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Research Study Critique #2

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A critique of the research study "Impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance" by Liu, Liao, and Pratt for EDET 780, Maymester 2009.

A critique of the research study "Impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance" by Liu, Liao, and Pratt for EDET 780, Maymester 2009.

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  • My name is colin gray, and this my second research study critique for EDET 780 in Maymester, 2009.
  • This study, by Liu, Liao, and Pratt evaluated the function and applicability of rich media to the elearning modality, and how the level of media richness may affect learner outcome and intent to use. This study attempts to resolve several motivational factors in the context of rich media integration, laying groundwork for contemporary elearning application, as well as additive research within elearning implementation.
  • Let’s begin by discussing the structure and purpose of the study, and how it integrates elements of rich media and elearning.
  • The study purpose was to evaluate the “impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance.”

    So, we will discuss the options for rich media integration.

    Subsequent to the discussion of media richness, user concentration resulting from rich media will also be evaluated.

    The rich media will be limited to a streaming, elearning context in a traditional CBT (computer based training) environment.

    Finally, analysis will be conducted to determine if correlations exist between ease of use, perceived usefulness, and concentration. We will discuss the practical implications of each of these factors shortly.
  • The study purpose was to evaluate the “impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance.”

    So, we will discuss the options for rich media integration.

    Subsequent to the discussion of media richness, user concentration resulting from rich media will also be evaluated.

    The rich media will be limited to a streaming, elearning context in a traditional CBT (computer based training) environment.

    Finally, analysis will be conducted to determine if correlations exist between ease of use, perceived usefulness, and concentration. We will discuss the practical implications of each of these factors shortly.
  • The study purpose was to evaluate the “impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance.”

    So, we will discuss the options for rich media integration.

    Subsequent to the discussion of media richness, user concentration resulting from rich media will also be evaluated.

    The rich media will be limited to a streaming, elearning context in a traditional CBT (computer based training) environment.

    Finally, analysis will be conducted to determine if correlations exist between ease of use, perceived usefulness, and concentration. We will discuss the practical implications of each of these factors shortly.
  • The study purpose was to evaluate the “impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance.”

    So, we will discuss the options for rich media integration.

    Subsequent to the discussion of media richness, user concentration resulting from rich media will also be evaluated.

    The rich media will be limited to a streaming, elearning context in a traditional CBT (computer based training) environment.

    Finally, analysis will be conducted to determine if correlations exist between ease of use, perceived usefulness, and concentration. We will discuss the practical implications of each of these factors shortly.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The authors proposed eight different hypotheses using the bank of terms found above, and because visuals can increase speed of cognition, I recreated a diagram from the text to assist in the explanation of study objectives.

    This process flowchart offers a variety of factors that may lead to serial elearning use, and the study proposes that these factors are related in the following way:

    perceived ease-of-use informs the user’s attitude about elearning, which in turn informs user intent to use that elearning in the future.

    Further, the perceived ease-of-use of the learning intervention will increase the perceived usefulness of the training, which will, in turn, positively affect the user attitudes and intentions.

    Finally, the perceived ease-of-use will drive user concentration (or flow), which will, ultimately positively affect intent to use.

    Now, to clarify some of these terms before we move on.

    Perceived ease-of-use is the extent to which the elearning is easy to use and understand to the end user.

    Perceived usefulness is the extent to which the elearning is superior to previous training.

    Concentration is the extent to which the user remains focused and completely attentive to the elearning activity.

    Attitude is the extent to which the user enjoys using the elearning intervention.

    And finally, intentions describe the likelihood that the user will adopt or continue to use the elearning training in the future.
  • The study organized the participants into three groups by random assignment. Each group represented multimedia intervention through rich media integration.

    Each group received the same core training, an introductory lesson on Microsoft Presenter 2003, with the elearning varying only by use of audio, video, and textual information.

    The first group received onscreen text with audio narration.

    The second group received a purely motion video and audio experience.

    And the third group experienced onscreen text with audio and motion video.
  • The study organized the participants into three groups by random assignment. Each group represented multimedia intervention through rich media integration.

    Each group received the same core training, an introductory lesson on Microsoft Presenter 2003, with the elearning varying only by use of audio, video, and textual information.

    The first group received onscreen text with audio narration.

    The second group received a purely motion video and audio experience.

    And the third group experienced onscreen text with audio and motion video.
  • The study organized the participants into three groups by random assignment. Each group represented multimedia intervention through rich media integration.

    Each group received the same core training, an introductory lesson on Microsoft Presenter 2003, with the elearning varying only by use of audio, video, and textual information.

    The first group received onscreen text with audio narration.

    The second group received a purely motion video and audio experience.

    And the third group experienced onscreen text with audio and motion video.
  • The entire group of participants were from a single systems analysis course, and were all management information systems majors at Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan.

    The demographic was relatively consistent, with a 55/45 female/male split, with ages from 20-25.

    The survey sample reduced from an initial 121 surveys to 102 after the first intervention. By the fourth course module and subsequent survey, the sample group had been narrowed to the final 88 respondents, a response rate of 73%. The intervention duration was not noted.

    Each respondent completed an initial survey after their first encounter with their group’s media type. After completing a total of four modules, the final survey was administered, tracking their feelings about the media type over multiple modules.
  • The entire group of participants were from a single systems analysis course, and were all management information systems majors at Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan.

    The demographic was relatively consistent, with a 55/45 female/male split, with ages from 20-25.

    The survey sample reduced from an initial 121 surveys to 102 after the first intervention. By the fourth course module and subsequent survey, the sample group had been narrowed to the final 88 respondents, a response rate of 73%. The intervention duration was not noted.

    Each respondent completed an initial survey after their first encounter with their group’s media type. After completing a total of four modules, the final survey was administered, tracking their feelings about the media type over multiple modules.
  • The entire group of participants were from a single systems analysis course, and were all management information systems majors at Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan.

    The demographic was relatively consistent, with a 55/45 female/male split, with ages from 20-25.

    The survey sample reduced from an initial 121 surveys to 102 after the first intervention. By the fourth course module and subsequent survey, the sample group had been narrowed to the final 88 respondents, a response rate of 73%. The intervention duration was not noted.

    Each respondent completed an initial survey after their first encounter with their group’s media type. After completing a total of four modules, the final survey was administered, tracking their feelings about the media type over multiple modules.
  • The entire group of participants were from a single systems analysis course, and were all management information systems majors at Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan.

    The demographic was relatively consistent, with a 55/45 female/male split, with ages from 20-25.

    The survey sample reduced from an initial 121 surveys to 102 after the first intervention. By the fourth course module and subsequent survey, the sample group had been narrowed to the final 88 respondents, a response rate of 73%. The intervention duration was not noted.

    Each respondent completed an initial survey after their first encounter with their group’s media type. After completing a total of four modules, the final survey was administered, tracking their feelings about the media type over multiple modules.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • As previously discussed, this study focused on a variety of flow-oriented factors, which should influence the intent to use and actual use of elearning. The subject groups varied only by presentation methodology.

    All of the correlations predicted in the research hypotheses were upheld, with the exception of the link between concentration and intent to use. This correlation was upheld in two of the multimedia interventions, but not in the text/audio presentation group.

    Overall, statistically significant data supports the elements of flow theory, as they are related to the presentation methodology and actual use of elearning.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The survey results, separated by presentation medium, are presented above by mean score.

    During the first survey, the text/audio/video group scored the highest in both perceived usefulness and concentration. Following the final survey, results declined across all media types and categories, while the text/audio/video group still maintained the highest scores on these two factors.
  • The output of this study does have some limitations, which could affect the applicability of outcomes.

    The study is limited to the study of streaming audio/visual materials within the elearning context, so judgements cannot be directly made to more traditional media uses, or apart from the streaming context.

    Also, the study defines the interactions within the terms of a specific learning management system (LMS) that is common in Taiwan, so the results may not be directly transferrable to other LMS or CMS programs.

    Finally, the study was run in the context of four educational modules. Although some trends were noted over this short training duration, other factors may apply to longer training scenarios.
  • The output of this study does have some limitations, which could affect the applicability of outcomes.

    The study is limited to the study of streaming audio/visual materials within the elearning context, so judgements cannot be directly made to more traditional media uses, or apart from the streaming context.

    Also, the study defines the interactions within the terms of a specific learning management system (LMS) that is common in Taiwan, so the results may not be directly transferrable to other LMS or CMS programs.

    Finally, the study was run in the context of four educational modules. Although some trends were noted over this short training duration, other factors may apply to longer training scenarios.
  • The output of this study does have some limitations, which could affect the applicability of outcomes.

    The study is limited to the study of streaming audio/visual materials within the elearning context, so judgements cannot be directly made to more traditional media uses, or apart from the streaming context.

    Also, the study defines the interactions within the terms of a specific learning management system (LMS) that is common in Taiwan, so the results may not be directly transferrable to other LMS or CMS programs.

    Finally, the study was run in the context of four educational modules. Although some trends were noted over this short training duration, other factors may apply to longer training scenarios.
  • The structure of this study provides for a number of related research opportunities, including:

    Reusing media objects in training modules, utilizing elements in additive training scenarios.

    Adding interactivity objectives to the current study of rich media, to discover if interactivity increases concentration and intent to use.

    And finally, how the concentration effect may change learner perceptions when they experience limited or slow internet connectivity.


  • The structure of this study provides for a number of related research opportunities, including:

    Reusing media objects in training modules, utilizing elements in additive training scenarios.

    Adding interactivity objectives to the current study of rich media, to discover if interactivity increases concentration and intent to use.

    And finally, how the concentration effect may change learner perceptions when they experience limited or slow internet connectivity.


  • The structure of this study provides for a number of related research opportunities, including:

    Reusing media objects in training modules, utilizing elements in additive training scenarios.

    Adding interactivity objectives to the current study of rich media, to discover if interactivity increases concentration and intent to use.

    And finally, how the concentration effect may change learner perceptions when they experience limited or slow internet connectivity.


  • The structure of this study provides for a number of related research opportunities, including:

    Reusing media objects in training modules, utilizing elements in additive training scenarios.

    Adding interactivity objectives to the current study of rich media, to discover if interactivity increases concentration and intent to use.

    And finally, how the concentration effect may change learner perceptions when they experience limited or slow internet connectivity.


  • Let’s move on to a brief critique of the study, and its implications for future research.
  • The study included a high level of subject matter detail, including concise definitions of the elements of flow theory, and a chart to explain the interaction of each element with the proposed hypothesis. A variety of survey data was also provided, including the text of survey questions and their corresponding Cronbach’s alpha scores.

    The study questions were well integrated with the literature review and conclusion, explaining the extension and contradiction of previous studies in a concise and evaluative way.

    The complexity and quantity of research hypotheses were explained in a thorough, lucid form through the process flow chart. The results of each linkage were also shown in this same chart layout, increasing overall comprehension (and confirmation) of the study results.

    The lack of specific research sample data on prior knowledge was a bit troubling, and the homogeneous nature of the sample may result in limited study applicability. The methodology used to create content-level congruity between media types was also not disclosed. This congruity is essential to the validity of resulting data, as it ensures consistent content experiences between research groups.
  • The study included a high level of subject matter detail, including concise definitions of the elements of flow theory, and a chart to explain the interaction of each element with the proposed hypothesis. A variety of survey data was also provided, including the text of survey questions and their corresponding Cronbach’s alpha scores.

    The study questions were well integrated with the literature review and conclusion, explaining the extension and contradiction of previous studies in a concise and evaluative way.

    The complexity and quantity of research hypotheses were explained in a thorough, lucid form through the process flow chart. The results of each linkage were also shown in this same chart layout, increasing overall comprehension (and confirmation) of the study results.

    The lack of specific research sample data on prior knowledge was a bit troubling, and the homogeneous nature of the sample may result in limited study applicability. The methodology used to create content-level congruity between media types was also not disclosed. This congruity is essential to the validity of resulting data, as it ensures consistent content experiences between research groups.
  • The study included a high level of subject matter detail, including concise definitions of the elements of flow theory, and a chart to explain the interaction of each element with the proposed hypothesis. A variety of survey data was also provided, including the text of survey questions and their corresponding Cronbach’s alpha scores.

    The study questions were well integrated with the literature review and conclusion, explaining the extension and contradiction of previous studies in a concise and evaluative way.

    The complexity and quantity of research hypotheses were explained in a thorough, lucid form through the process flow chart. The results of each linkage were also shown in this same chart layout, increasing overall comprehension (and confirmation) of the study results.

    The lack of specific research sample data on prior knowledge was a bit troubling, and the homogeneous nature of the sample may result in limited study applicability. The methodology used to create content-level congruity between media types was also not disclosed. This congruity is essential to the validity of resulting data, as it ensures consistent content experiences between research groups.

Transcript

  • 1. Research Study Critique No. 2 colin gray | AEET/EDET 780 May 25, 2009
  • 2. RESEARCH | study Liu, S., Liao, H., & J. Pratt (2009). Impact of media richness and flow on e-learning technology acceptance [Electronic version]. Computers & Education, 52, 599-607. http://dx.doi.org.pallas2.tcl.sc.edu/10.1016/j.compedu.2008.11.002
  • 3. Introduction
  • 4. STUDY | purpose
  • 5. STUDY | purpose integration of rich media in elearning environments
  • 6. STUDY | purpose integration of rich media in elearning environments evaluate user concentration
  • 7. STUDY | purpose integration of rich media in elearning environments evaluate user concentration evaluate streaming rich media in a CBT context
  • 8. STUDY | purpose integration of rich media in elearning environments evaluate user concentration evaluate streaming rich media in a CBT context determine linkage between ease of use, perceived usefulness, & concentration
  • 9. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 10. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 11. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 12. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 13. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 14. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 15. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 16. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 17. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 18. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 19. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 20. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 21. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 22. STUDY | purpose Perceived Usefulness Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 23. STUDY | groups Three groups organized by multimedia intervention
  • 24. STUDY | groups Three groups organized by multimedia intervention Aa text-audio
  • 25. STUDY | groups Three groups organized by multimedia intervention Aa text-audio audio-video
  • 26. STUDY | groups Three groups organized by multimedia intervention Aa Aa text-audio audio-video text-audio-video
  • 27. STUDY | subject
  • 28. STUDY | subject students enrolled in a system analysis course
  • 29. STUDY | subject students enrolled in a system analysis course Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan
  • 30. STUDY | subject students enrolled in a system analysis course Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan 55% female | 45% male | ages 20-25
  • 31. STUDY | subject students enrolled in a system analysis course Chung Yuan University in Taipei, Taiwan 55% female | 45% male | ages 20-25 88 respondents
  • 32. STUDY | results Perceived Presentation Methodology Usefulness Actual Use of elearning Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 33. STUDY | results Perceived Presentation Methodology Usefulness Actual Use of elearning Perceived Attitude Intentions Ease-of-Use Concentration
  • 34. STUDY | results First Survey Final Survey
  • 35. STUDY | results First Survey Final Survey 6 6 4.5 4.5 3 3 1.5 1.5 Text/Audio Text/Audio Audio/Video 0 0 Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Perceived Usefulness Concentration
  • 36. STUDY | results First Survey Final Survey 6 6 4.5 4.5 3 3 1.5 1.5 Text/Audio Text/Audio Audio/Video 0 0 Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Perceived Usefulness Concentration
  • 37. STUDY | results First Survey Final Survey 6 6 4.5 4.5 3 3 1.5 1.5 Text/Audio Text/Audio Audio/Video 0 0 Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Text/Audio/Video Perceived Usefulness Concentration
  • 38. STUDY | output
  • 39. STUDY | output limited to streaming audio-visual media
  • 40. STUDY | output limited to streaming audio-visual media limited to specific LMS, based on user experience onboarding
  • 41. STUDY | output limited to streaming audio-visual media limited to specific LMS, based on user experience onboarding limited to short-run training (<= four modules)
  • 42. STUDY | next steps
  • 43. STUDY | next steps reuse of rich media objects in additive training scenarios
  • 44. STUDY | next steps reuse of rich media objects in additive training scenarios addition of interactivity to existing rich media base
  • 45. STUDY | next steps reuse of rich media objects in additive training scenarios addition of interactivity to existing rich media base concentration effect transfer on users with limited internet connectivity
  • 46. STUDY | next steps reuse of rich media objects in additive training scenarios addition of interactivity to existing rich media base concentration effect transfer on users with limited internet connectivity
  • 47. Critique
  • 48. OVERVIEW | mechanics
  • 49. OVERVIEW | mechanics high level of subject matter and evaluation data
  • 50. OVERVIEW | mechanics high level of subject matter and evaluation data extensive preview and review of study questions and outcomes in context with literature review
  • 51. OVERVIEW | mechanics high level of subject matter and evaluation data extensive preview and review of study questions and outcomes in context with literature review complexity of research questions aided by process chart
  • 52. OVERVIEW | mechanics high level of subject matter and evaluation data extensive preview and review of study questions and outcomes in context with literature review complexity of research questions aided by process chart prior knowledge and content congruity were not discussed
  • 53. OVERVIEW | applicability
  • 54. OVERVIEW | applicability highly applicable to contemporary ILT development
  • 55. OVERVIEW | applicability highly applicable to contemporary ILT development demonstrates value of media richness
  • 56. OVERVIEW | applicability highly applicable to contemporary ILT development demonstrates value of media richness multiple research paths to further study external variables affecting concentration
  • 57. Conclusion