2/13/2012   TURFGRASSES OF NORTHEAST GOLF              COURSES• 40 + species of grasses used in lawns,  athletic fields, a...
2/13/2012Stolons                 2
2/13/2012Consider the following when selecting aturfgrass:1. Use i.e. sport or aesthetics2. Level of maintenance3. Climati...
2/13/2012Golf Course Areas Planted to Turfgrass    • Greens    • Tees    • Fairways    • Clubhouse lawns    • Roughs/surro...
2/13/2012Kentucky bluegrass-Poa pretensis-•   Boat Shaped tip•   H.O.C. 0.5-2”•   Medium/fine texture•   Rhizomes•   Full ...
2/13/2012Kentucky bluegrass continued:• Good wear tolerance• Good recuperativepotential•Excellent colorPossible K.B. locat...
2/13/2012Poa trivialis continued:Characteristics /uses• Grows well in shaded moist environments• Used in overseed mixtures...
2/13/2012       Annual Bluegrass- Poa annuaCharacteristics:• Considered a weed• Bunch type grass• Boat shaped tip• Yellowi...
2/13/2012                              Annual bluegrass weevil  Ice damage               Summer patch     Anthracnose  Bac...
2/13/2012Poa annua continued:Poa annua has some desirable characteristics1) Being competitive2) Growing in compacted condi...
2/13/2012 Bentgrasses continued:• Primarily in the cool humid areas aswell as transitional climates• Most tolerant cool se...
2/13/2012               New and Improved CultivarsNew cultivars increase in density               Turfgrass Trends Novembe...
2/13/2012Newer Cultivar Uses and Characteristics:L-93    • Improved disease tolerance    • Moderate to high density    • L...
2/13/2012New varieties continued:Improved disease performance                           Turfgrass Trends January 2005 (Dan...
2/13/2012                     Colonial Bentgrass Fairway3. Velvet Bentgrasses- Agrostis canina• Texture-one of the finest ...
2/13/2012Other characteristics and uses:• Bentgrass forms a beautiful fine textured turf• Extremely slow to heal from inju...
2/13/2012Fine-leaf Fescues  Creeping red  Chewings  Hard  SheepCreeping red fescue Festuca rubra Uses• Lawn mixtures with ...
2/13/2012Chewings fescue: • Lacks rhizomes, is bunch type • Fine needle like leaf blades(rolled) • Establishment rate is f...
2/13/2012        Tall Fescue -Festuca arundinacea• Old varieties of tall fescue were poor• New varieties of tall fescue (T...
2/13/2012 Tall Fescue - 2 lbs N per 1,000 ft2 per yearRyegrasses-Species LoliumTwo ryegrasses: perennial and annualPerenni...
2/13/2012Perennial Ryegrass continued:       Annual Ryegrass-Lolium Multiflorum•life cycle in one year•Poor low temperatur...
2/13/2012       Other Grasses• Sheep fescue• Hard fescueUses -Naturalized areas, roadsides,roughs, soil conservation,cemet...
2/13/2012Bentgrasses- genus AgrostisTwo species that may be found in home lawns:  (Weed in home lawns)1. Creeping Bentgras...
2/13/2012Turfgrass Nutrient and Integrated Pest Management Manual University ofConnecticutGrass seed mixtures, blends, rat...
2/13/2012               Purchasing Grass SeedTwo labels1) Certified This ensures that the stated variety iswhat your getti...
2/13/2012Useful when turf manager or golf course designer or architect needs to specify         varieties or cultivars    ...
2/13/2012      27
2/13/2012 LSD valueLSD value                   28
2/13/2012Mean Turfgrass (overall) Quality Ratings by Location                                              LSD value      ...
2/13/2012For example, is Overall Quality of thetwo cultivars “Independence” and“Kingpin” different at location “NJ1”1. Use...
2/13/2012 Another way to use the Quality Ratings                 Data:• Find the cultivar with the highest meanquality val...
2/13/2012              ESTABLISHMENT                  by seedBest time late summer or early fall:1) Warm soil temperatures...
2/13/2012    Calculation of pure live seed in a mix96% pure                             90%                               ...
2/13/20125) Replace topsoil-same grades andslopes as subsoil -Pack to avoid settlingat every 8-10" depth.6) Apply fertiliz...
2/13/2012B) Disk Type- (drill or slit seeder) •Pros- cover large areas good soil to seed contact •Cons- Difficult on loose...
2/13/2012C) Cultipacker (Brillion)-Drops seed in bedand then rolls and firms seed bed. Used onlarge areas  D) Hydraulic Se...
2/13/201210) Apply Mulch - (optional)    •aids in germination    •keeps moisture and heat in groundTypes of mulch-  •Straw...
2/13/2012Questions to ask when buying sod:1) The age of sod-older sod          thatch2) Quality- i.e. density3) Purity- we...
2/13/20125) keep working soil as you proceed-this will keepsurface level6) Butt all seems tightly7) Stagger sod ends for l...
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  1. 1. 2/13/2012 TURFGRASSES OF NORTHEAST GOLF COURSES• 40 + species of grasses used in lawns, athletic fields, and golf courses.• Most are not natives of U.S.• Grasses categorized by:a) Genus ie. Poa (Bluegrass)b) Species ie. pratensis (Kentucky Bluegrass)c) Cultivar i.e. Midnight (Hybrid) Tiller Kentucky bluegrass extensive rhizomes 1
  2. 2. 2/13/2012Stolons 2
  3. 3. 2/13/2012Consider the following when selecting aturfgrass:1. Use i.e. sport or aesthetics2. Level of maintenance3. Climatic conditions4. Soil conditions (including pH)5. Microenvironments – shade, wet etc.6. Disease resistance7. Drought resistance8. Color9. Growth habit10. Desired Height of Cut (H.O.C.) Climate and Grass Adaptation Climate Zone Map Turfgrass Species Utilized or found on Cool Season Golf Courses 3
  4. 4. 2/13/2012Golf Course Areas Planted to Turfgrass • Greens • Tees • Fairways • Clubhouse lawns • Roughs/surrounds • Out of play areas • Naturalized areas • Driving range/tees Turfgrass Species Utilized or found on Cool Season Golf Courses• Bluegrasses • K.B., Rough, Canada, annual• Ryegrasses • perennial, annual• Bentgrasses • velvet, creeping, colonial• Fescues • fine leaf • tall• Niche grassesTurfgrass Species Utilized or found on Cool Season Golf Courses cont.Bluegrasses- Four common species ofBluegrasses of cool humid climates are:•Kentucky Bluegrass - Poa pretensis•Rough Bluegrass - Poa trivialis•Canada bluegrass - Poa compressa•Annual Bluegrass - Poa annua 4
  5. 5. 2/13/2012Kentucky bluegrass-Poa pretensis-• Boat Shaped tip• H.O.C. 0.5-2”• Medium/fine texture• Rhizomes• Full sun• Newer cultivars shade tolerance• Medium/high mgmt• High nitrogen needs• pH 6-7• Irrigation required• Propagated by seed or sod• Popular in 60s and 70s• Use - roughs, tees, fairways• Popularity for fairway and tee use declinedin late 70s-90s• Decline related to: • slow establishment rate • demand for lower cut fairway and tee turf • disease problems• New varieties (cultivars) heights of 1/2" Pros: • Color • Density • Gray leafspot resistance • Exhibits some drought tolerance • Fall color retention •Early spring green-upCons:• Very slow establishment rate• Height of cut (new varieties available)• Prone to leaf spot disease (check forresistant varieties)• Thatch production 5
  6. 6. 2/13/2012Kentucky bluegrass continued:• Good wear tolerance• Good recuperativepotential•Excellent colorPossible K.B. locations on golf course • Fairways (low cut cultivars) • Tees (low cut cultivars) • Tee and Green Surrounds • Roughs • Clubhouse lawns Roughstalk Bluegrass-Poa trivialis• Height of cut .5-2 Finer texture than KB• pH 6-7• Stolons• Greenish-yellow incolor• Thrives best in shadedmoist environment• Shallow roots• 3-4lbs.nitrogen/1000sq./year 6
  7. 7. 2/13/2012Poa trivialis continued:Characteristics /uses• Grows well in shaded moist environments• Used in overseed mixtures in south• Propagated by seed• Good to use in a mix on tees in shadedmoist environmentsCons: • color • shallow root system • subject to disease • poor wear tolerance • poor drought tolerance Canada bluegrass- Poa compressa• Height of cut-3-4"• pH 5.5 - 6.5• 2-3lbs. N/year• weakly Rhizomatous• Stolons absentCanada bluegrass- Poa compressa continued:Pros:• Drought and shade tolerance good• Wear tolerance good• Tolerates infertile and poorly drained turCons:• Disease susceptible• Stemmy looking in nature• Low density turf• H.O.C. 3-4" 7
  8. 8. 2/13/2012 Annual Bluegrass- Poa annuaCharacteristics:• Considered a weed• Bunch type grass• Boat shaped tip• Yellowish in color• Survives low h.o.c.• pH 5.5-6.5• 3-4 lbs. N/year• Perennial form idwith stolonsPoa annua facts:• invades turf in thin areas of grass stands• invades turf in wet compacted conditions• prolific seed producer (month of May)• can survive low h.o.c. at greens heightPoa annua continued:CONS:• Short root system• Susceptible disease• Fades out in the summer months• Poor heat and drought tolerance• Poor color (yellowish)• Seeds profusely leading to: • poor fairway lies • slow putting green speeds • “untrue” putting surfaces.• Susceptible to winter injury 8
  9. 9. 2/13/2012 Annual bluegrass weevil Ice damage Summer patch Anthracnose Bacterial WiltAnnual bluegrass in Putting green 9
  10. 10. 2/13/2012Poa annua continued:Poa annua has some desirable characteristics1) Being competitive2) Growing in compacted conditions3) Provides a good putting surface (when not seeding)Universities (Penn State) trying to producecultivars of Poa annua. • Example Poa supina •very aggressive •thrives in shade •compacted conditions PSU breeding program selecting putting green annual bluegrass ecotypes David Huff PHD PSU Bentgrasses- genus AgrostisUSES: Tennis- Pt. Judith G.C. Lawn Bowling fairways Greens 10
  11. 11. 2/13/2012 Bentgrasses continued:• Primarily in the cool humid areas aswell as transitional climates• Most tolerant cool season grasses ofclose mowing• Fine textured and form a very denseturf• Grow best in moist conditions• Have excellent winter hardiness• Usually last to green upBentgrasses continued:Three species discussed1. Creeping Bentgrass- Agrostis palustris• Most common variety used on golf greens• 2 to 6 lbs. N/season• Root System shallow to medium (2"-8")• Shade tolerancemedium,does bestin full sunCreeping Bentgrass continued:• Wear tolerance poor• Does not grow well in compacted conditions.• Propagation by seed or stolons• Vertical mowing-responds well• Varieties • Old varieties subject to grain • “grandfather” of modern creeping bentgrass breeding = Penncross • New varieties • More aggressive • Grow more erect • Can be cut to 1/8” • Higher Density 11
  12. 12. 2/13/2012 New and Improved CultivarsNew cultivars increase in density Turfgrass Trends November 2004 (Doug Brede) Shoot Density T-1 Penn A-4 Penncross Poa annua Turfgrass Trends November 2004 (Doug Brede) Newer Cultivar Uses and CharacteristicsA and G varieties • Basically greens use only • Low height of cut 1/8” or less • Aggressive maintenance practices required • Produce fast “grainless” putting surfaces • Deep root systems • Improved disease tolerance • Fine texture 12
  13. 13. 2/13/2012Newer Cultivar Uses and Characteristics:L-93 • Improved disease tolerance • Moderate to high density • Less management needed (topdressing, aeration, etc) due to less thatch when compared to the more aggressive varietiesCrenshaw • High heat tolerance but prone to dollar spotNewer Cultivar Uses and Characteristics:Providence • Good performance characteristics • Good tolerance to diseasesSR1119 • Good color • Good texture • Good disease resistanceNewer Cultivar Uses and Characteristics:Other improved varieties Include:• Putter• Trueline• Backspin• Viper• Cato 13
  14. 14. 2/13/2012New varieties continued:Improved disease performance Turfgrass Trends January 2005 (Dan Dinelli) 2. Colonial Bentgrass-Agrostis tenuis • Propagation by seed • Nitrogen 2 to 4 lbs n/1000sq/season. • Shade tolerance is medium. • Heat and drought tolerance not as good as creeping bentgrass. • Wear Tolerance is poor • Stolons and Rhizomes absent to very short.Colonial Bentgrass continued:Other characteristics and uses:•Colonial bentgrass not often used in golfgreens•Used in tee and fairway mixes•Aggressive and can become dominant andsegregate in polystands•Susceptible to thatch at high mowingheights 14
  15. 15. 2/13/2012 Colonial Bentgrass Fairway3. Velvet Bentgrasses- Agrostis canina• Texture-one of the finest textured turf• Growth Habit-very erect• Velvet is more aggressive than colonial but not asaggressive as creeping bentgrass.• Nitrogen-1-3 lbs. N/year.• Shade Tolerance is good Greenwich Velvet bentgrass, Shelter Harbor C.C. 2005 High Density Fine Texture Turf 15
  16. 16. 2/13/2012Other characteristics and uses:• Bentgrass forms a beautiful fine textured turf• Extremely slow to heal from injury and disease.Velvet prone to thatch Susceptible to iron(topdress frequently) chlorosis4. South German Mixed Bentgrass• Many of the older golf courses seeded with SouthGerman Mixed Bentgrass.•Mixes consisted of : • 40-60% colonial bentgrass • 5-40% velvet bentgrass • 5-15% redtop • 1-5% creeping bentgrassSouth German Mixed greens tend to look mottled inappearance due to the different textures. Fescues-genus Festuca•Fescues over 100 species•Common species used infine turf:•Fine leaf fescues • Red fescue (Festuca rubra) •Chewings fescue (Festuca rubra var. commutata).•Tall Fescue (Festucaarundinacea) which is usedin roughs.Fescues tolerate:droughty, infertile soils,acidic soilspH 5.5-6.5 16
  17. 17. 2/13/2012Fine-leaf Fescues Creeping red Chewings Hard SheepCreeping red fescue Festuca rubra Uses• Lawn mixtures with Kentucky bluegrass perennial ryegrass.• Parks• Golf course • roughs • Fairways• Cemeteries• RoadsidesCreeping red fescue and chewings fescue • Propagated from seed • Demonstrates shade tolerance • Does best in low nitrogen environments • Creeping red fescue rhizomes 17
  18. 18. 2/13/2012Chewings fescue: • Lacks rhizomes, is bunch type • Fine needle like leaf blades(rolled) • Establishment rate is faster than K.B. but slower than Rye. • Slow recuperative potential • 1-2" height of cutCultivars are: Jamestown II, Banner III,SR5100 Coppinwood Toronto Tom Fazio Desin 18
  19. 19. 2/13/2012 Tall Fescue -Festuca arundinacea• Old varieties of tall fescue were poor• New varieties of tall fescue (Turf type)provide nice turf cover• Turf Type tall fescues used for roughs, tee,green surroundsTall Fescue continued:• Drought tolerance-excellent• pH-5.5-6.5• Nitrogen 3lbs./yr.• H.O.C.- best at 2-3"• Leaf width-much wider then fine fescue• Shade Tolerance-intermediate• Wear tolerance- excellent• Propagation-seed Photo-Oregon tall fescue Commission 19
  20. 20. 2/13/2012 Tall Fescue - 2 lbs N per 1,000 ft2 per yearRyegrasses-Species LoliumTwo ryegrasses: perennial and annualPerennial Ryegrass-Lolium perenneMost widely used RyeUses: •tees •fairways •lawn mixes •roughs •parks •roadsides •Southern overseeding programs•Dark green color•Propagation-seed•Germination 5 to 7 days.•H.O.C.- 0.5-2•High N levels 4-6lb./year.•pH-6-7•“Tight” turf•Blends well with bluegrasses•Susceptible to winter injury poor lowtemperature hardiness•Prone to pythium ,brown patch, and grayleafspot 20
  21. 21. 2/13/2012Perennial Ryegrass continued: Annual Ryegrass-Lolium Multiflorum•life cycle in one year•Poor low temperature hardiness.•adapted to moist fertile soils•pH of 6-7•germinates quicklyUSES:•"quick fix"•nurse grass•used in mixes quick stabilization is needed.•READ the label when buying seed 21
  22. 22. 2/13/2012 Other Grasses• Sheep fescue• Hard fescueUses -Naturalized areas, roadsides,roughs, soil conservation,cemeteries, low maintenance turfareas, erosion control Chewings and sheep fescue Riparian zone restoration Native Grasses: •Little bluestem •Switchgrass •Blue grama 22
  23. 23. 2/13/2012Bentgrasses- genus AgrostisTwo species that may be found in home lawns: (Weed in home lawns)1. Creeping Bentgrass- Agrostis palustris2. Colonial Bentgrass-Agrostis tenuis Bentgrasses Sheep fescue/Hardfescue/Canada Bluegrass Bluegrasses/turf type tall fescue/ RyegrassWhat’s in store for the future?• Increasing trend on naturalized designs• Water conservation • Improved heat and drought tolerance• Links-style design• Low input varieties• Improved pest resistance Turfgrass Nutrient and Integrated Pest Management Manual University of Connecticut 23
  24. 24. 2/13/2012Turfgrass Nutrient and Integrated Pest Management Manual University ofConnecticutGrass seed mixtures, blends, rates, labelsGrass seed mixtures:• Two or more different species, ie.Kentuckybluegrass, Fine fescue and rye grass.•Mixtures have genetic diversity.Grass seed blends• Blends consist of different cultivars of the samespecies.ie.Pennlinks, Penncross are both creepingbentgrassesMonostand only one cultivar ie. newly plantedgreenPolystand- two or more cultivars and/orspeciesWhy Mixtures or blends?• “Avoid "disaster”• Survival of the fittest• Mixing grasses with similar characteristicsie. color and growth habit. Example you wouldnot mix rye and bent. 24
  25. 25. 2/13/2012 Purchasing Grass SeedTwo labels1) Certified This ensures that the stated variety iswhat your getting.2) Label stating the following:• Turfgrass type• Seed lot-states specific lot seed from• Seed Purity--by weight of seed listed onlabel• Inert Matter-%material i.e. chaff•Other crop- i.e. fescue in bluegrass mix•Weed Seed-% weed seed•Germination %seed that will grow•Date Tested•Origin of seed-where seed is from•Noxious weed content-noxious weedsvary from state to state Turf Type GerminationPurity Origin Grown% other crop% inert Date% weed tested Seed lot 25
  26. 26. 2/13/2012Useful when turf manager or golf course designer or architect needs to specify varieties or cultivars www.ntep.org NTEP On-Site Evaluation of Creeping bentgrass for putting greens 26
  27. 27. 2/13/2012 27
  28. 28. 2/13/2012 LSD valueLSD value 28
  29. 29. 2/13/2012Mean Turfgrass (overall) Quality Ratings by Location LSD value How To Use NTEP Information:You should use information from atesting site nearest to your locationCultivar differences are based onuse of the Least SignificantDifference (LSD) statistic for meanseparationTo determine whether a cultivarsperformance is truly different from another:subtract one entrys mean from anotherentrys mean.If the value is Equal or LARGER than theLSD value, then the observed difference isSignificant and did not happen by chance.Therefore, the performance of the cultivarsare different. 29
  30. 30. 2/13/2012For example, is Overall Quality of thetwo cultivars “Independence” and“Kingpin” different at location “NJ1”1. Use Table 1B data for Mean TurfgrassQuality Ratings.2. Find the column for location NJ1.3. Move down column and find rating for Independence and KingpinMean Turfgrass Quality Ratings by Location 6.1 4.7 LSD Value Independence = 6.1 Kingpin = 4.7 LSD = 1 Difference: 6.1 – 4.7 = 1.4Since 1.4 > LSD (1.0),The overall mean quality ofIndependence is significantly greaterthan Kingpin 30
  31. 31. 2/13/2012 Another way to use the Quality Ratings Data:• Find the cultivar with the highest meanquality value• Subtract the LSD value from thehighest mean quality value• Mean quality ratings higher than theresulting number are not significantlydifferent from the highest rated cultivar 6.8 LSD Value 6.8 highest rank in NJ1 Tyee = 6.8 LSD = 1.0 Difference: 6.8 – 1.0 = 5.8Therefore, any cultivar with a meanquality rating > 5.8 is not statisticallydifferent from the cultivar with thehighest mean quality rating 31
  32. 32. 2/13/2012 ESTABLISHMENT by seedBest time late summer or early fall:1) Warm soil temperatures • Optimum for Rye-50F • Optimum for Bents-59F • Optimum for Blues-55-60F2) Late morning dews keep seed bedmoist3) Less weed competitionFrost crack seeding•Performed in spring•Good soil-seed contact*note - Seedlings won’t emerge until propertemperature.Germination time:Bentgrasses-7-14 daysBluegrasses-14 daysFescues-10-14 daysRyes- 5-7 daysSeeding Rates lb/1000sq’ Seeds/lbKentucky bluegrass 1-1.5 1-1.75 millionPerennial ryegrass 7-9 210- 270,000C.R. fescue 3.5-4.5 365,000Chewings fescue 3.5-4.5 450,000Tall fescue 7-9 178-234,000Creeping bentgrass .25-1 8 millionColonial bentgrass .5-1 8 million 32
  33. 33. 2/13/2012 Calculation of pure live seed in a mix96% pure 90% Germination Calculation of pure live seed in a mix: %germination x %purity x 100.Example --- Label states:96% pure live seed90% germinationTHEN: .96 x .90 x 100 = 86.4% pure live seedRecommended seeding rate is 6 lbs./1000sq.Then divide 6 by 86.4 and multiply by 100.069 x 100 = 6.9 lbs Preparing the seed bed1) Clean site of debris-Remove rocks, stumps,and kill off existing vegetation2) Obtain soil test- texture and chemical (canbe done while topsoil is stockpiled)3) Rough grade site •involves removal and stockpile of topsoil •grade subsoil and eliminate depressions •Slope sub-grade away from play areas4) Amend topsoil-amend based on soil tests. 33
  34. 34. 2/13/20125) Replace topsoil-same grades andslopes as subsoil -Pack to avoid settlingat every 8-10" depth.6) Apply fertilizers lime etc. Till in 4-6"7) Finish Grade - Hand raking androlling to provide a smooth seedbed.8) Apply starter fertilizer 10-10-10 rakein 1/2"9) Apply Seed- rake lightly and roll • Better the soil to seed contact the better the germination Types of SeedersA) SpreadersBroadcast- rotary type.• Pros-quick and easy• Cons-wind carriesseed harder to getuniform coverage. Drop spreaders -Pros- good for small areas with borders - applies precise application. -Cons- slow and can lead to skips or over lap 34
  35. 35. 2/13/2012B) Disk Type- (drill or slit seeder) •Pros- cover large areas good soil to seed contact •Cons- Difficult on loose soil (best in overseed situations) Slit with Seed 35
  36. 36. 2/13/2012C) Cultipacker (Brillion)-Drops seed in bedand then rolls and firms seed bed. Used onlarge areas D) Hydraulic Seeders-- Spray, seed, and mulchCons- cost Pros-•quickestablishment•good on slope•retainsmoisture 36
  37. 37. 2/13/201210) Apply Mulch - (optional) •aids in germination •keeps moisture and heat in groundTypes of mulch- •Straw weed free •Hay •Paper- ie. Penn Mulch Post Care for newly seeded areas•Water-light and often•Diseases- Watch for pythium and damping off•Mowing -First mowing turf 1/3 taller desired height -Mow dry -Collect Clippings -Use sharp mowers•Weed Control- Tupersan if needed •Dont apply herbicides to newly planted turf without reading label•Fertilizer-apply light application (1/2 lbN) of solublefertilizer 3 wk. after emergence SoddingPrepare area to be sodded as you would for seedbed preparation 37
  38. 38. 2/13/2012Questions to ask when buying sod:1) The age of sod-older sod thatch2) Quality- i.e. density3) Purity- weeds, undesirable grasses present4) Height of cut - grown at the sod farm5) Soil texture sod was grown on6) Cost- per square foot. Delivery etc.7) Harvested-Specify that you want sod cut nomore than 12-24 hours before delivery8) Equipment to move sod on site Planting (Laying) Sod1) Firm Bed to reduce foot printing2) If soil dry wet lightly.2) Outline area to be sodded.3) Start laying sod from top of slopes and workdown.4) Staples wheregrades exceed 10%.5) On bunkers startsand-soil interface6) First row straightand even 38
  39. 39. 2/13/20125) keep working soil as you proceed-this will keepsurface level6) Butt all seems tightly7) Stagger sod ends for less chance of movement. Post-care for newly sodded areas1) Keep sod watered - wilt easily withoutroots! Also if sod dries it shrinks.2) First mowing as needed (Use walkers ongreens and tees)3) Greens and tees- Topdress frequently tosmooth and accelerate thatch decomposition4) Aerate and return soil often. This reducesthatch and aids in smoothing the surface. 39

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