STAYING COMPETITIVE IN TODAY’S MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT
STAYING COMPETITIVE IN TODAY’S MANUFACTURING ENVIRONMENT Colin Harding, B.A.Sc., P.Eng., RHB Manufacturing Resource Group
INTRODUCTION - The Old Way “ Why does it cost so much?” “ Have you sourced the material in a low cost country?” “ Are you considering manufacturing in China?” “ Build a plant in Mexico to take advantage of the low labour costs” “ Your request for a design change is not approved” “ This is the way we always design these”
“ We are putting a new plant in Canada, will you build a plant next to our assembly plant?” “ Let us help you with implementing lean” “ Are you submitting design changes to help meet pricing targets?” “ How can we work together?” “ This is a long term relationship” INTRODUCTION …. The Better Way
Business is won based on price and quality Pricing and Quality is related to design Therefore, to win business we need to ensure our designs are world class. This includes: <ul><ul><li>Systems and Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Materials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Lessons Learned </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dimensions & Tolerances </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Testing & Validation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Assembly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Designer Training </li></ul></ul>INTRODUCTION ….
<ul><li>Every Industry has Standards and Systems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Automotive - TS 16949 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Manufacturing - ISO 9001-2000 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Military - DND </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Aerospace </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul>SYSTEMS & STANDARDS
<ul><li>Each Company has Systems and Procedures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CAD & Drafting Standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Change Control </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulatory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Standards, Procedures, Systems must add value to the product or process. If they add cost without benefit, they should be changed </li></ul>SYSTEMS & STANDARDS ….
<ul><li>Internal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The “Big Book” versus Understanding </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The Shop Floor </li></ul></ul><ul><li>External: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Suppliers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competitors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>We must not be afraid to learn from experience and make continual improvements </li></ul><ul><li>Do not accept resistance to better ways. The “Big Book” refers to the way it was always done </li></ul>LESSONS LEARNED
MATERIALS – DESIGN & SELECTION Casting Process: Selection to Meet Function and Cost Design to Eliminate Core in Castings
MATERIAL DEFECTS Casting Defect Not seen on finished part. Requires X-ray to see or to cut part. Smart design may not eliminate but can move location. Is defect then detrimental?
MATERIALS - DESIGN for MACHINING Casting Designed for Reduced Burrs Casting Designed for Work Holding Clamping lug with locator on end Clamping lug
DESIGN RE-THINK Mesh Filter Conventional Oil Pick-up Design Lost Foam Casting with Integral Filter The use of lost foam casting process was not viable and only discovered when foundry was requested to quote part Considerable program time was lost due to not having foundry involved at concept stage. Part needed redesign
DIMENSIONS & TOLERANCES Function versus Manufacturability Too many datum transfers required due to work holding surfaces not being datums
Revised Dimensional Scheme Easy to measure and meets functional requirements Original Dimensional Scheme Almost impossible to measure due to long projection of datum DIMENSIONS & TOLERANCES ….
REDUCING SET-UPS Angles present a real challenge for manufacturing. Most machines are set-up in x, y, z, coordinate systems with the axes perpendicular. A fourth and fifth axes can be added which gives rotation in these axes. The fourth axis comes in 2 versions, indexing (1/2 axis) and continuous rotation (4th axis). With indexing the table will rotate, usually, in 1 degree increments and lock in position while the tool is not cutting. Continuous rotation is called contouring and can be synchronized with the rotation of other axes while the tool is cutting. A contouring fourth axis is more expensive and more difficult to program.
CONSIDER PRODUCT GROWTH Space Consideration Making changes may be “impossible” later due to closeness of assembly
CONCLUSIONS As we look at the examples given here it can be seen that we need to become more efficient in our product development process. Many of the discussed problems could have been avoided by having design engineers spend time in foundries, forging shops, stamping houses and machine shops. With experience in the realities of these industries the design engineer will gain the knowledge of what to expect of a given material or process. Technical schools and universities also need to consider these issues when they prepare course curriculum. Employers should consider hiring people with a strong background in these areas or be prepared to invest in the time and effort to ensure the employee obtains the appropriate experience as part of the training and development. Strong education coupled with appropriate materials and manufacturing experience is a necessary part of the training for the next designers if we are not to let our industrial base disappear. When we have a designer with the education and experience together with creativity and common sense, we have a powerful solution.