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Becta Impact09 data reanalysed: E-maturity and ICT adoption in UK schools
 

Becta Impact09 data reanalysed: E-maturity and ICT adoption in UK schools

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EARLI Conference - Munich 2013 ...

EARLI Conference - Munich 2013
Symposium: Educational technology acceptance- Explaining non-significant intention-behavior effects
Full paper title: An e-maturity analysis explains intention-behavior disjunctions
in technology adoption in UK schools
Abstract
This paper addresses the problem of non-significant intention-behavior effects in educational technology adoption, based on a reanalysis of data from the Impact09 project, a UK-government funded evaluation of technology use in high schools in England that had been selected as representing outstanding Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) innovation. The reanalysis focuses on intentionality and teleology, and attempts to combine an ecological perspective with a critical analysis of the intention-behavior correlations among participants, particularly teachers and head teachers. The concept of self-regulation is also considered as a determinant of behavior. The study reports a qualitative analysis of extensive interview data from four schools, and makes use of Underwood’s concept of ‘linkage e-maturity’. Traditional models of technology acceptance often assumed a steady trajectory of innovation, but such studies failed to explain uneven patterns of adoption. In this reanalysis, an emphasis on learning practices and e-maturity, interpreted within local and system-wide ecological contexts, better explained uneven adoption patterns.


Presentation by Colin Harrison, Carmen Tomás, Charles Crook

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  • CKC - Introduction the central goal of the project is to produce “explanatory case studies” demonstrating the relationship between ICT and learning our approach has two major emphases; the first is to capture the ecology of learning the second is to use new technologies to develop representations of the use of ICT for learning the project is working in nine schools which represent three areas of emphasis: ICT across the curriculum, personal computing, and learning platform/VLE. the project is collecting data in three phases: PHASE I Two-day “deep audit” of school; recruitment of teachers who will fill in logs; PHASE II 200+Teacher logs of individual lessons; PHASE III Interviews with the 36+ teachers who have submitted teacher logs. Interviews will be based on contrastive representations of their own teaching and that of two other teachers.
  • CKC - Introduction the central goal of the project is to produce “explanatory case studies” demonstrating the relationship between ICT and learning our approach has two major emphases; the first is to capture the ecology of learning the second is to use new technologies to develop representations of the use of ICT for learning the project is working in nine schools which represent three areas of emphasis: ICT across the curriculum, personal computing, and learning platform/VLE. the project is collecting data in three phases: PHASE I Two-day “deep audit” of school; recruitment of teachers who will fill in logs; PHASE II 200+Teacher logs of individual lessons; PHASE III Interviews with the 36+ teachers who have submitted teacher logs. Interviews will be based on contrastive representations of their own teaching and that of two other teachers.
  • CKC - Introduction the central goal of the project is to produce “explanatory case studies” demonstrating the relationship between ICT and learning our approach has two major emphases; the first is to capture the ecology of learning the second is to use new technologies to develop representations of the use of ICT for learning the project is working in nine schools which represent three areas of emphasis: ICT across the curriculum, personal computing, and learning platform/VLE. the project is collecting data in three phases: PHASE I Two-day “deep audit” of school; recruitment of teachers who will fill in logs; PHASE II 200+Teacher logs of individual lessons; PHASE III Interviews with the 36+ teachers who have submitted teacher logs. Interviews will be based on contrastive representations of their own teaching and that of two other teachers.
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • the school ’s virtual spaces (creating a continuum)
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • Teachers ’ positioning in the school and the classroom The space in the classroom
  • CKC - Introduction the central goal of the project is to produce “explanatory case studies” demonstrating the relationship between ICT and learning our approach has two major emphases; the first is to capture the ecology of learning the second is to use new technologies to develop representations of the use of ICT for learning the project is working in nine schools which represent three areas of emphasis: ICT across the curriculum, personal computing, and learning platform/VLE. the project is collecting data in three phases: PHASE I Two-day “deep audit” of school; recruitment of teachers who will fill in logs; PHASE II 200+Teacher logs of individual lessons; PHASE III Interviews with the 36+ teachers who have submitted teacher logs. Interviews will be based on contrastive representations of their own teaching and that of two other teachers.

Becta Impact09 data reanalysed: E-maturity and ICT adoption in UK schools Becta Impact09 data reanalysed: E-maturity and ICT adoption in UK schools Presentation Transcript

  • SIG: Learning and Instruction with Computers Symposium: Educational technology acceptance- Explaining non-significant intention-behavior effects An e-maturity analysis explains intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption in UK schools Colin Harrison 1 Carmen Tomás 2 Charles Crook 1 1 Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Nottingham 2 Nottingham Trent University
  • 1. Presents a reanalysis of the Becta Impact09 project * results 2. An ecological perspective leads to deeper understanding of technology adoption 3. Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption 4. Conflicting intentionality vectors are shown to create barriers to change 5. Bagozzi’s ideas on self-regulation explain some intention-behavior discrepancies. * Crook, C., Harrison, C, Farrington-Flint, L., Tomás, C. & Underwood, J. (2010). The impact of technology: Value-added classroom practice. Final Report. Coventry: Becta. Key points: Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  •  ICT and learning: “explanatory case studies”  How is ICT impacting learning?  Approach emphasizes:  Ecology of learning  Alternative representations of ICT for learning  Nine schools, each a national leader in ICT innovation:  ICT across the curriculum  personal computing  learning platform/VLE  3-Phase data collection:  PHASE I Deep audit of school and teacher recruitment [n=60 interviews]  PHASE II Detailed teacher logs of individual lessons [n=85]  PHASE III Interviews with teachers who submitted teacher logs to contrast representations of their own teaching with those of two others [n=45] 1. The Impact 09 project Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 2. An ecological perspective on how the technological and pedagogical knowledge of teachers is changing the nature of learning Updates to the learner model: - The learning environment; scaffolding - Freedom to initiate/select topics - Freedom to choose learning goals - Freedom to choose learning pathways - Freedom to select resources Updates to the pedagogical model: - Freedom to regulate learning: - When? - How? - With whom? - For how long? Updates to the feedback model: - Monitoring models - Volition models - Motivation models - Evaluation models - Assessment models Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. What is the anticipated ‘end-state’ of adoption? Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity • An ecological model captures some of the complexity of learning models, but does not necessarily provide data on causal factors • Jean Underwood’s ‘e-maturity’ evaluations have explored the learner, teacher and system-level factors that impact adoption at an institutional level. • We were particularly interested in Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity, which focused on the extent to which there was robust and system-wide institutional adoption of technologies for learning that linked student, home and school. Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. The need for a re-analysis: Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption • Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity (Underwood, 2007) Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. The need for a re-analysis: Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption • Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity (Underwood, 2007) Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. The need for a re-analysis: Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption • Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity (Underwood, 2007) Where did we find this level of • linkage e-maturity? What intention-behavior vectors were associated with this level of adoption? Could conflicting intention- behavior vectors explain an absence of linkage e- maturity? Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. The need for a re-analysis: Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption Re-analysis of 35 hours of interview data from 4 schools:  Lowmoor School: full linkage e-maturity  Duke’s Wood School: teacher-level issues: uneven teacher buy-in to adoption  Birdsall School: teacher- and student-level issues: uneven teacher and student engagement with technology  Barleycroft School: system-level issues: adoption delayed by incomplete infrastructure Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • Full linkage e-maturity: Lowmoor School  An integrated system that brought together learning, teaching and assessment for every teacher and student across the school  sets student expectations  organizes student work  uploads resources linking to students’ timetables  monitors students’ progress  strong school-home links Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  •  The scheme of work in Art for the term  All the teacher’s lesson plans for the term  All the resources to support each lesson  Every upcoming homework  Resources to support their homework  Information on their progress in each subject The students were able to see, in class and from home: Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • Updates to the learner model:  “I hope you don’t mind… I’ve done the next three pieces of homework that you’ve set and I’ve also worked two or thee pages ahead. Is that alright?” Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 3. The need for a re-analysis: Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity (Underwood, 2007) Where did we find this level of • linkage e-maturity? What intention-behavior vectors were associated with this level of adoption? Could conflicting intention- behavior vectors explain an absence of linkage e- maturity? Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 4. Intentionality and adoption Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity (Underwood, 2007) Where did we find this level of • linkage e-maturity? What intention-behavior vectors were associated with this level of adoption? Could conflicting intention- behavior vectors explain an absence of linkage e- maturity? Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 4. Intentionality and adoption What intention-behavior vectors were associated with ICT adoption? Head teacher vision- coupled with determined policy: ‘ICT and learning, interactive learning, [is] happening in every curriculum area, in every classroom, in every lesson every day of the week, all the time.’ (Head teacher, Lowmoor School) A clear understanding of the need for anytime-anywhere learning: ‘If the child doesn’t learn at half past two on a Thursday, for whatever reason, they ought to have the facility to be able to revisit that lesson in their own time and at their own pace’. (Head teacher, Lowmoor School)  Emphasis on self-regulation: ‘You need to be a person who can allow the power to sort of flow to the children … kids are … far more proficient in finding their own information and sorting out how they want to learn’. (Head teacher, Lowmoor School) Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 4. Intentionality and adoption Intentionality-behavior vectors in other schools: Head teacher vision outsourced: ‘‘We’ve not been huge on the “anytime- anywhere learning” thing.... It doesn’t work as well as those who have an interest in promoting this would claim.’ (ICT consultant, Duke’s Wood School) Conflicting intentionality vectors: ‘It should be the students who are picking … the ICT to use’. . (Head teacher, Birdsall School) ‘Should students decide when to use laptops? I’m not convinced.’ (Deputy head teacher, in charge of school curriculum, Birdsall School) [Moodle] is all very well and good, but …apart from me, the last person that used it was 66 days ago… (Head of department, Birdsall School)  Intentionality vectors congruent, but implementation takes time: Why do children necessarily have to turn up and be in a building to learn… I don’t know. Maybe there’ll be more flexibility in terms of how the curriculum’s organized.… It could well be that mobile technologies allow students different ways of learning. (Senior manager, Barleycroft School) Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 5. Bagozzi’s (2007) argued for a socio-contextual paradigm shift to explain intention-behavior discrepancies.  More emphasis on understanding end-state goals: ‘‘We’ve not been huge on the “anytime-anywhere learning” thing.... It doesn’t work as well as those who have an interest in promoting this would claim.’ (ICT consultant, Duke’s Wood School)  Deeper analysis of intentionality vectors across the ecosystem: ‘It should be the students who are picking … the ICT to use’. . (Head teacher, Birdsall School) ‘Should students decide when to use laptops? I’m not convinced.’ (Deputy head teacher, in charge of school curriculum, Birdsall School) [Moodle] is all very well and good, but …apart from me, the last person that used it was 66 days ago… (Head of department, Birdsall School)  Intentionality is determined by self-regulation: Why do children necessarily have to turn up and be in a building to learn… I don’t know. Maybe there’ll be more flexibility in terms of how the curriculum’s organized.… It could well be that mobile technologies allow students different ways of learning. (Senior manager, Barleycroft School)  Self-regulation is ‘transcendental’ (agency is not always explicable): The teleology of technological change operates through human and systemic causal systems, with deterministic processes that are often felt and presumed rather than agentive Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • 1. Presents a reanalysis of the Becta Impact09 project * results 2. An ecological perspective leads to deeper understanding of technology adoption 3. Underwood’s ‘linkage’ e-maturity model provides additional granularity on adoption 4. Conflicting intentionality vectors are shown to create barriers to change 5. Bagozzi’s ideas on self-regulation explain some intention-behavior discrepancies. *Crook, C., Harrison, C, Farrington-Flint, L., Tomás, C. & Underwood, J. (2010). The impact of technology: Value-added classroom practice. Final Report. Coventry: Becta. Key points: Harrison, Tomás and Crook - Intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption
  • SIG: Learning and Instruction with Computers Symposium: Educational technology acceptance- Explaining non-significant intention-behavior effects An e-maturity analysis explains intention-behavior disjunctions in technology adoption in UK schools Colin Harrison 1 Carmen Tomás 2 Charles Crook 1 1 Learning Sciences Research Institute, University of Nottingham 2 Nottingham Trent University Thank you! colin.harrison@nottingham.ac.uk carmen.tomas@ntu.ac.uk