political benefits, etc.provision of information, political benefits, etc. -Litigation – the use of courts to gain policy preferences thru cases or amicus curiae-Litigation – the use of courts to gain policy preferences thru cases or amicus curiae
  • 3. 1. (c) Describe one specific federal governmental regulation of interest groups. [1 point] 1. (c) One point is earned for describing a regulation. The regulation does not need[1 point] 1. (c) One point is earned for describing a regulation. The regulation does not need to be identified by its formal title.to be identified by its formal title. -Disclosure of contributions, funding or activities-Disclosure of contributions, funding or activities -Registration of lobbyists, PACs-Registration of lobbyists, PACs -Campaign finance laws-Campaign finance laws -Limits on gifts-Limits on gifts -Limits on revolving-door appointments-Limits on revolving-door appointments -Limits on honoraria-Limits on honoraria -Prohibition of bribery-Prohibition of bribery -Any named law or regulation with a description of what it does to regulate interest groups-Any named law or regulation with a description of what it does to regulate interest groups 2. The Federal bureaucracy as part of the executive branch exercise substantial independence in implementing governmental policies and programs. Most workers in the federal bureaucracy are civil-service employees who are organized under a merit system. [6 total points][6 total points] (a) Describe one key characteristic of the merit system. [1 point] 2. (a) One point is earned for a description of a characteristic of the merit system.[1 point] 2. (a) One point is earned for a description of a characteristic of the merit system. Answers may include:Answers may include: - Hiring or promotion based on merit/experience/qualifications- Hiring or promotion based on merit/experience/qualifications - Hiring based on testing- Hiring based on testing
  • 4. 2. (b) For each of the following, describe one factor that contributes to bureaucratic independence. [2 pts] 2. (b) One point is earned for each of the two descriptions of factors contributing[2 pts] 2. (b) One point is earned for each of the two descriptions of factors contributing to bureaucratic independence. Answers may include:to bureaucratic independence. Answers may include: Structure of the bureaucracyStructure of the bureaucracy -Large-Large -Specialized units/expertise-Specialized units/expertise -Tenure protections/hard to fire-Tenure protections/hard to fire -Based on merit-Based on merit -Independent agencies/independent regulatory commissions-Independent agencies/independent regulatory commissions Complexity of public policy problemsComplexity of public policy problems - Specialized units/expertise- Specialized units/expertise -Delegated authority – because Congress and the president cannot handle everything,-Delegated authority – because Congress and the president cannot handle everything, they delegate authority to the bureaucracythey delegate authority to the bureaucracy -Discretionary-Discretionary authority–because legislation lacks details, the bureaucracy can fill in the gapsauthority–because legislation lacks details, the bureaucracy can fill in the gaps (c) For each of the following, explain one Constitutional provision that it can use to check the bureaucracy. -Congress -The courts -Interest groups [3 points] 2. (c) One point for each of the three explanations:[3 points] 2. (c) One point for each of the three explanations: CongressCongress -Appropriations-can reward or-Appropriations-can reward or punish agencypunish agency -Legislation-can pass legislation-Legislation-can pass legislation affecting bureaucracyaffecting bureaucracy -Rejection of presidential-Rejection of presidential appointments to the bureaucracyappointments to the bureaucracy -Impeachment of executive officials-Impeachment of executive officials CourtsCourts -Court rulings that limit-Court rulings that limit bureaucratic actionsbureaucratic actions unconstitutionalunconstitutional -Judicial review-can declare-Judicial review-can declare bureaucratic actionsbureaucratic actions unconstitutionalunconstitutional -Injunctions against federal-Injunctions against federal agenciesagencies Interest groupsInterest groups Use of the First AmendmentUse of the First Amendment -Lobbying-Lobbying -Protests-Protests -Media usage-Media usage -Speech-Speech LitigationLitigation
  • 5. 3. Over the last several decades, the composition of the Democratic and Republican parties has changed in important ways. A major partisan shift has occurred in the South, but other demographic changes have also been identified. Changes in party composition are reflected at different rates in presidential elections than in congressional elections. [6 total points][6 total points] (a) Identify one specific trend evident in the figure above. [1 point] 3. (a) One point is earned or identifying one specific trend evident in the figure[1 point] 3. (a) One point is earned or identifying one specific trend evident in the figure -Percentage of House seats for Democrats has trended down.-Percentage of House seats for Democrats has trended down. -Percentage of presidential electoral votes for Democrats has trended down.-Percentage of presidential electoral votes for Democrats has trended down. (b) Choose two of the following and use each to explain why southern voters from 1948 to 2000 were electing Democratic candidates to Congress more frequently than choosing Democratic candidates for the presidency. -Incumbency advantage -Gerrymandering -Differences between state & national parties [2 points] 3. (b) One point for each explanation:[2 points] 3. (b) One point for each explanation: IncumbencyIncumbency-Even though Southern voters were voting for Republican-Even though Southern voters were voting for Republican presidential candidates, they continued to vote for incumbentpresidential candidates, they continued to vote for incumbent Democratic congressional candidates because of the incumbencyDemocratic congressional candidates because of the incumbency advantage.advantage. GerrymanderingGerrymandering-District lines created safe seats/majority-minority-District lines created safe seats/majority-minority districts, which protected Democratic seats even though there weredistricts, which protected Democratic seats even though there were more Republican voters in statewide presidential elections.more Republican voters in statewide presidential elections. State v. national partiesState v. national parties-Because national and state parties were-Because national and state parties were largely independent of each other, to get votes Democraticlargely independent of each other, to get votes Democratic congressional candidates responded to local interests, whereascongressional candidates responded to local interests, whereas Democratic presidential candidates responded to a nationalDemocratic presidential candidates responded to a national
  • 6. 3. (c) Several other changes in party composition have emerged in the past few decades. Select three of the following groups and for each explain how parties have changed in composition with respect to that group. -Catholics -Labor union members -Women -Social conservatives [3 pts] 3. (c) One point is earned for each explanation :[3 pts] 3. (c) One point is earned for each explanation : -Catholics – They have become less reliable Democratic voters.-Catholics – They have become less reliable Democratic voters. -Labor union members – They have become less reliable Democratic voters; have-Labor union members – They have become less reliable Democratic voters; have decreased in number and thus there are fewer Democratic supporters; have become adecreased in number and thus there are fewer Democratic supporters; have become a smaller percentage of the Democratic voting bloc.smaller percentage of the Democratic voting bloc. -Women – They have become more reliable Democratic voters; have increased in number-Women – They have become more reliable Democratic voters; have increased in number and thus there are more Democratic supporters; have become a larger percentage of theand thus there are more Democratic supporters; have become a larger percentage of the Democratic voting bloc.Democratic voting bloc. -Social conservatives – They were previously nonexistent and have now crystallized to-Social conservatives – They were previously nonexistent and have now crystallized to become more reliable Republican voters; previously found in the Democratic party and havebecome more reliable Republican voters; previously found in the Democratic party and have moved to the Republicanparty.moved to the Republicanparty.
  • 7. 4. The framers of the Constitution created a political system based on limited government. The original Constitution and the Bill of Rights were intended to restrict the powers of the national government. Later constitutional developments also limited the powers of state governments. [5 total points][5 total points] (a) Explain how each of the following limits the powers of the national executive. -Federalism -Checks and balances [2 pts] 4. (a) On point is earned for each explanation:[2 pts] 4. (a) On point is earned for each explanation: -Federalism – divides power between national and state governments, which limits-Federalism – divides power between national and state governments, which limits the authority of the national executive.the authority of the national executive. -Checks and balances – the response must explain how other branches of-Checks and balances – the response must explain how other branches of government can check (limit, restrict) what the executive can do. A correct example of agovernment can check (limit, restrict) what the executive can do. A correct example of a check or balance on the national executive is acceptable to earn this point.check or balance on the national executive is acceptable to earn this point. 4. (b) Explain how each of the following two provisions in the Bill of Rights limits the powers of the national government - Establishment clause -Guarantee of a public trial [2 pts] 4. (b) One point is earned for each explanation:[2 pts] 4. (b) One point is earned for each explanation: -Establishment Clause – prevents the national government from establishing a-Establishment Clause – prevents the national government from establishing a national religion or taking any action that would show preferential treatment for one religionnational religion or taking any action that would show preferential treatment for one religion over another.over another. -Guarantee of a public trial – requiring trials to be open to the public limits the-Guarantee of a public trial – requiring trials to be open to the public limits the government’s ability to violate the rights of citizens.government’s ability to violate the rights of citizens.
  • 8. 4. (c) Choose one of the following and explain how it limits the power of state governments. -Citizenship clause of the Fourteenth Amendment -Selective incorporation [1 pt] 4. (c) One point is earned for each explanation:[1 pt] 4. (c) One point is earned for each explanation: -Citizenship Clause – provides a national definition of citizenship that states cannot-Citizenship Clause – provides a national definition of citizenship that states cannot violate; requires states provide citizenship guarantees to all who meet the definition ofviolate; requires states provide citizenship guarantees to all who meet the definition of citizen.citizen. -Selective incorporation – prohibits states from denying Bill of Rights provisions-Selective incorporation – prohibits states from denying Bill of Rights provisions regarding freedom of expression, rights of the accused or privacy.regarding freedom of expression, rights of the accused or privacy.
  • 9. 1. [6 pts] In The Federalist paper number 10, James Madison expressed concern over the possibility that both majority and minority factions would have too much power over government, and he presented ways of minimizing that danger. The U.S. Constitution established a democratic government but also contained several provisions that limited majority rule. Throughout the next two centuries, the role of majority rule in the U.S. government and politics continued to change. (a) [2pts] Identify the part of the national government that was originally most closely tied to citizens and explain how it was tied to citizens. 1. (a) [2 pts] One point is earned for identifying the House of Representatives or Congress. One point is earned for an explanation of how the House or Congress is most closely tied to citizens. Acceptable explanations are: • Members of the House are more directly elected than the president and were originally more directly elected than members of the Senate. • The shorter term length (or frequent elections) ties them to the people. • Members must live in the state they represent. • House members represent relatively small districts.
  • 10. (b) [2 pts] Explain two ways the United States Constitution limited majority rule. 1 (b) [2 pts] One point is earned for each of two explanations. Each explanation must show how a constitutional provision or principle limits majority rule. Any of the following can be used as a reference point in the explanation of how majority rule is limited (this is not an exhaustive list): Provisions that limit how the majority can have an impact on government: • Electoral college • U.S. senators originally selected by state legislatures • Longer terms of senators • Independent judiciary • Life tenure for U.S. Supreme Court justices • Appointment process • Representative form of government Provisions that limit the power of government: • Bill of Rights • Expressed powers • Specific prohibitions (e.g., ex post facto laws, bills of attainder) • Separation of powers • Checks and balances • Federalism • Bicameralism
  • 11. 1. (c) [2 pts2 pts] Choose two of the following twentieth-century developments and explain how each moved the U.S. from a less democratic system to a more democratic system. • Primary elections • The Seventeenth Amendment • Expansion of suffrage 1. (c)) One point is earned for each of two explanations. Each explanation must state how the development cited moved the process from a less democratic system to a more democratic system in the twentieth century. Acceptable explanations must indicate how the United States became more democratic through: • Primary elections—voters gained more control over the nomination process/control taken away from political parties. • Seventeenth Amendment—mandated direct election of U.S. senators. • Expansion of suffrage—led to a more representative set of voters/more eligible voters.
  • 12. 2. [7pts] In the U.S. political system, there are several linkage institutions that can connect citizens to government. Elections constitute one such institution. Because of low voter turnout, elections represent an imperfect method of linking citizens to their government. Even when there is low voter turnout, however, other linkage institutions can connect citizens to government. (a) [2 pts2 pts] Describe how each of the following is related to the likelihood of voting. • Age • Education 2. (a) [Age] One point is earned for describing any aspect of the relationship between age and the likelihood of voting. Acceptable descriptions for age include: • Older people are more likely to vote. • Turnout is lowest for young people. • The likelihood of voting declines in the oldest populations. 2. (a) [Education] One point is earned for describing the relationship between education and the likelihood of voting. The only acceptable descriptions for education are: • People with more education are more likely to vote. • People with less education are less likely to vote.
  • 13. 2. (b) [2 pts] Identify one current government electoral requirement that decreases voter turnout. Explain how it decreases voter turnout 2. (b) [2 pts]2. (b) [2 pts] One point is earned for identifying an electoral requirement that decreases voter turnout. Acceptable examples are: • Citizenship • Age • Disfranchisement of certain groups (felons, the mentally incompetent) • Residency • Registration • Limited opportunities to vote (midweek, limited hours, single day) • Need to show identification • Generally have to vote in person • Closed primaries • Process of obtaining absentee ballots One point is earned for explaining how or why the requirement cited decreases the likelihood of voting. Acceptable explanations include: • The requirement makes a person ineligible to vote. • The requirement puts up obstacles or makes it harder to vote.
  • 14. 2. (c) [3 pts] Identify one linkage institution other than elections and explain two ways it connects citizens to government.2. (c) [3 pts]2. (c) [3 pts] One point is earned for identifying one of the following linkage institutions: • Media • Interest groups (PACs) • Political parties One point is earned for each of two explanations. The student must explain how the media, interest groups, or political parties connect citizens to the government. (Note: the student must earn the point for identifying an institution in order to receive a point for explaining how that institution connects citizens to the government). Media Interest Groups/PACs Political Parties “Ways” that -Convey the views -Express group members’ -Gather information about connect of the people to preferences to policymakers voters for use by candi- government dates and policymakers -Convey information -Convey policy information to -Provide information to about the govern- group members voters about candidates ment to the people running for office -Raise & spend money to -Connect voters to elected advocate for the interests of officials/candidates thru the group with policymakers campaign activities “Ways” in which -Interviewing citizens -Letter-writing campaigns -Campaigns connections are -Reporting on govern- -Campaign activities -Voter mobilization made ment activities -Lobbying -Recruiting activities -Presenting poll results-Grassroots movement -Recruiting candidates -Interview officials -Litigation -Endorsing party platforms -Covering protests -Media campaigns -Articulating interests -Outlet for opinions -Disseminating info on G affairs -Mobilizing interests
  • 15. 3. [6 pts] In the U.S. Congress, the majority party exerts a substantial influence over lawmaking. However, even when one party has a numerical majority in each chamber of the U.S. Congress, there is no guarantee that legislation supported by that majority party will be passed by both chambers. Rules of each chamber independently influence the likelihood that legislation will pass in that chamber; legislation passed by one chamber is not always passed by the other. (a) Describe two advantages the majority party in the U.S. House of Representatives has in lawmaking, above and beyond the numerical advantage that that majority party enjoys in floor voting. 3. (a) [2 pts]3. (a) [2 pts] One point is earned for each of two descriptions of majority party advantage in the House of Representatives. The description must include three components: • Majority party • Advantage • Factual statement about the advantage Acceptable answers may include: • Holds committee chairs • Controls Rules Committee • Sets the agenda • Controls debate • Chooses Speaker of the House • Holds majority on each committee • Assigns bills to committees
  • 16. 3. (b) [2 pts] Describe two differences between House and Senate rules that may make it likely that legislation may pass in one chamber but not in the other. 3. (b) [2 pts]3. (b) [2 pts] One point is earned for each of two descriptions of rules differences between the House and Senate. Acceptable answers may include: House Senate Procedures and rules More formal Less formal Filibusters No Yes Holds No Yes Unanimous consent agreements No Yes Germaneness requirement Yes No Rules Committee Yes No
  • 17. Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly ______________News: 1974 and 2002 Combined_____________ 1974 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 45 13 30–44 50 12 45–64 68 8 65 and older 71 5___ 2002 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 19 22 30–44 22 17 45–64 40 11 65 and older 53 8 4. [6pts] One of the most important ways the news media influence politics is through agenda setting. (a) Define policy agenda. 4. (a)4. (a) [1 pt][1 pt] One point is earned for a correct definition of policy agenda. A correct definition must include each of the following: • A policy agenda is a set of issues, problems, or subjects • that gets the attention of/is viewed as important by • people involved in policymaking (e.g., government officials, government decision-makers).
  • 18. Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly ______________News: 1974 and 2002 Combined_____________ 1974 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 45 13 30–44 50 12 45–64 68 8 65 and older 71 5___ 2002 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 19 22 30–44 22 17 45–64 40 11 65 and older 53 8 4. (b) [1 pt] Explain how the national news media engage in agenda setting. 4. (b) [1 pt]4. (b) [1 pt] One point is earned for a correct explanation of how the national news media engage in agenda setting. A correct explanation must include each of the following: • Raise awareness, provide information, draw attention, demonstrate the importance or consequences of the problem, or get the public’s attention. • Get the attention of government/policymakers.
  • 19. Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly ______________News: 1974 and 2002 Combined_____________ 1974 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 45 13 30–44 50 12 45–64 68 8 65 and older 71 5___ 2002 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 19 22 30–44 22 17 45–64 40 11 65 and older 53 8 4. (c) [1 pt] Explain the primary reason the president tends to have an advantage over Congress in gaining media attention. 4. (c) [1 pt]4. (c) [1 pt] One point is earned for an explanation of the primary reason the president has an advantage over Congress in gaining media attention. A correct response must include the following: • An explanation that the president is one person, while Congress is composed of many members. • An explanation of how that fact gives the president an advantage over Congress in gaining media attention. Possible explanations might include: • The president speaks with a single voice, while Congress has many voices. • The president represents the nation; members of Congress represent states/districts. • The president is the national leader/leader of the country. • The president is more powerful than any single member of Congress. • The president has constitutional powers that Congress does not have
  • 20. Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly ______________News: 1974 and 2002 Combined________________ 1974 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 45 13 30–44 50 12 45–64 68 8 65 and older 71 5____ 2002 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 19 22 30–44 22 17 45–64 40 11 65 and older 53 8 4. (d) [2 pts] Consider the table above. • Describe the difference in the viewing patterns of older and younger age-groups. • Describe the change from 1974-2002 in viewing habits existing for all age categories. 4. (d)[2 pt]4. (d)[2 pt] One point is earned for each of two responses: one explaining the difference in viewing patterns of older and younger age-groups, and one explaining the change in viewing habits from 1974 to 2002 for all age-groups: • Young people view less TV news than older people. Older people view more TV news than younger people. • People in all age categories viewed less TV news in 2002 than they did in 1974.
  • 21. Viewers’ Ages and Frequency of Viewing of Network Nightly ______________News: 1974 and 2002 Combined________________ 1974 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 45 13 30–44 50 12 45–64 68 8 65 and older 71 5____ 2002 Frequently (%) Rarely (%) 18–29 19 22 30–44 22 17 45–64 40 11 65 and older 53 8 4. (e) [1 pt] Given the information in the table, describe one implication for presidents in their use of the media to promote their political and policy objectives to the American public. 4. (e)4. (e) [1 pt] One point is earned for describing one implication for presidents in their use of the media to promote their objectives to the public. The answer must state at least one of the following: • Presidents must rely on alternative media to gain the attention of the public. • Presidents purposely target older viewers through the use of nightly news programs. • The nightly news is not as effective in promoting the president’s agenda as it used to be.
  • 22. 1. [6 points6 points] While interest groups and political parties each play a significant role in the U.S. political system, they differ in their fundamental goals. (a) [1pt1pt] Identify the fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process 1.1. (a) This answer must identify a fundamental goal of interest groups in the(a) This answer must identify a fundamental goal of interest groups in the political process. Acceptable responses may include:political process. Acceptable responses may include: - Influence public policy.- Influence public policy. - Influence Congress/government.- Influence Congress/government. -Change laws-Change laws -Responses can list tactics-Responses can list tactics as long asas long as they specifically connect them to thethey specifically connect them to the fundamental goal of influencing public policy.fundamental goal of influencing public policy. -No point is earned if the response lists a series of goals, even if one goal is-No point is earned if the response lists a series of goals, even if one goal is ““influence policy” (unless it is specifically listed asinfluence policy” (unless it is specifically listed as thethe fundamental goal).fundamental goal). (b) [1 pt1 pt] Identify the fundamental goal of major political parties in the political process. (b) This response must identify a fundamental goal of political parties in the(b) This response must identify a fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. Acceptable responses may include:political process. Acceptable responses may include: -Elect people to office.-Elect people to office. -Gain control of government. [Responses can earn a point for saying-Gain control of government. [Responses can earn a point for saying ““influence policy”influence policy” as long asas long as they connect it to winning control ofthey connect it to winning control of government/electing people to office.]government/electing people to office.]
  • 23. 1. (c) [2 pts2 pts].Describe two different ways by which interest groups support the fundamental goal of political parties in the political process. (c) One point is earned for each of two descriptions. The response must(c) One point is earned for each of two descriptions. The response must describe activities that support the electoral goals of parties; for example.,describe activities that support the electoral goals of parties; for example., the response “lobbying” does not earn a point.the response “lobbying” does not earn a point. Acceptable descriptions may include:Acceptable descriptions may include: - Monetary contributions/political action committee (PAC) donations. If these- Monetary contributions/political action committee (PAC) donations. If these two are clearly differentiated, then the response earns both points.)two are clearly differentiated, then the response earns both points.) - Organization/mobilization of people.- Organization/mobilization of people. - Media campaigns.- Media campaigns. - Information.- Information. - Independent committees/527s.- Independent committees/527s. - Independent expenditures.- Independent expenditures. - Endorsement/recruitment of candidates.- Endorsement/recruitment of candidates. (d) [2 pts2 pts] For one of the forms of support you described in (c) , explain two different ways in which that form of support helps interest groups to achieve their fundamental goal in the political process.. (d) Acceptable explanations for the two include:(d) Acceptable explanations for the two include: - Access/influence policymakers.- Access/influence policymakers. - Have like-minded people/policy advocates in office.- Have like-minded people/policy advocates in office. - Legislation that helps interest groups- Legislation that helps interest groups NoteNote: Responses cannot earn points in (d) if they do not earn points in (c).: Responses cannot earn points in (d) if they do not earn points in (c).
  • 24. 2. [6 pts6 pts] In recent decades, entitlement programs have constituted a substantial portion of the U.S. federal budget. Social Security is the largest entitlement program in the U.S. From the info in the chart aboveinfo in the chart above and your knowledge of U.S. government and politics, perform the following tasks. (a) [1 pt1 pt] Define entitlement program. (a) Entitlement programs are government sponsored programs providing(a) Entitlement programs are government sponsored programs providing mandated//guaranteed/required benefits to those who meet eligibilitymandated//guaranteed/required benefits to those who meet eligibility requirements/qualifications.requirements/qualifications. SOCIAL SECURITY RECEIPTS, SPENDING, & RESERVE ESTIMATES, 2001-2035SOCIAL SECURITY RECEIPTS, SPENDING, & RESERVE ESTIMATES, 2001-2035
  • 25. 2. (b) [1 pt1 pt] What is the primary source of revenue for the Social Security program? (b) Acceptable responses for identifying the primary sources of revenue for(b) Acceptable responses for identifying the primary sources of revenue for Social Security are:Social Security are: - Payroll taxes.- Payroll taxes. - Wages from existing wage earners.- Wages from existing wage earners. - Tax based on earned income.- Tax based on earned income. - Targeted/earmarked taxes.- Targeted/earmarked taxes. Note: The response must indicate that the tax is related to work/jobs in orderNote: The response must indicate that the tax is related to work/jobs in order to receive the point.to receive the point. (c) [1 pt1 pt] Identify one threat to the future of the Social Security program should the trends depicted in the chart above continue. (c) Acceptable responses include:(c) Acceptable responses include: - Run out of money.- Run out of money. - Outputs exceed inputs.- Outputs exceed inputs. - Declining reserve.- Declining reserve.
  • 26. 2. (d) [2 pts2 pts] Describe one demographic trend that threatens the future of the Social Security program AND explain how it is responsible for the threat identified in (c). (d) Acceptable descriptions may include:(d) Acceptable descriptions may include: - More older people/”baby boom” generation.- More older people/”baby boom” generation. - People living longer/greater life expectancy.- People living longer/greater life expectancy. - Declining birth rates.- Declining birth rates. Acceptable explanations may include:Acceptable explanations may include: - The number of workers who fund Social Security is decreasing, but the- The number of workers who fund Social Security is decreasing, but the number of people eligible for Social Security is increasing.number of people eligible for Social Security is increasing. - The number of working people cannot support the large population who- The number of working people cannot support the large population who will soon reach the age of eligibility to receive Social Security.will soon reach the age of eligibility to receive Social Security. - The ratio of workers to retirees is becoming more unequal. With fewer- The ratio of workers to retirees is becoming more unequal. With fewer workers, less money is being paid in, and with more retirees, more moneyworkers, less money is being paid in, and with more retirees, more money is being paid out.is being paid out. Notes: -Responses cannot get the explanation point without a validNotes: -Responses cannot get the explanation point without a valid description of the demographic trend.description of the demographic trend. - The explanation must address the number of younger people in- The explanation must address the number of younger people in comparison to the number of older people in order to earn the point.comparison to the number of older people in order to earn the point. (e) [1 pt1 pt] Explain how any one of the trends in the chart above would change if the age of eligibility for Social Security were raised. (e) One point for explaining how, if people were to work longer, less money(e) One point for explaining how, if people were to work longer, less money would be paid out/more money would be paid in/the reserve would not declinewould be paid out/more money would be paid in/the reserve would not decline as rapidly or as much.as rapidly or as much.
  • 27. 3. [6 pts6 pts] The U.S. Congress and the President together have the power to enact federal law. Federal bureaucratic agencies have the responsibility to execute federal law. However, in the carrying out of these laws, federal agencies have policy-making discretion. (a) [2 pts2 pts] Explain two reasons why Congress gives federal agencies policy-making discretion in executing federal laws. (a) One point is earned for explaining any of two reasons why Congress gives(a) One point is earned for explaining any of two reasons why Congress gives federal agencies policy-making discretion in executing federal laws.federal agencies policy-making discretion in executing federal laws. - Congress lacks expertise/agencies have expertise.- Congress lacks expertise/agencies have expertise. - Congress does not want to be blamed for bad policy.- Congress does not want to be blamed for bad policy. -Time-consuming.-Time-consuming. - Easier to come to agreement.- Easier to come to agreement. -More efficient.-More efficient. (b) [2 pts2 pts].Choose one of the bureaucratic agencies listed below. Identify the policy area over which it exercises policy-making discretion AND give one specific example of how it exercises that discretion. (b) One point is earned for correctly identifying the policy area identified with(b) One point is earned for correctly identifying the policy area identified with the agency. One point is earned for providing an example. The response mustthe agency. One point is earned for providing an example. The response must include a correct specific example of how the agency exercises policy-makinginclude a correct specific example of how the agency exercises policy-making discretion in order to earn the point.discretion in order to earn the point. AgencyAgency Policy AreaPolicy Area The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Clean air and waterClean air and water Federal Communications Commission (FCC)Federal Communications Commission (FCC) TV,radio,satellite,TV,radio,satellite, telephone,etc.telephone,etc.
  • 28. 3. (c) [2 pts2 pts] Describe two ways in which Congress ensures that federal agencies follow legislative meet. (c) Acceptable descriptions of two ways Congress ensures that agencies follow(c) Acceptable descriptions of two ways Congress ensures that agencies follow legislative intent are:legislative intent are: - Oversight.- Oversight. - Budget/appropriations.- Budget/appropriations. - Hearings- Hearings - Investigations.- Investigations. - Government Accountability Office (GAO]- Government Accountability Office (GAO] - Change law.- Change law. - Legislative veto- Legislative veto - Casework.- Casework. - Sunset laws/reauthorization/dissolve agencies/create new agencies.- Sunset laws/reauthorization/dissolve agencies/create new agencies. Note: If one of the above is only mentioned as an example of oversight,Note: If one of the above is only mentioned as an example of oversight, the response gets only one point.the response gets only one point.
  • 29. 4. [6 pts6 pts] The framers of the U.S. Constitution created a legislative system that is bicameral. However, it is not just bicameral; the framers also established two houses of distinctly different character and authority. (a) [2 pts2 pts] Discuss two reasons why the framers created a bicameral legislature. (a) Acceptable reasons for discussion include:(a) Acceptable reasons for discussion include: - Compromise at Constitutional Convention (representation of large vs. small- Compromise at Constitutional Convention (representation of large vs. small population states)population states) - Compromise among competing interests/protect minority interests- Compromise among competing interests/protect minority interests - Slow the process.- Slow the process. - Different types of representation/federalism- Different types of representation/federalism - An intrabranch check/prevent majority rule.- An intrabranch check/prevent majority rule. (b) [2 pts2 pts] Identify one power unique to the House of Representatives and explain why the framers gave the House that power. (b) One point is earned for a correct identification of a power unique to the(b) One point is earned for a correct identification of a power unique to the House of Representatives, and one point is earned for a correct explanationHouse of Representatives, and one point is earned for a correct explanation that is linked to the character of the House of Representatives.that is linked to the character of the House of Representatives. Acceptable identifications may include:Acceptable identifications may include: - Initiate revenue bills.- Initiate revenue bills. - Choose the President when the electoral college is deadlocked.- Choose the President when the electoral college is deadlocked. - Impeachment.- Impeachment. Acceptable explanations may include:Acceptable explanations may include: - Closer to the people.- Closer to the people. - More- More representative of & responsive to the public/direct election of 2 year term.representative of & responsive to the public/direct election of 2 year term.
  • 30. 4. (c) [2 pts2 pts] Identify one power unique to the Senate and explain why the framers gave the Senate that power. (c) One point is earned for a correct identification of a power unique to the(c) One point is earned for a correct identification of a power unique to the Senate, and one point is earned for a correct explanation that is linked toSenate, and one point is earned for a correct explanation that is linked to the character of the Senate.the character of the Senate. Acceptable identifications may include:Acceptable identifications may include: - Treaty ratification.- Treaty ratification. - Confirmation of judicial and executive appointments.- Confirmation of judicial and executive appointments. - Try impeachments/conviction/removal from office.- Try impeachments/conviction/removal from office. Acceptable explanations may include:Acceptable explanations may include: - More mature/”august” body.- More mature/”august” body. - More insulated from public opinion/indirectly elected (originally).- More insulated from public opinion/indirectly elected (originally). - Longer and/or staggered terms.- Longer and/or staggered terms. - Reflects state interests.- Reflects state interests. Note: The unique power must be one that is included in the ConstitutionNote: The unique power must be one that is included in the Constitution (e.g., “filibuster” does not get credit because it is a Senate rule, not a(e.g., “filibuster” does not get credit because it is a Senate rule, not a constitutional power).constitutional power).
  • 31. 1. [5 points5 points] A significant feature of the electoral college is that most states have a winner-take-all system. (a) [1 point1 point] Describe the winner take all feature of the electoral college. 1. (a) One point is earned for a description of the winner-take-all feature of the1. (a) One point is earned for a description of the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college. A correct description is: the candidate who gets the mostelectoral college. A correct description is: the candidate who gets the most votes (or a majority, a plurality, more than any other candidate) wins all of avotes (or a majority, a plurality, more than any other candidate) wins all of a state’s electoral votes.state’s electoral votes. (b) [1 pt1 pt] Explain one way in which the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college affects how presidential candidates from the two major political parties run their campaigns. (b) Acceptable explanations include:(b) Acceptable explanations include: - Resource- Resource allocation or focus on competitive states, swing states, & large states.allocation or focus on competitive states, swing states, & large states. - Issues (an issue may swing a bloc of voters in a state).- Issues (an issue may swing a bloc of voters in a state). - Choice of Vice-President (regional balance).- Choice of Vice-President (regional balance). (c) [1 pt1 pt] Explain one way in which the winner-take-all feature of the electoral college hinders third-party candidates. (c) Acceptable explanations include:(c) Acceptable explanations include: - Third-party candidates may get a lot of popular votes but no electoral votes- Third-party candidates may get a lot of popular votes but no electoral votes unless they carry a state.unless they carry a state. - The difficulty of winning electoral votes hampers the ability to raise funds- The difficulty of winning electoral votes hampers the ability to raise funds and gain other campaign resources.and gain other campaign resources.
  • 32. 1. (d) [2 points2 points] Explain two reasons why the electoral college has not been abolished. (d) Acceptable explanations include:(d) Acceptable explanations include: - Helps- Helps to ensure that ato ensure that a majority of electoral votes are earned by one candidate.majority of electoral votes are earned by one candidate. - History/tradition.- History/tradition. - Would require constitutional amendment.- Would require constitutional amendment. - No clear consensus on an alternative.- No clear consensus on an alternative. - Collectively benefits small states.- Collectively benefits small states. - Racial minorities (and interest groups) in some states like the electoral- Racial minorities (and interest groups) in some states like the electoral college because it protects their votes.college because it protects their votes. - Collectively benefits large states.- Collectively benefits large states. - Competitive states like it.- Competitive states like it. - Favors two-party system.- Favors two-party system.
  • 33. 2. [6 pts6 pts] The First Amendment includes two clauses relating to the freedom of religion. (a) [1 pt1 pt] Select one of the following cases and identify the First amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision. - Engel v. Vitale (school prayer) - Lemon v. Kurtzman (state funding for private religious schools) (b) Acceptable explanations of Engel v. Vitale:(b) Acceptable explanations of Engel v. Vitale: - Must say that the decision struck down state-sponsored prayer in school.- Must say that the decision struck down state-sponsored prayer in school. - MUST mention state-sponsored or state-organized prayer to get credit.- MUST mention state-sponsored or state-organized prayer to get credit. - MUST indicate that the prayer had some type of official government- MUST indicate that the prayer had some type of official government backing/sponsorship/sanction.backing/sponsorship/sanction. - Do not have to specify “public schools” to get credit.- Do not have to specify “public schools” to get credit. No point is given if the answer states only that the decision “banned prayer in school”No point is given if the answer states only that the decision “banned prayer in school” Acceptable explanation of Lemon v. Kurtzman:Acceptable explanation of Lemon v. Kurtzman: - Must say that the decision struck down state funding for private religious- Must say that the decision struck down state funding for private religious schools [More specifically, it struck down state funding to pay parochialschools [More specifically, it struck down state funding to pay parochial teachers to give instruction in secular subjects.]teachers to give instruction in secular subjects.] - Will receive credit for statements recognizing that there are certain conditions- Will receive credit for statements recognizing that there are certain conditions or criteria that are used in determining if a government practice does notor criteria that are used in determining if a government practice does not violate the establishment clause. Conditions/criteria may include:violate the establishment clause. Conditions/criteria may include: - Secular purpose- Secular purpose - Neither enhances nor inhibits religion.- Neither enhances nor inhibits religion. - No excessive entanglement between government and religion.- No excessive entanglement between government and religion. (a) The Establishment clause is the first amendment clause upon which the(a) The Establishment clause is the first amendment clause upon which the Court based its decision for both the Engel and Lemon cases.Court based its decision for both the Engel and Lemon cases. (b) Describe the Supreme Court’s decision in the case that you selected in (a).
  • 34. 2. (c) [1 pt1 pt] Select one of the following cases and identify the First Amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision. - Reynolds v. U.s. (polygamy) - Oregon v. Smith (drug use in religious ceremonies) (c) One point is earned for identifying the free exercise clause as the First(c) One point is earned for identifying the free exercise clause as the First Amendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision forAmendment clause upon which the Supreme Court based its decision for either Reynolds v. U.s. or Oregon v. Smith.either Reynolds v. U.s. or Oregon v. Smith. (d) [1 pt1 pt] Describe the Supreme Court’s decision in the case that you selected in (c). (d) An acceptable explanation of Reynolds v. U.S. is:(d) An acceptable explanation of Reynolds v. U.S. is: - The decision restricted/banned/disallowed polygamy.- The decision restricted/banned/disallowed polygamy. No point is earned for saying that the “Supreme court declared polygamy to beNo point is earned for saying that the “Supreme court declared polygamy to be unconstitutional.” Polygamy is a personal action that is illegal but not aunconstitutional.” Polygamy is a personal action that is illegal but not a governmental action that is unconstitutional.governmental action that is unconstitutional. An acceptable explanation of Oregon v. Smith is:An acceptable explanation of Oregon v. Smith is: - The decision restricted/banned drug use in religious ceremonies.- The decision restricted/banned drug use in religious ceremonies. No point is earned for saying that the “Supreme Court declared drug use inNo point is earned for saying that the “Supreme Court declared drug use in religious ceremonies to be unconstitutional.” drug use is a personal actionreligious ceremonies to be unconstitutional.” drug use is a personal action that is illegal but not a governmental action that is unconstitutional.that is illegal but not a governmental action that is unconstitutional.
  • 35. 2. (e) [2 pts2 pts] Many of these decisions have caused controversy in the U.S. Describe two ways in which other political institutions might limit the impact of Supreme Court decisions. (e) Acceptable descriptions may include:(e) Acceptable descriptions may include: - Congressional/state/local legislation.- Congressional/state/local legislation. - Executive branch/state government refusal to enforce a Supreme Court- Executive branch/state government refusal to enforce a Supreme Court decision; ignoring a Supreme Court decision.decision; ignoring a Supreme Court decision. - Judicial appointments.- Judicial appointments. - Constitutional amendment.- Constitutional amendment. - Change in appellate jurisdiction.- Change in appellate jurisdiction. Other political institutions do not have to be identified by name; for example.Other political institutions do not have to be identified by name; for example. “Constitutional amendments can be passed to overturn Supreme Court“Constitutional amendments can be passed to overturn Supreme Court decisions” is acceptable.decisions” is acceptable. In part (e), students do not have to confine their answers to freedom of religion.In part (e), students do not have to confine their answers to freedom of religion. An acceptable answer, for example, might cite state legislation designed to getAn acceptable answer, for example, might cite state legislation designed to get around the provisions of Roe v. Wade even though the latter obviously doesaround the provisions of Roe v. Wade even though the latter obviously does not involve freedom of religion.not involve freedom of religion.
  • 36. 3. [7 pts7 pts] Conflicts between Congress and the President over war powers have their origin in the U.S. Constitution. In 1973 Congress passed the War Powers Resolution in an attempt to clarify the balance of powers between the two branches of government. (a) [1pt1pt] Describe the primary constitutional conflict between Congress and the President over the decision to go to war. (a) One point is earned for a correct description of the primary conflict over the decision to(a) One point is earned for a correct description of the primary conflict over the decision to go to war: the President is commander-in-chief and Congress has power to declare war.go to war: the President is commander-in-chief and Congress has power to declare war. (b) Two acceptable descriptions to get credit on this include:(b) Two acceptable descriptions to get credit on this include: - President must notify congress within 48 hours of sending troops into combat.- President must notify congress within 48 hours of sending troops into combat. - President must consult with Congress whenever feasible.- President must consult with Congress whenever feasible. - Conflicts are limited to 60 days unless congress takes action.- Conflicts are limited to 60 days unless congress takes action. - Congress can extend time from the initial 60 days or can withdraw troops after 60 days- Congress can extend time from the initial 60 days or can withdraw troops after 60 days with adequate notification to the President.with adequate notification to the President. (b) [2 pts2 pts] Describe two provisions of the War Powers Resolution that were designed to limit the President’s power over war making? (c) [4 pts4 pts] The War Powers Resolution has received mixed reviews, but Congress has other powers over war making. Other than the constitutional power that you described in (a), identify & explain two other formal powers Congress has over war making. (c) One point is earned for correctly identifying two other formal powers Congress has(c) One point is earned for correctly identifying two other formal powers Congress has over war making[maximum 2 points]. One point is earned for each explanation of theover war making[maximum 2 points]. One point is earned for each explanation of the formal powers identified in part (c) [maximum 2 points].formal powers identified in part (c) [maximum 2 points]. Acceptable answers include: - Passing laws; – Appropriations (any mention of “funding”);Acceptable answers include: - Passing laws; – Appropriations (any mention of “funding”); - Confirmation of nominees; - Impeachment; - Treaty ratification; - Congressional- Confirmation of nominees; - Impeachment; - Treaty ratification; - Congressional oversight 9hearings or investigational).oversight 9hearings or investigational). To earn a point, the explanation must tell how or why these are formal congressionalTo earn a point, the explanation must tell how or why these are formal congressional powers over war making.powers over war making.
  • 37. 4. [5 pts5 pts] The framers of the U.S. Constitution created a federal system. (a) [1 pt1 pt] Define federalism (a) Constitutional division of power between levels [national and state] of government.(a) Constitutional division of power between levels [national and state] of government. (b) [2 pts2 pts] Select two of the following and explain how each has been used to increase the power of the federal government relative to the states. - Categorical grants - Federal mandates - Selective incorporation (b) One point is earned for each explanation of how a categorical grant, federal mandate, or(b) One point is earned for each explanation of how a categorical grant, federal mandate, or selective incorporation has been used to increase federal power relative to the states.selective incorporation has been used to increase federal power relative to the states. - A categorical grant is a grant designed for a specific purpose.- A categorical grant is a grant designed for a specific purpose. States must spend money in accord with national government’s wishes.States must spend money in accord with national government’s wishes. - A federal mandate is when the federal government tells states what policies to- A federal mandate is when the federal government tells states what policies to implement.implement. - A selective incorporation is when federal courts can overturn state and local practices.- A selective incorporation is when federal courts can overturn state and local practices.
  • 38. 4. (c) [2 pts2 pts] Select tow of the following and explain how each has been used to increase the power of the states relative to the federal government. - Welfare Reform Act of 1996 - Block grants -Tenth Amendment (c) One point is earned for each explanation (maximum 2 points) of how the Welfare(c) One point is earned for each explanation (maximum 2 points) of how the Welfare Reform Act of 1996, block grants, or the Tenth Amendment has been used to increaseReform Act of 1996, block grants, or the Tenth Amendment has been used to increase the power of the states relative to the federal government.the power of the states relative to the federal government. Acceptable explanations of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 include:Acceptable explanations of the Welfare Reform Act of 1996 include: - States were given the power and money to run their own welfare program.- States were given the power and money to run their own welfare program. - States were given discretion to determine how to implement the federal goal of- States were given discretion to determine how to implement the federal goal of transferring people from welfare to work.transferring people from welfare to work. Acceptable explanations of block grants include:Acceptable explanations of block grants include: - It is targeted money.- It is targeted money. - Block grants to states have few strings attached, so states can make decisions- Block grants to states have few strings attached, so states can make decisions about the details of where the money goes.about the details of where the money goes. Acceptable explanations of the Tenth Amendment include:Acceptable explanations of the Tenth Amendment include: - It reserves power to the states and to the people.- It reserves power to the states and to the people. - It is being used to argue that power be returned to states.- It is being used to argue that power be returned to states.
  • 39. 1. Congressional reapportionment and redistricting are conducted every ten years. When redistricting is conducted, politicians often engage in gerrymandering. (a) [2 pts2 pts] Define congressional reapportionment and explain one reason why it is important to states. (b) [1pt1pt] Define congressional redistricting. (a) Congressional reapportionment is the reallocation of the number of(a) Congressional reapportionment is the reallocation of the number of representatives each state has in the House of Representatives.representatives each state has in the House of Representatives. Why congressional reapportionment is important to states are any of these:Why congressional reapportionment is important to states are any of these: •• Reapportionment increases or decreases the number of seats a state hasReapportionment increases or decreases the number of seats a state has in the House/Congress (not the Senate).in the House/Congress (not the Senate). •• More representatives mean that a state has more influence.More representatives mean that a state has more influence. •• Reapportionment increasesReapportionment increases oror decreasesdecreases aa state’s numberstate’s number ofof electoralelectoral votes.votes. Note: The explanation point must be tied to an appropriate definition ofNote: The explanation point must be tied to an appropriate definition of reapportionment.reapportionment. (b) The drawing/redrawing of House/congressional (not Senate) district lines.(b) The drawing/redrawing of House/congressional (not Senate) district lines.
  • 40. 1. (c) [2 pts2 pts] Explain two goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting. (d) [2 pts2 pts] Describe two limits that the United States Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting. (c) One point is earned for each of two explanations of the goals of politicians(c) One point is earned for each of two explanations of the goals of politicians when they gerrymander during redistricting. Acceptable explanations include:when they gerrymander during redistricting. Acceptable explanations include: •• TToo enhance political party strength/enhance political party strength/toto minimize the strengthminimize the strength of theof the opposition party.opposition party. •• To protect incumbents/to discourage challengers.To protect incumbents/to discourage challengers. •• To increase minority representation/to decrease minority representation.To increase minority representation/to decrease minority representation. •• To punish foes/to reward friends.To punish foes/to reward friends. NOTE: “Cracking” or “packing” must be tied to one of the above in order to earnNOTE: “Cracking” or “packing” must be tied to one of the above in order to earn the explanation point.the explanation point. (d) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of limits that the United(d) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of limits that the United StatesStates Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting.Supreme Court has placed on congressional redistricting. Acceptable descriptions may include:Acceptable descriptions may include: •• Districts must be equally populated.Districts must be equally populated. •• Lines must be contiguous or connected.Lines must be contiguous or connected. •• Redistricting cannot dilute minority voting strength.Redistricting cannot dilute minority voting strength. •• District lines cannot be drawn solely based upon race.District lines cannot be drawn solely based upon race. •• Districts must be compact.Districts must be compact. •• Communities of interest must be protected.Communities of interest must be protected.
  • 41. 2. [2pts2pts] A number of factors enable presidents to exert influence over Congress in the area of domestic policy. However, presidents are also limited in their influence over domestic policymaking in Congress. (a) The Constitution grants the president certain enumerated powers. Describe two of these formal powers that enable the president to exert influence over domestic policy. (a) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of formal,(a) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of formal, enumerated powers that enable the president to exert influence overenumerated powers that enable the president to exert influence over domestic policy. Acceptable descriptions may include:domestic policy. Acceptable descriptions may include: •• Legislative powers (veto, pocket veto, signing legislation).Legislative powers (veto, pocket veto, signing legislation). •• State of the Union address.State of the Union address. •• Appointment power (to a domestic office).Appointment power (to a domestic office). •• Calling Congress into session.Calling Congress into session. •• Chief executive role (“faithfully execute the law” clause).Chief executive role (“faithfully execute the law” clause). •• Commander-in-chief role (must connect it to domestic policy inCommander-in-chief role (must connect it to domestic policy in order to earn the point).order to earn the point).
  • 42. 2. (b) [4 pts4 pts] Choose two of the following. Define each term and explain how each limits the president’s ability to influence domestic policymaking in Congress. • mandatory spending • party polarization • lame-duck period One point is earned for each of two definitions and two explanations of limits toOne point is earned for each of two definitions and two explanations of limits to the president’s ability to influence domestic policymaking in Congress.the president’s ability to influence domestic policymaking in Congress. Explanations must be tied to a correct, though not necessarily complete, definition.Explanations must be tied to a correct, though not necessarily complete, definition. Correct DefinitionCorrect Definition Examples of Acceptable ExplanationsExamples of Acceptable Explanations
  • 43. 3. [6 pts6 pts] Fiscal policy and monetary policy are two tools used by the federal government to influence the United States economy. The executive and legislative branches share the responsibility of setting fiscal policy. The Federal Reserve Board has the primary role of setting monetary policy. (a)Define fiscal policy. (b) [1 pt1 pt] Describe one significant way the executive branch influences fiscal policy. (c) [1 pt1 pt] Describe one significant way the legislative branch influences fiscal policy. (d) [1 pt1 pt] Define monetary policy. (a) Acceptable definitions include: 1.) Taxing and/or spending; 2.) The budget(a) Acceptable definitions include: 1.) Taxing and/or spending; 2.) The budget 3. (b) One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the executive branch3. (b) One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the executive branch influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include:influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include: •• The president proposes/prepares the federal budget.The president proposes/prepares the federal budget. •• The president signs/vetoes legislationThe president signs/vetoes legislation (related to taxing, spending, and borrowing, not generic).(related to taxing, spending, and borrowing, not generic). •• The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) recommends the budget.The White House Office of Management and Budget (OMB) recommends the budget. (c) One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the legislative branch(c) One point is earned for correctly describing a significant way the legislative branch influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include:influences fiscal policy. Acceptable descriptions include: •• Congress passes the federal budget.Congress passes the federal budget. •• Congress acts on tax and spending legislation.Congress acts on tax and spending legislation. •• The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) advises Congress on economic policies.The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) advises Congress on economic policies. (d) One point is earned for a correct definition of monetary policy.(d) One point is earned for a correct definition of monetary policy. Acceptable definitions include:Acceptable definitions include: •• Regulating the money supply.Regulating the money supply. •• Controlling inflation/deflation.Controlling inflation/deflation. •• Adjusting interest rates to regulate the economy.Adjusting interest rates to regulate the economy. •• Adjusting bank reserve requirements.Adjusting bank reserve requirements. •• The cost of money.The cost of money.
  • 44. 3. (e) [2 pts2 pts] Explain two reasons why the Federal Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy. (e) One point is earned for each of two explanations of why the Federal(e) One point is earned for each of two explanations of why the Federal Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy.Reserve Board is given independence in establishing monetary policy. Acceptable explanations include:Acceptable explanations include: •• It removes politics from monetary policy decision making.It removes politics from monetary policy decision making. •• Congress/the president can abdicate responsibility for difficult decisionsCongress/the president can abdicate responsibility for difficult decisions by delegating decision-making power.by delegating decision-making power. •• The Federal Reserve Board relies on expertise when making decisions.The Federal Reserve Board relies on expertise when making decisions. •• The Federal Reserve Board makes economic policies efficiently.The Federal Reserve Board makes economic policies efficiently.
  • 45. 4. [5 pts5 pts]“The right of citizens of the U.S. to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the U.S. or by any State on account of race, color, or previous condition of servitude.” Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1870Fifteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution, 1870 Despite the ratification of the Fifteenth Amendment, voter turnout among African American citizens was very low throughout the first half of the twentieth century. Over the past 50 years, civil rights policies have changed substantially, along with a significant increase in African American voter turnout. (a) [2 pts2 pts] Explain how two measures taken by some states prior to the 1960s affected voter turnout among African American citizens. (a) One point is earned for each of two explanations of measures(a) One point is earned for each of two explanations of measures taken by some states that affected voter turnout among Africantaken by some states that affected voter turnout among African American citizens. Acceptable explanations are:American citizens. Acceptable explanations are: •• Literacy testsLiteracy tests •• Poll taxesPoll taxes •• Grandfather clausesGrandfather clauses •• Dilution of voting strength through redistrictingDilution of voting strength through redistricting •• White primariesWhite primaries •• Election procedures (notification, access)Election procedures (notification, access)
  • 46. 4. (b) Facing discrimination at the voting booth, many African American citizens turned to alternative forms of political participation. Describe two alternative forms of participation that helped bring about changes in civil rights policies. (c) Choose one of the forms of participation you described in (b) and explain why it was effective in changing civil rights policies. (b) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of alternative(b) One point is earned for each of two descriptions of alternative forms of participation. Acceptable descriptions are:forms of participation. Acceptable descriptions are: •• Demonstrations/protests/public rallies/civil disobedienceDemonstrations/protests/public rallies/civil disobedience •• Organized interest-group activity (e.g., NAACP)Organized interest-group activity (e.g., NAACP) •• Courts/litigationCourts/litigation •• BoycottsBoycotts •• Election activities other than voting (campaigning, donating)Election activities other than voting (campaigning, donating) (c) One point is earned for a correct explanation of why an alternative(c) One point is earned for a correct explanation of why an alternative form of participation was effective in changing civil rights policiesform of participation was effective in changing civil rights policies based on the response in (b).based on the response in (b). The response mustThe response must explain how or why policy outputs or outcomesexplain how or why policy outputs or outcomes result from participation, including the following three elements:result from participation, including the following three elements: •• ParticipationParticipation •• Linkage mechanismLinkage mechanism •• Policy output or outcomePolicy output or outcome
  • 47. 2010 AP Gov and Politics FRQ 1. Individuals often form groups in order to promote their interests. The Constitution contains several provisions that protect the rights of individuals who try to promote their interests in a representative democracy. (a) Explain two provisions in the Bill of Rights that protect individuals who try to influence politics. (b) Interest groups engage in a variety of activities to affect public policy. Explain how each of the following is used by interest groups to exert influence over policy. • Grassroots mobilization • Lobbying of government institutions • Litigation (c) Describe one specific federal governmental regulation of interest groups. 2. The federal bureaucracy as part of the executive branch exercises substantial independence in implementing governmental policies and programs. Most workers in the federal bureaucracy are civil-service employees who are organized under a merit system. (a) Describe one key characteristic of the merit system. (b) For each of the following, describe one factor that contributes to bureaucratic independence. • The structure of the federal bureaucracy • The complexity of public policy problems (c) For each of the following, explain one Constitutional provision that it can use to check the bureaucracy. • Congress • The courts • Interest groups
  • 48. 3. Over the last several decades, the composition of the Democratic and Republican parties has changed in important ways. A major partisan shift has occurred in the South, but other demographic changes have also been identified. Changes in party composition are reflected at different rates in presidential elections than in congressional elections. (a) Identify one specific trend evident in the figure above. (b) Choose two of the following and use each to explain why southern voters from 1948 to 2000 were electing Democratic candidates to Congress more frequently than choosing Democratic candidates for the presidency. • Incumbency advantage • Gerrymandering • Differences between state and national parties (c) Several other changes in party composition have emerged in the past few decades. Select three of the following groups and for each explain how parties have changed in composition with respect to that group. • Catholics • Labor union members • Women • Social conservatives
  • 49. FinishedFinished