0
So you’re about to start
working with some of the
most precious children
you’ll ever come into
contact with…..
Click here ...
….and you have a
tremendous opportunity to
use behavior analysis to
improve a young person’s
life…..
….with discrete trial
procedures being the tool
for this gratifying
success…..
….so let’s learn how to
properly administer
discrete trials and really
make a difference!!
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD
)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indir...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indirect-acting
Consequenc...
The Building Blocks
Reinforcer
Behavior
Analysis
Discrete
Trial
Discriminative
Stimulus (SD)
Reinforcement
Stimulus
Indire...
Activity #1
You do not need to write these
answers down, but remember to
complete the homework before
class
Given a defini...
A supplemental stimulus
that raises the probability
of a correct response.
A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD)
B...
A supplemental stimulus
that raises the probability
of a correct response.
A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD
)
...
A supplemental stimulus
that raises the probability
of a correct response.
A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD
)
...
A supplemental stimulus
that raises the probability
of a correct response.
A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD
)
...
A supplemental stimulus
that raises the probability
of a correct response.
A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD
)
...
Any outcome that follows a response
by more than 60-seconds.
A. Discriminative stimulus (SD)
C. Indirect-acting consequenc...
Any outcome that follows a response
by more than 60-seconds.
A. Discriminative stimulus (SD
) C. Indirect-acting consequen...
Any outcome that follows a response
by more than 60-seconds.
A. Discriminative stimulus (SD
) C. Indirect-acting consequen...
Any outcome that follows a response
by more than 60-seconds.
A. Discriminative stimulus (SD
) C. Indirect-acting consequen...
Any outcome that follows a response
by more than 60-seconds.
A. Discriminative stimulus (SD
) C. Indirect-acting consequen...
The correction procedure delivered within 3
seconds of the child failing to respond
or immediately after the child makes
a...
The correction procedure delivered within 3
seconds of the child failing to respond
or immediately after the child makes
a...
The correction procedure delivered within 3
seconds of the child failing to respond
or immediately after the child makes
a...
The correction procedure delivered within 3
seconds of the child failing to respond
or immediately after the child makes
a...
The correction procedure delivered within 3
seconds of the child failing to respond
or immediately after the child makes
a...
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD),
the response,
and the outcome of that response.
A. Discrete trial C. Prompt
B. ...
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that response.
A. Discrete trial C. Prompt
B....
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that response.
A. Discrete trial C. Prompt
B....
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that response.
A. Discrete trial C. Prompt
B....
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that response.
A. Discrete trial C. Prompt
B....
Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts
in the hierarchy of prompts?
A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
B. Motiv...
Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts
in the hierarchy of prompts?
A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
B. Motiv...
Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts
in the hierarchy of prompts?
A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
B. Motiv...
Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts
in the hierarchy of prompts?
A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
B. Motiv...
Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts
in the hierarchy of prompts?
A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt
B. Motiv...
Susie, a practicum student
at WoodsEdge Learning Center, states the instructions
to the child as they are written
in the c...
Susie, a practicum student
at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
to the child as they are written
in the child...
Susie, a practicum student
at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
to the child as they are written
in the child...
Susie, a practicum student
at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
to the child as they are written
in the child...
Susie, a practicum student
at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions
to the child as they are written
in the child...
NICE JOB!!! Now let’s
learn more about discrete
trials….
Discrete Trial
Review definition:
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that respon...
Discrete Trial
Review definition:
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that respon...
Discrete Trial
The SD
: The occasion for a response
These are the instructions
given by the practicum student
to the child
Discrete Trial
The SD
: The occasion for a response
Example!!
“Johnny, play with the
car.”
Discrete Trial
The response
This is the behavior that occurs after the
SD
(the instruction) is delivered
Discrete Trial
The response
Johnny plays with the car.
Example!!
Discrete Trial
The outcome of that response
This is the result (e.g. reinforcement,
correction) that follows the response
Discrete Trial
The outcome of that response
Example!!
“Nice job playing with
the car, Johnny!!”
Discrete Trial
Now let’s put all 3 parts
together!
Discrete TrialExample!!
The SD
:The response:The consequence:
“Nice job playing with
the car, Johnny!!”
“Johnny, play with...
Activity #2
Given a description of a
discrete trial, select the
correct name of the
highlighted part of the
trial being de...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
Which part ...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
Which part ...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
Which part ...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
Which part ...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
The practic...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
The practic...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
The practic...
After Johnny is given the instructions
“Johnny, use the phone”,
he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head.
The practic...
The practicum student goes over the instructions
for the discrete trial procedure she is about to
administer. She then giv...
The practicum student goes over the instructions
for the discrete trial procedure she is about to
administer. She then giv...
The practicum student goes over the instructions
for the discrete trial procedure she is about to
administer. She then giv...
The practicum student goes over the instructions
for the discrete trial procedure she is about to
administer. She then giv...
Activity #3
Given a description of a
series of events, select
whether those events
constitute a discrete
trial.
Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child
point to a dog and say “dog”.
Joe immediately gives his child a reinforc...
Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child
point to a dog and say “dog”.
Joe immediately gives his child a reinforc...
Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child
point to a dog and say “dog”.
Joe immediately gives his child a reinforc...
Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child
the instructions “use the phone.”
The child then picks up the phone
and...
Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child
the instructions “use the phone.”
The child then picks up the phone
and...
Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child
the instructions “use the phone.”
The child then picks up the phone
and...
NICE JOB!!! Now let’s
learn how to discriminate a
correct discrete trial from
an incorrect discrete trial…
Discrete Trial
Review definition:
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that respon...
Discrete Trial
Review definition:
The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD
),
the response,
and the outcome of that respon...
#1:
Check the presumed
reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
#1:
Check the presumed
reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
(i.e. Make sure your child
actually ...
#1:
Check the presumed
reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
(i.e. Make sure your child
actually ...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
Complete the next
two steps PRIOR to
delivering the
instructions (SD
) to
the...
#2:
Make sure the child
has stopped manipulating
their preferred reinforcer
and/or the objects used
in the procedure.
How ...
#2:
Make sure the child
has stopped manipulating
their preferred reinforcer
and/or the objects used
in the procedure.
How ...
#3:
Make sure the child
is looking at you
or the appropriate stimulus
used in the procedure
How to Correctly Administer a
...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
So now that you have
a TRUE reinforcer
and the child’s FULL
attention...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
….let’s learn the
steps to correctly
deliver the
instructions (SD
)!!
#4:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
exactly as it is written in
the child’s procedures, with
no additional prompts.
How...
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
In other...
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
…smiling...
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
So, let’...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
“Susie, touch your
nose!!!”
#5:
Deliver the instructions
(the SD
)
with a neu...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
“Susie, touch your
nose!!!”
#5:
Deliver the instructions
(the SD
)
with a neu...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
“Susie, touch your
nose.”
#5:
Deliver the instructions
(the SD
)
with a neutr...
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
“Susie, ...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
“Susie, touch your
nose!!!”
#5:
Deliver the instructions
(the SD
)
with a neu...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
So now what do you
do once the child
makes a response
to your instructions
(S...
#6:
Reinforce only the correct
behavior of the child
(as listed in the procedures).
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete...
#6:
Reinforce only the correct
behavior of the child
(as listed in the procedures).
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete...
#6:
Reinforce only the correct
behavior of the child
(as listed in the procedures).
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete...
#7:
Deliver the outcome
(either a reinforcer or the proper
correction procedure)
within 1 second
of the child’s response.
...
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
Let’s review all of
the steps once
again…
#1:
Check the presumed
reinforcer first.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
#2:
Make sure the child
has stopped manipulating
their preferred reinforcer
and/or the objects used
in the procedure.
How ...
#3:
Make sure the child
is looking at you
or the appropriate stimulus
used in the procedure
How to Correctly Administer a
...
#4:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
exactly as it is instructed
in the child’s procedures,
with no additional prompts.
...
#5:
Deliver the instructions (the SD
)
with a neutral tone of voice.
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete Trial
#6:
Reinforce only the correct
behavior of the child
(as listed in the procedures).
How to Correctly Administer a
Discrete...
#7:
Deliver the outcome
(either a reinforcer or the proper
correction procedure)
within 1 second
of the child’s response.
...
Activity #4
Given a description of
TWO discrete trials,
select which trial was
administered correctly
#1:
Chris states the SD
to little Audrey who is facing the wall.
Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct respo...
#1:
Chris states the SD
to little Audrey.
Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response.
Chris immediately ...
#1:
Chris states the SD
to little Audrey.
Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response.
Chris immediately ...
#1:
Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another
practicum student and the student asks “What do you se...
#1:
Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another
practicum student and the student asks “What do you se...
#1:
Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another
practicum student and the student asks “What do you se...
Activity #5
Given a description of a
discrete trial, select the
whether the trial was
administered correctly
or incorrectly
Susie gives her assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
her child makes the corre...
Susie gives her assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
her child makes the corre...
Susie gives her assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, to her delight,
her child makes the corre...
Activity #6
Given a description of a
discrete trial, select
whether the trial was
administered correctly
or incorrectly…
Activity #6 cont.
…THEN select, from
the options given, WHY
the trial was correct or
incorrect.
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
Jerry gives his assigned child the SD
exactly
as described in the procedure and, unfortunately,
his child makes an incorre...
NICE JOB!!!
You are….
ALL DONE!!!
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Discrete trial workshow

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Discrete Trial workshow for Week 1

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Transcript of "Discrete trial workshow"

  1. 1. So you’re about to start working with some of the most precious children you’ll ever come into contact with….. Click here to advance to the NEXT slide!!
  2. 2. ….and you have a tremendous opportunity to use behavior analysis to improve a young person’s life…..
  3. 3. ….with discrete trial procedures being the tool for this gratifying success…..
  4. 4. ….so let’s learn how to properly administer discrete trials and really make a difference!!
  5. 5. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence
  6. 6. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer: Any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response.
  7. 7. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Note: All non-verbal behavior is controlled by direct-acting consequences.
  8. 8. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Direct-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal, hence only controlled by direct-acting consequences!
  9. 9. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Indirect-acting Consequence: Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. Remember!! Most of the children you’re going to be working with at WoodsEdge are non-verbal, hence are not controlled by indirect-acting consequences!
  10. 10. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Stimulus: Something that can or may cause a response.
  11. 11. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Prompt: A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
  12. 12. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Discriminative Stimulus (SD ): A stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  13. 13. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Reinforcement: The immediate, response-contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.
  14. 14. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Hierarchy of Prompts: The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response.
  15. 15. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently ….if the child doesn’t respond correctly within 3 seconds, then go on to the next prompt. The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of:
  16. 16. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform the task independently ….if the child doesn’t respond
  17. 17. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) -wait 3 seconds for child to perform
  18. 18. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Hierarchy of Prompts consists of: Verbal Prompt (e.g. “water on”) Gestural Prompt (e.g. point to faucet handle) Partial Physical Prompt (e.g. nudge child’s wrist) Full Physical Prompt (i.e. guide
  19. 19. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Note: You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  20. 20. Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence The Building Blocks Discrete Trial: The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  21. 21. The Building Blocks Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Reinforcer Behavior Analysis Discrete Trial Discriminative Stimulus (SD) Reinforcement Stimulus Indirect-acting Consequence Prompt Hierarchy of Prompts Direct-acting Consequence Behavior Analysis: The study of the operation of the principles of behavior with both human beings and other animals.
  22. 22. Activity #1 You do not need to write these answers down, but remember to complete the homework before class Given a definition or a related question, select the term that best matches the given definition or question.
  23. 23. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD) B. Prompt D. Discrete trial #1
  24. 24. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Prompt D. Discrete trial Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response.
  25. 25. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Prompt D. Discrete trial Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  26. 26. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Prompt D. Discrete trial Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  27. 27. A supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response. A. Reinforcer C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Prompt D. Discrete trial Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  28. 28. Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. A. Discriminative stimulus (SD) C. Indirect-acting consequence B. Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence #2
  29. 29. Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. A. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Indirect-acting consequence B. Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  30. 30. Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. A. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Indirect-acting consequence B. Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry… Remember a Stimulus is something that can or may cause a response.
  31. 31. Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. A. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Indirect-acting consequence B. Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry… Remember a Direct- acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60-seconds or less.
  32. 32. Any outcome that follows a response by more than 60-seconds. A. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Indirect-acting consequence B. Stimulus D. Direct-acting consequence Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  33. 33. The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response. A. Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (SD) B. Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts #3
  34. 34. The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response. A. Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question! Sorry… Remember that Reinforcement is the immediate, response- contingent presentation of a reinforcer resulting in an increased frequency of that response.
  35. 35. The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response. A. Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  36. 36. The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response. A. Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  37. 37. The correction procedure delivered within 3 seconds of the child failing to respond or immediately after the child makes an incorrect response. A. Reinforcement C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) B. Discrete-Trial D. Hierarchy of Prompts Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  38. 38. The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD), the response, and the outcome of that response. A. Discrete trial C. Prompt B. Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence #4
  39. 39. The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. A. Discrete trial C. Prompt B. Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry…. Remember a Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished.
  40. 40. The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. A. Discrete trial C. Prompt B. Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry… Remember a Prompt is a supplemental stimulus that raises the probability of a correct response.
  41. 41. The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. A. Discrete trial C. Prompt B. Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence Back to the question! Sorry… Remember an Indirect-acting Consequence is any outcome that follows a response by 60- seconds or less.
  42. 42. The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. A. Discrete trial C. Prompt B. Discriminative stimulus D. Indirect-acting consequence Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  43. 43. Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt B. Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt #5
  44. 44. Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt B. Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt Back to the question! Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts
  45. 45. Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt B. Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt Back to the question! Sorry… that’s the first prompt on the Hierarchy of Prompts
  46. 46. Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt B. Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt Back to the question! Sorry… that’s #3 on the Hierarchy of Prompts
  47. 47. Which of the following is NOT one of the prompts in the hierarchy of prompts? A. Gestural prompt C. Verbal prompt B. Motivational prompt D. Partial physical prompt Right On!!! Click here for the next question
  48. 48. Susie, a practicum student at WoodsEdge Learning Center, states the instructions to the child as they are written in the child’s procedures. These instructions signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. A. Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt B. Discriminative stimulus (SD) D. Discrete trial #6
  49. 49. Susie, a practicum student at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions to the child as they are written in the child’s procedures. These instructions signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. A. Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) D. Discrete trial Sorry…. Remember a Reinforcer is any stimulus, event, or condition whose presentation immediately follows a response and increases the frequency of that response. Back to the question!
  50. 50. Susie, a practicum student at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions to the child as they are written in the child’s procedures. These instructions signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. A. Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) D. Discrete trial Sorry… that’s #2 on the Hierarchy of Prompts. This consists of motioning or gesturing to the correct response Back to the question!
  51. 51. Susie, a practicum student at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions to the child as they are written in the child’s procedures. These instructions signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. A. Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) D. Discrete trial Sorry…. Remember a Discrete Trial is the occasion for a response, the response, and the outcome of that response. Back to the question!
  52. 52. Susie, a practicum student at Croyden Avenue School, states the instructions to the child as they are written in the child’s procedures. These instructions signal that the child’s response will now be reinforced or corrected. The statement being made is a(n) __________. A. Reinforcer C. Gestural prompt B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) D. Discrete trial Right On!!! A Discriminative Stimulus (SD ) is a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced or punished. (e.g. the instructions in the procedures book) On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  53. 53. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn more about discrete trials….
  54. 54. Discrete Trial Review definition: The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  55. 55. Discrete Trial Review definition: The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. Now that we’ve got the definition down, let’s look at each of the 3 parts that make up a discrete trial….
  56. 56. Discrete Trial The SD : The occasion for a response These are the instructions given by the practicum student to the child
  57. 57. Discrete Trial The SD : The occasion for a response Example!! “Johnny, play with the car.”
  58. 58. Discrete Trial The response This is the behavior that occurs after the SD (the instruction) is delivered
  59. 59. Discrete Trial The response Johnny plays with the car. Example!!
  60. 60. Discrete Trial The outcome of that response This is the result (e.g. reinforcement, correction) that follows the response
  61. 61. Discrete Trial The outcome of that response Example!! “Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!”
  62. 62. Discrete Trial Now let’s put all 3 parts together!
  63. 63. Discrete TrialExample!! The SD :The response:The consequence: “Nice job playing with the car, Johnny!!” “Johnny, play with the car.” Johnny plays with the car.
  64. 64. Activity #2 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the correct name of the highlighted part of the trial being described.
  65. 65. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Consequence C. Discriminative stimulus (SD) #7
  66. 66. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Consequence C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) Back to the question! Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing the phone”
  67. 67. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Consequence C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) Back to the question! Sorry… The SD consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone”
  68. 68. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Consequence C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right On!!!
  69. 69. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Consequence B. Response C. Discriminative stimulus (SD) #8
  70. 70. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Consequence B. Response C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) Back to the question! Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (SD ) “Johnny, use the phone”
  71. 71. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Consequence B. Response C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) Back to the question! Sorry… The SD consists of the instructions given “Johnny, use the phone”
  72. 72. After Johnny is given the instructions “Johnny, use the phone”, he grabs the phone and puts it up to his head. The practicum student immediately gives Johnny a piece of candy. Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Consequence B. Response C. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right On!!!
  73. 73. The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: “Johnny, where’s your shirt?” Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Discriminative stimulus (SD) C. Consequence #9
  74. 74. The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: “Johnny, where’s your shirt?” Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Consequence Back to the question! Sorry… The response what the child does after given the instructions (SD ) “Johnny, where’s your shirt”
  75. 75. The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: “Johnny, where’s your shirt?” Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Consequence Back to the question! Sorry… The consequence is the outcome of the response “grabbing his shirt”
  76. 76. The practicum student goes over the instructions for the discrete trial procedure she is about to administer. She then gives Johnny the instructions as read in the procedure: “Johnny, where’s your shirt?” Which part of the discrete trial is highlighted above? A. Response B. Discriminative stimulus (SD ) C. Consequence On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right On!!!
  77. 77. Activity #3 Given a description of a series of events, select whether those events constitute a discrete trial.
  78. 78. Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No #10
  79. 79. Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No Back to the question! Sorry… Remember that a discrete trial must have an SD (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.”
  80. 80. Joe, a practicum student, sees his assigned child point to a dog and say “dog”. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No On to the next question! Back to the previous question! Right On!!! A discrete trial must have an SD (an occasion for a response to occur; i.e. instructions). An example of this would be “Johnny, point to the dog.”
  81. 81. Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” The child then picks up the phone and puts it to her ear. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No #11
  82. 82. Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” The child then picks up the phone and puts it to her ear. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No Back to the question! Sorry… Remember a correct discrete trial contains an SD (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and the immediate outcome.
  83. 83. Joe, a practicum student, gives his assigned child the instructions “use the phone.” The child then picks up the phone and puts it to her ear. Joe immediately gives his child a reinforcer. Is this a discrete trial? (i.e. does it have an SD , a response, and an outcome contingent on the response) A. Yes B. No On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right On!!! This example DOES contain an SD (the instructions “use the phone”), the response, and an immediate outcome.
  84. 84. NICE JOB!!! Now let’s learn how to discriminate a correct discrete trial from an incorrect discrete trial…
  85. 85. Discrete Trial Review definition: The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response.
  86. 86. Discrete Trial Review definition: The occasion for a response (i.e. the SD ), the response, and the outcome of that response. So what makes a discrete trial correct or incorrect??
  87. 87. #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  88. 88. #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial (i.e. Make sure your child actually likes the reinforcer you’re using, BEFORE you start the procedure)
  89. 89. #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial (i.e. Make sure your child actually likes the reinforcer you’re using, BEFORE you start the procedure) HINT!! You can do this by placing 2 or 3 of the child’s reinforcers (toys/edibles) on the table and seeing which one he/she grabs first
  90. 90. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Complete the next two steps PRIOR to delivering the instructions (SD ) to the child…
  91. 91. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial PRIOR to delivering the instructions (SD )…
  92. 92. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial HINT!! You can get most of the children to do this by saying “Quiet Hands”.
  93. 93. #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial PRIOR to delivering the instructions (SD )…
  94. 94. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now that you have a TRUE reinforcer and the child’s FULL attention...
  95. 95. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial ….let’s learn the steps to correctly deliver the instructions (SD )!!
  96. 96. #4: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) exactly as it is written in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  97. 97. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  98. 98. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial In other words: without smiling, laughing, or anything else that may be reinforcing to the child.
  99. 99. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial …smiling, laughing, “excited” tones, etc. should be used as reinforcing consequences and paired with praise.
  100. 100. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So, let’s see an SD delivered INCORRECTLY (i.e. without a neutral tone of voice)
  101. 101. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice.
  102. 102. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the instructions were given with an excited tone while smiling…
  103. 103. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “Susie, touch your nose.” #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. Now let’s see an SD delivered CORRECTLY (i.e. with a neutral tone of voice)…
  104. 104. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “Susie, touch your nose.”
  105. 105. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial “Susie, touch your nose!!!” #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. Notice how the SD is delivered with a neutral tone with no reinforcing facial expressions (e.g. smiling, laughing)
  106. 106. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial So now what do you do once the child makes a response to your instructions (SD )??
  107. 107. #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  108. 108. #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Remember!! Use the Hierarchy of Prompts for all incorrect behaviors…
  109. 109. #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial …and DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  110. 110. #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  111. 111. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial Let’s review all of the steps once again…
  112. 112. #1: Check the presumed reinforcer first. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  113. 113. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial PRIOR to delivering the instructions (SD )…
  114. 114. #3: Make sure the child is looking at you or the appropriate stimulus used in the procedure How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial PRIOR to delivering the instructions (SD )…
  115. 115. #4: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) exactly as it is instructed in the child’s procedures, with no additional prompts. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  116. 116. #5: Deliver the instructions (the SD ) with a neutral tone of voice. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  117. 117. #6: Reinforce only the correct behavior of the child (as listed in the procedures). How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  118. 118. #7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response. How to Correctly Administer a Discrete Trial
  119. 119. Activity #4 Given a description of TWO discrete trials, select which trial was administered correctly
  120. 120. #1: Chris states the SD to little Audrey who is facing the wall. Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. #2: Chris states the SD to little Audrey. Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 #12
  121. 121. #1: Chris states the SD to little Audrey. Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. #2: Chris states the SD to little Audrey. Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 Sorry… remember the rules about WHEN to deliver the SD . Back to the question!
  122. 122. #1: Chris states the SD to little Audrey. Audrey turns away from the wall and makes a correct response. Chris immediately gives Audrey her favorite toy. #2: Chris states the SD to little Audrey. Audrey stops looking at Chris and makes an incorrect response. Chris begins the hierarchy of prompts. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 That’s right!!! The child is looking at the technician prior to the delivery of the SD . Click here for the next question
  123. 123. #1: Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. #2: Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 #13
  124. 124. #1: Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. #2: Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 Sorry… let’s review. #2: Make sure the child has stopped manipulating their preferred reinforcer and/or the objects used in the procedure. Back to the question!
  125. 125. #1: Little Billy is walking to the playroom. Billy looks at another practicum student and the student asks “What do you see?” while pointing to a book on the desk. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. #2: Little Billy is sitting in his booth with his practicum student. The practicum student asks Billy “What do you see?” while pointing to a book Billy’s playing with. Billy says “I see book”. Immediately he receives a piece of candy as reinforcement from the practicum student. Which discrete trial was administered correctly? A. #1 B. #2 That’s right!! The technician should NOT deliver the SD while the child is manipulating the object used in the procedure. On to the next section! Back to the previous question!
  126. 126. Activity #5 Given a description of a discrete trial, select the whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly
  127. 127. Susie gives her assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, to her delight, her child makes the correct response. She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA that is observing, marks the response as correct, breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, and gives it to her child as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No #14
  128. 128. Susie gives her assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, to her delight, her child makes the correct response. She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA that is observing, marks the response as correct, breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, and gives it to her child as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No Back to the question! Sorry… Remember Step #7…#7: Deliver the outcome (either a reinforcer or the proper correction procedure) within 1 second of the child’s response.
  129. 129. Susie gives her assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, to her delight, her child makes the correct response. She then grabs her book, borrows a pencil from the TA that is observing, marks the response as correct, breaks off a piece of a pretzel from the reinforcer bin, and gives it to her child as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right On!!! The reinforcer must be delivered within 1 second of the correct response
  130. 130. Activity #6 Given a description of a discrete trial, select whether the trial was administered correctly or incorrectly…
  131. 131. Activity #6 cont. …THEN select, from the options given, WHY the trial was correct or incorrect.
  132. 132. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No #15
  133. 133. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No Back to the question! Sorry…
  134. 134. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Was this a correct discrete trial? A. Yes B. No Click here for the next question Right On!!!
  135. 135. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Why was this an incorrect discrete trial? A. Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. B. You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. C. The outcome was too delayed. D. You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. #16
  136. 136. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Why was this an incorrect discrete trial? A. Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. B. You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. C. The outcome was too delayed. D. You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. Back to the question! Sorry… the Hierarchy of Prompts states that you use a verbal prompt first, then a gestural prompt, followed by a partial physical and finally a full physical prompt.
  137. 137. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Why was this an incorrect discrete trial? A. Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. B. You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. C. The outcome was too delayed. D. You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. Back to the question! Sorry…that’s not it. The outcome was delivered immediately after the corrected response.
  138. 138. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Why was this an incorrect discrete trial? A. Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. B. You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. C. The outcome was too delayed. D. You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. Back to the question! Sorry… It’s perfectly fine to use toys as reinforcers (as long as you’ve checked to make sure the child enjoys the toy)
  139. 139. Jerry gives his assigned child the SD exactly as described in the procedure and, unfortunately, his child makes an incorrect response. Jerry repeats the SD and, to his delight, the child makes the correct response. Jerry immediately gives the child his favorite toy as reinforcement for the correct response. Why was this an incorrect discrete trial? A. Jerry should have used a gestural and not a verbal prompt. B. You’re not supposed to reinforce corrected responses. C. The outcome was too delayed. D. You’re not supposed to use toys as a reinforcer. On to the next section! Back to the previous question! Right On!!! You DO NOT provide reinforcement for a corrected response!!
  140. 140. NICE JOB!!!
  141. 141. You are….
  142. 142. ALL DONE!!!
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