Underlying Tensions Long term power struggle between 2 world powers in Europe, ______ and _____ Mercantilism = competition for _______ in the New World in order to build your country’s power Increased English immigration ________ Native Americans feel _________ about their experiences with the British. Native Americans have a better relationship with the French
French soldiers captured several English trading posts and built Fort Duquense to defend their territory 1753: a young Virginian, Major George Washington, headed to the Ohio region to deliver a message to a French Captain demanding that French troops leave the territory.
In 1754, Washington and a small force of Virginia militiamen marched to the Ohio Country to drive the French out. Fort Duquesne was too strong to capture retreated and built Fort Necessity. He also hoped to convince native people that England was the stronger force, so that they would ally with the British rather than the French. French soldiers and their native allies overwhelmed Fort Necessity on July 3, 1754, marking the start of the “French and Indian War” in North America. French made them promise they would not build another fort west of the Appalachian Mountains for at least a year. War not officially declared until 1756
Ethnocentric view of English – do they feel that the Native Americans are a threat?
For the first three years of the war, the outnumbered French dominated the battlefield, soundly defeating the English in battles at Fort Oswego and Ticonderoga. Perhaps the most notorious battle of the war was the French victory at Fort William Henry , which ended in a massacre of British soldiers by Indians allied with the French. The tide turned for the British in 1758, as they began to make peace with important Indian allies William Pitt began adapting their war strategies to fit the territory and landscape of the American frontier. Exhausted by years of battle, outnumbered and outgunned by the British, the French collapsed during the years 1758-59, climaxing with a massive defeat at Quebec in September 1759.
Aware of the hard times that war could put on the colonies, English officials suggested a "union between ye Royal, Proprietary & Charter Governments.“ June 1754 delegates from most of the northern colonies and representatives from the Six Iroquois Nations met in Albany, New York. They decided on a "plan of union" drafted by Benjamin Franklin. Under this plan each colonial legislature would elect delegates to an American continental assembly presided over by a royal governor. Iroquois refused alliance but did agree to remain neutral Colonies agreed to appoint one supreme commander of all troops Colonies rejected proposal that colonies unite to form a federal government but … what does this show?
The Treaty that officially ended the French and Indian War. British gained control over the area west of the 13 British Colonies all the way to the Mississippi River. French agreed to give up any colonies in North America, including all of Canada. Since Spain had helped the French, they were forced to give up Florida but retained Cuba and the Phillipines. As compensation for losing FL, Spain gains New Orleans and western Louisiana.
Although the war with the French ended in 1763, the British continued to fight with the Indians over the issue of land claims. "Pontiac's War" flared shortly after the Treaty of Paris was signed
French and indian war (1)
Land claims in 1750
• Predict the problem
for the English as
more and more and
more and more
over… how much
land do they have?
What might they do?
• What were the underlying tensions leading
to the French and Indian War?
• What was the immediate cause of the
• What were the short and long-term effects
of the war?
• English were coming to the colonies for an
opportunity to own ___________
– Feared that if there was a shortage of land it
would be difficult for men to secure their
independence by owning private property
• There wasn’t enough land as more and
more Englishmen were coming over
– They were confined to __________ coast but
were moving west onto territory claimed by
both the _________ and ____________
• Long term power struggle between 2
world powers in Europe, ______ and
_____. Mercantilism = competition for
_______ in the New World in order to
build your country’s power
• Increased English immigration
________. English begin moving onto
• Native Americans feel _________
about their experiences with the
British. Native Americans have a
better relationship with the French
• 23-year old Virginia
militia Major George
Washington, is sent
to Fort Dusquense
with a message for
the French to GET
How does this image of warfare compare
with the image of the Native Americans
at Fort Necessity?
• March in formation orMarch in formation or
bayonet charge.bayonet charge.
• Officers wanted toOfficers wanted to
take charge of colonials.take charge of colonials.
• Stuffy BritishStuffy British
officers with servantsofficers with servants
& tea settings.& tea settings.
• Drills & toughDrills & tough
• Colonists should payColonists should pay
for their own defense.for their own defense.
• Guerilla tactics.Guerilla tactics.
• Militias servedMilitias served
under own captains.under own captains.
• No protocols observed.No protocols observed.
• Resistance to risingResistance to rising
Methods ofMethods of
British-American ColonialBritish-American Colonial
Problems for Britain
• In the early stages of the war, the British were LOSING
• When Washington warned the British general Braddock
that the bright red uniform and battle tactics of the British
regular troops may make them easy targets for the
Native American forces, Braddock scoffed saying that
maybe the Natives were formidable [difficult] forces for
the “raw” colonial militias to defeat but “upon the King’s
disciplined regular troops, it is impossible that they
should make any impression.”
– What does the quote above tell you about the attitude of the
British about their enemies? What problems might this pose for
the British forces?
• French victory at Fort William Henry
• The English begin winning the war in
1758. What do you think the English
changed with regard to their strategy?
Any other reasons for why the French
Albany Plan of Union
• English officials suggest
that colonies unite for
the purpose of
• Albany Conference
– Albany Plan is drafted in
June 1754 but was
• So why is this
America’s First Political Cartoon
• Drawn by Ben Franklin
during French and Indian
War, but used during
that the colonies were in
no way, shape or form
united at this point!)
• What symbols are used?
• What is the artist’s point
• What is the overall
France -->France --> lost her Canadian possessions, most oflost her Canadian possessions, most of
her empire in India, and claimsher empire in India, and claims
to lands east of the Mississippi River.to lands east of the Mississippi River.
Spain (side with French) -->Spain (side with French) --> got all Frenchgot all French
lands west of the Mississippi River, Newlands west of the Mississippi River, New
Orleans, but lost Florida to England.Orleans, but lost Florida to England.
England -->England --> got all French lands in Canada,got all French lands in Canada,
exclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, andexclusive rights to Caribbean slave trade, and
commercial dominance in India.commercial dominance in India.
17631763 Treaty of Paris EndsTreaty of Paris Ends
French & Indian WarFrench & Indian War
• The war cost the British government a lot of
money. British military were being sent over to
the colonies to protect their new territory gained
– Predict what the British government might do to pay
for their new expenses and the debt from the war
– Predict how the colonists will react, knowing what you
know about the 100 years of salutary neglect (kids
growing up without any rules being enforced)
1.1. It increased her colonial empire inIt increased her colonial empire in
the Americas.the Americas.
2.2. It greatly enlarged England’s debt.It greatly enlarged England’s debt.
3.3. Britain’s contempt for theBritain’s contempt for the
colonials created bitter feelings.colonials created bitter feelings.
Therefore, England felt that aTherefore, England felt that a
major reorganization of hermajor reorganization of her
American EmpireAmerican Empire was necessary!was necessary!
Effects of the WarEffects of the War
on Britain?on Britain?
1.1. It united them against aIt united them against a
common enemy for the firstcommon enemy for the first
2.2. It created a socializingIt created a socializing
experience for all theexperience for all the
colonials who participated.colonials who participated.
3.3. It created bitter feelingsIt created bitter feelings
towards the British thattowards the British that
would only intensify.would only intensify.
Effects of the War on theEffects of the War on the
American ColonialsAmerican Colonials
Proclamation of 1763
• Declaration by the British
government that forbade
American colonists from
settling west of the
Appalachians (on the new
land gained from the war)
• What do you think was
the PURPOSE of this
Rethinking Their EmpireRethinking Their Empire
• British government tries to prevent
• 1760s – Writs of Assistance
– British customs officials could now search any
ship or building
– Bostonians are outraged!
• Effectively ended French influence
in North America. England gained
massive amounts of land and vastly
strengthened its hold on the
• Hurt relationships between the
English and Native Americans;
• Major role in worsening relationship
between England and its colonies,
eventually leading into the
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