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Systems fashion and sustainability values as innovation drivers in brazil


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The reconfiguration of Designs‟ DNA that rather than continue to focus its …

The reconfiguration of Designs‟ DNA that rather than continue to focus its
attention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, to reconciling the human
state. No longer about the lifestyle, design is about the lifecycle, and products
are about meaning. The comprehension about the values that are emerging in
the society and Brazil as respective place where some of them can be found,
takes the research to the analysis and improvement of a brand that has a lot to
contribute with the new paradigms

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  • 2. To my mom who showed me that men and nature are one;To my dad who showed me some things in the world are not making sense; To my aunt who put these things together; To my ‘grandmas’ who hold everything with love. 1
  • 3. ABSTRACTKeywords: Systems, fashion, sustainabilityThe reconfiguration of Designs‟ DNA that rather than continue to focus itsattention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, to reconciling the humanstate. No longer about the lifestyle, design is about the lifecycle, and productsare about meaning. The comprehension about the values that are emerging inthe society and Brazil as respective place where some of them can be found,takes the research to the analysis and improvement of a brand that has a lot tocontribute with the new paradigms. 2
  • 4. INDEX1.INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..52. SYSTEMS………………………………………………………………………….72.1 WHY DO WE THINK AS WE THINK: The mindset…………………………72.2 CHALLENGING CONVENTIONAL THINKING:Challenging the system……………………………………………………………122.3 FASHION SYSTEM……………………………………………………………..142.4 CIVILIZATION OF DESIRE: The system and the consumption………..162.5 AESTHETIC BARBARISM?.......................................................................172.6 FASHION CRISIS: The people make the system………………………….182.7 THE FUTURE OF THE SYSTEM: Emerging values……………………….213. BRASIL, BRAZIL…………………………………………………………………333.1 THE FUTURE BELONGS TO PEOPLE………………………………………373.2 “WHAT DOESN’T KILL ME MAKE ME STRONGER”……………………..393.3 BRAZILIANS AND THE BRAZILEIRISM: DNA……………………………..443.4 FASHION + BRAZIL…………………………………………………………….524. A SUSTAINABLE BRAZILIAN CASE………………………………………….674.1 SUSTAINABILITY: Concept and lines of thought………………………..804.2 DEVELOPING THE CASE: COLETIVO VERDE…………………………….914.2.1 INVESTIGATING THE NUMBERS………………………………………….924.2.2 WEB INFORMATION…………………………………………………………93 3
  • 5. 4.2.3 E-COMMERCE IN BRAZIL………………………………………………….954.2.4 SWOT…………………………………………………………………………..984.2.5 BRAND’S CONCEPT……………………………………………………….1004.2.6 BRAND’S PRODUCT AND PROMOTION IDEAS: Applying the conceptin the details……………………………………………………………………….1055. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………..1206. BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………...122 4
  • 6. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe systems we inherited from the Industrial Revolution are built on a way ofmanufacturing model that generates products designed for a one-way trip thelandfill. Much of them are toxic. And most of these conditions are the result of anot aware conceived plan; they are the signals of flawed design. And they areeverywhere.So, if there is an obsolete system ruling things, it is very difficult to have aneffective change in products and processes from a day to another. How does asystem start to change? In this research the way to know how to start changingsome things is taken, and the industry, in special, the fashion industry will bequestioned and consequently, also the sustainable solutions.The fact is that sustainable development agenda, typically aims to reduce, re-use and recycle, creating "more goods and services while using ever-lessresources and producing less waste and pollution." So, how does fashionshould to behave to be able to practice a sustainable development? Or better, isa sustainable development the real solution? Probably yes, but whichsustainable development? There are so many ways of approachingsustainability. The first decade of the new century is producing already morequestions than answers. But a well-placed question can be better than a badplaced answer. Therefore, the arguments to construct a new mindset are themain effort of this research.What is visible, though, is that this is a way regarding to the structure ofperceptions and paradigms. And these structures are built by the values of thesociety, its social imaginary, and the interconnections of social,cultural andindividual life. And these values can drive the innovation. So, to put the thoughtsin practice, a place and a case are chosen. The „funnel of knowledge‟ will taketo the understanding that Brazil has many reasons to be comprehended by nowand the study of a Brazilian case is an opportunity to highlight these valueswhich are being speculated here, and also to provide an orientation consideringall the issues that will be discussed in terms of values, approach and aesthetics. 5
  • 7. “Is the system going to flatten you out and deny you your humanity, or areyou going to be able to make use of the system to the attainment of human purposes?” Joseph Campbell 6
  • 8. 2. SYSTEMS2.1 WHY DO WE THINK AS WE THINK: The mindsetThe world view and the system of values that underlie our culture have beenformulated in its essentials in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Between1500 and 1700 there was a drastic change in how people describe the worldand in their whole way of thinking. This change led to Western civilization inthose aspects that are characteristic of the modern era. In the sixteenth andseventeenth centuries "the notion of an organic universe, living and spiritualwas replaced by the notion of the world as if it was a machine, and the world‟smachine has become the dominant metaphor of the modern era. Thisdevelopment was brought out by revolutionary changes in physics andastronomy, culminating in the achievements of Copernicus, Galileo andNewton" (Capra 1999: 49). Considered as the "Age of the Scientific Revolution",this moment in history began with Copernicus. However, the true change inscientific opinion was caused by Galileo Galilei. "The role of Galileo in thescientific revolution is well beyond his achievements in astronomy (...). He wasthe first to combine scientific experimentation with the use of mathematicallanguage to formulate the laws of nature discovered by him, so he is, therefore,considered the father of modern science "(ibid.).To enable scientists to mathematically describe the nature, Galileo postulatedthat they should restrict themselves to the study of the essences of materialbodies - forms, quantity and movement - which could be measured andquantified. According to the psychiatrist R. D. Laing1, in this process, whichbecame an obsession for scientists, nothing has changed the world more thanthese four hundred years of quest for measurement and quantification. Thus,sensibilities, ethics, aesthetics, values and consciousness were lost.In “The Turning Point” the writer Fritjof Capra, Ph.D. at Vienna University,explains about the philosophical implications of modern science, bringing adifferent vision of the reality, enhancing changes in our thoughts, perceptionsand values. In his analysis, he explains that, like Galileo, Descartes believedthat the language of nature was mathematics, and his desire to describe nature 7
  • 9. in mathematical terms has led him to his most famous discovery. By applyingthe numerical geometric relationships, he could correlate algebra and geometryand doing so he established a new branch of mathematics, now known asanalytic geometry. The essence of his method was discarding the doubt, andcomes to a thing that cannot be doubted, the existence of himself as a thinker,coming to his famous statement "Cogito, ergo sum." I think, therefore I am. Themethod of Descartes is analytical. It is to decompose thoughts and problemsinto their component parts and arrange them in logical order. This method isperhaps his greatest contribution to science. This essential feature of thoughtmade possible the development of scientific theories and implementation ofcomplex technological projects. According to Capra, Descartes created themethod that made it possible for NASA to take the man to the moon. Image 1 cabeFor Descartes, the material universe was a machine, nothing else but amachine. There was no purpose, life or spirituality in the matter. The natureworked according to mechanical laws, and everything in the material world 8
  • 10. could be explained by the organization and movement of its parts. Thismechanical picture of nature became the dominant paradigm of science in theperiod that followed Descartes. He gave to the scientific thought its overallstructure, the conception of nature as a perfect machine, governed by exactmathematical laws.The drastic change of nature‟s image, of the organism to the machine, had apowerful effect on peoples attitudes in relation to the natural environment. Theorganic worldview of the Middle Ages meant a system of values that led to anecological behavior. Capra quotes Carolyn Merchant, the writer of The Death ofNature who says that “While the Earth was thought to be alive and sensitive,would be a violation of human ethical behavior to carry out destructive actsagainst it. The image of Earth as a living organism and nurturing mother servedas a cultural restriction. Those restrictions disappeared when there was themechanization of science. The Cartesian conception of the universe as amechanical system has provided a "scientific" support for the manipulationand exploitation of nature that have become typical in the Western culture. Inthis context, the scientific knowledge became the way to the purpose of men tobecome the masters and rulers of nature.Descartes created the conceptual framework for the science of the seventeenthcentury, but his conception of nature as a perfect machine, governed by exactmathematical laws, remained just as a simple vision in his life. Descartescouldn‟t do more than to sketch the outlines of his theory about the naturalphenomena. The man who brought to reality the Cartesian dream andcompleted the scientific revolution developing a complete mathematics‟reformulation of the mechanistic view of nature and therefore held a grandsynthesis of Copernicus, Kepler, Bacon, Galileo and Descartes‟ works wasIsaac Newton. The Newtonian physics, the crowning achievement ofseventeenth-century science, remained as a solid foundation of scientificthought until a large part of the twentieth century.Newton unified trends from previous studies and developed a methodology inwhich natural science has to rely thereafter, by formulating the general laws ofmotion, which govern all objects in the solar system, from stones to planets. 9
  • 11. The unquestionable success of Newtonian physics and Cartesian belief, in thecertainty of scientific knowledge, led directly to the emphasis that was given inour culture, to a heavy investment and development of science and technology.In the course of Newtonian physics, Locke2 developed an atomistic conceptionof society, describing it in terms of its basic component, the human being. Asthe properties of gases and atoms are reduced, Locke tried to reduce theobserved patterns in society to the behavior of individuals. So he went to studyfirst the nature of the individual human being, and then, tried to apply theprinciples of human nature to politics and economics problems. When Lockeapplied his theory of human nature to social phenomena, he was guided by thebelief that there are laws of nature governing human society, similar to laws thatgovern the physical universe. According to John Locke, these laws included,among others, the natural freedom and equality between all individuals. Hisideas became the basis for the system of values during the Iluminism andthese had a strong influence on the development of modern economic andpolitical thought.Other important events marked the structure of human consciousness as theknowing about Darwin‟s Evolution theory and Einsteins scientific trials, whichare intellectual monuments of the early twentieth century. In the beginning ofthe XX century other physicists have also discovered several phenomenarelated to the structure of atoms and this exploration of atomic and subatomicworld brought scientists with a strange and unexpected reality that sprayed thefoundations of their worldview and forced them to rethink in a totally again.Any adjustment in a system is not easily accepted. So, come to be requiredprofound changes in concepts of space, time, matter, object, cause and effect,which are fundamental concepts, according to Capra, to our way ofexperiencing the world.Fritjof Capra affirms that “the evolution of a society, including the evolution ofits economic system, is closely linked to changes in the system of valuesthat underpins all its manifestations. The values that inspire the life of a societywill determinate its world view, as well as religious institutions, enterprises andscientific technology, besides the political and economic actions that 10
  • 12. characterize it. Once expressed and codified the set of values and goals, it willform the structure of perceptions, intuitions and choices of a society in order tohave innovation and social adaptation. As the system of cultural values change- often in response to environmental challenges - new patterns of culturalevolution come into sight.” (CAPRA, 2006:182) "The overall name of these interrelated structures, the genus of which the hierarchy of containment and structure of causation are just species is system. The motorcycle is a system. A real system. To speak of certain government and establishment institutions as “the system” is to speak correctly, since these organizations are founded upon the same structural conceptual relationships as a motorcycle. (…)There‟s no villain, no “mean guys‟ who wants them to live meaningless lives, it‟s just that the structure, the system demands it and no one is willing to take on the formidable task of changing the structure just because it is meaningless. But to tear down a factory or to revolt against a government or to avoid repair of a motorcycle because it is a system is to attack effects rather than causes; and as long as the attack is upon effects only, no change is possible. The true system, the real system, is our present construction of systematic thought itself, rationality itself, and if a factory is torn down but the rationality which produced it is left standing, then that rationality will simply produce another factory. If a revolution destroys a systematic government, but the systematic patterns of thought that produced that government are left intact, then those patterns will repeat themselves in the succeeding government. There‟s so much talk about the system. And so little understanding." - Robert Pirsig, 19743 11
  • 13. This work is concerned about these values, these meanings – which withtechnological, social, intellectual (and other) developments – are beingmodified. As observed, was through key moments of the transformation in thecomprehension skills that values have been renovated and applied to life.Taking this in consideration, everything we know in the world, the human notion,can change all of a sudden. While this doesn‟t happen in a so drastic way, it isimportant to keep pace with the signs of society.EconomyThe economy is defined as the discipline that deals with the production, thedistribution and the consumption of wealth. It tries to define what is valuable atany given time, studying the relative values of trade in goods and services. Sothe economy is, among the social sciences, the most clearly dependent ofvalues. The economic growth in our culture is inevitably linked to technologicalgrowth. Individuals and institutions are hypnotized by the wonders of moderntechnology and come to believe that for every problem there is a technologicalsolution. “Whether the problem is political, psychological, or ecological, the firstreaction that comes almost automatically is to address it by implementing ordeveloping some new technology. To the over-consumption of energy isproposed the nuclear energy, lack of political vision is compensated by makingmore bombs and missiles, and the poisoning of the natural environment isameliorated by the development of special technologies that, in its turn, affectthe environment in a still ignored way. While seeking for technological solutionsto all problems, we usually just limit ourselves to transfer them from one point toanother in the global ecosystem, and, too often, the consequences of the"solution" are more harmful than the original problem.2.2 CHALLENGING CONVENTIONAL THINKING: Challenging the systemDavid Carlson, renowned for his knowledge of strategies in design,communication and brand development, and David Brent Richards, multiawarded winning Chartered Architect and Designer, also ex Dean of Design at 12
  • 14. Saint Martins, created together the “David Report”, an „arena‟ which aims tocover the intersection between design, culture and business with a creative andhumanistic appeal. By challenging conventional thinking they are trying to makea difference.In March 2010, it was launched an issue of David Report called "Time to rethinkdesign. In this edition, the report question if design is maybe being one of this“solutions” that can be more harmful than helpful. According to the research,design is now a great source of pollution. As process and a phenomenon,design has degenerated into a state of aesthetic proliferation that has reachedaccumulative and destructive levels, in terms of loss of meaning, value, andidentity. “The result is a vacancy of purpose, a world full of „designer jetsam and flotsam‟ that is swilling around or embedded into or above our planet; poorly designed products, unwanted solutions, unfriendly materials, and a mutli-choice of artefacts that are discarded as fast as they were adopted.” David ReportLike other areas, the design has been participating in a system where theinnovation lies in the creation process and possible industrialization. The searchfor a good design is often unquestioned and extrapolates to an argument inwhich all ideas must be made, masked by the permissive process of „designsolutions‟. According to David Report, the diagnosis is not making Designbetter, but making Design matter.“Making Design matter should be about „mind over matter‟. Using our creativeminds, our collective imagination and ability to evolve human construction. Theact of design is a truly powerful human intervention, but we must do it lightly andwe must think more coherently before we act. All design should support orstrengthen life in one way or another. Does design have a value if it does notfavour the human context? Design remains an isolated foreign object when it 13
  • 15. has no sense of belonging; it employs no reward and processes no genius loci.The best design has so often managed to transfer social trends and lifestylechanges into successful responsive products and services. It does so byholding onto a holistic perspective, which respects humanistic values andcultural identity. Designs‟ DNA needs to be reconfigured. Rather than continueto focus its attention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, it should bereconciling the human state and contributing humbleness, compassion,empathy and beauty. To transcend the norm, and to leave the world a betterplace than we found it. Design is no longer about the lifestyle, but the lifecycle.Everything that is manmade is designed, so we cannot blame nature foroverreacting or the current design aware generation for poor quality. We mustorientate our endeavors towards understanding ambiguity and contradiction,embracing diversity over uniformity and identifying inclusiveness, overexclusiveness.”What David Report is working on is to break with the cycle of a system that nolonger makes sense, as something that lost its basic values. To rethink asystem is to watch the collective cultural memory needs, is to listen to newnarratives, to take time to ponder and revalue our lives.2.3 FASHION SYSTEM “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” - SocratesAs a product of design, fashion is also participating of this system that must tobe questioned instead of just produced. Producing by producing is just anobject. Nothing to do with the fashion defined by Gilles Lipovetsky as “the firstmajor mechanism for the consistent social production of personality on display"(LIPOVETSKY, 1989). 14
  • 16. This Fashion System, sharp, at the edge commercially, of the big global brandsand of mass production is a result of the civilizing process and of the economicsystems based in the economic growth at all costs . A system, unscrupulous, inthe borders of beauty and horror, addressed to contemporary anxieties andspeculations about body and identity has now to define which role it plays inarticulating contemporary concerns about the self and the world.Caroline Evans investigated fashion with the lighting in the sector, proposed byLipovetsky that “fashion is socially reproductive, training us to be flexible andresponsive to change in a fast-changing world: fashion socializes human beingsto change and prepares them for perpetual recycling.”(LIPOVETSKY, 1994:149) According to Evans, the personality of fashion, kinetic, is the personalitywhich a society in the process of rapid transformation most needs. As animportant role to play, fashion was promoted from superficial and frivolous, to apart of the “civilizing process”. Indeed, it is, but it is also, equally, capable ofproviding a resistant and opposing voice to that process.4In an interview during a degree graduation event at Parsons, the designerDonna Karan said to FITs Valerie Steele her thoughts about the sector and thesystem: "I think theres been a shift in a fashion designers approach to fashion. The old system is Lets create a dress, lets put it down the runway, thats the end of it. I think its far more complicated right now . . .I think were on the cusp of something major. I really think conscious consumerism is where its at . . . There are so many more messages out there than just, This is the hot new item of the season. There has to be consciousness within the clothing . . . and something that people want to wear, something that makes them feel good, feel good on the outside and feel good on the inside." Donna Karan (02/05/2010)5To the writer Anne Hollander (author of the books “Seeing Through Clothes”,“Sex and Suits”, and “Feeding the Eye”) “the reign of fashion represents a 15
  • 17. genuine desire for personal and creative freedom that cannot simply bemanipulated”. This approach connected to the role of fashion in constructingclass, gender and age identities, and the diverse ways in which fashions arecreated and imposed, also with the democratic possibilities afforded in afashionable society are arguments that always set fashion as somethingfascinating and intriguing of human‟s personality usually discarded the fact thatit is, above all, a social and economic system.2.4 CIVILIZATION OF DESIRE: The system and the consumptionTo understand the systems that rules the contemporary thought andconsequently, life, for further analysis of the fashion system, can be a way tomake things clearer and understandable, in order to avoid the conclusion fromthird parts of any inclination to political lines, partisanship or utopic idealism. Tounderstand how the culture of production unfolded in the twentieth century canmaybe open some insightful perspectives to a better comprehension about therelation between people, production of goods and nature, without prejudices.Hopefully it also can bring some simple and useful inputs for fashion and designfields.Regarding to the contemporaneity results of the systems, Gilles Lipovetsky6presented in his book "Le bonheur paradoxal" (Paradoxal Happiness) a newmodernity which coincides with the "civilization of desire", built during thesecond half of the twentieth century. This refers to a revolution that happenedwith the new guidelines of the capitalist system on its way to a perpetualstimulation of demand, and commercialization of indefinite multiplication ofneeds – an issue that we‟ll turn the handle again during the research. Accordingto the author, the consumption capitalism has taken the place of the productioneconomics. The affluent society has changed the ways of life and habits, and asa result, a new hierarchy of ends: a new relationship with things and with time,with themselves and others. This society of mass consumption is aphenomenon that has changed profoundly the lifestyles and tastes, aspirationsand behavior. 16
  • 18. 2.5 AESTHETIC BARBARISM?According to Lipovetsky (2007), our age has witnessed a wave of vulgar andpornographic images. It also testifies to a legion of happenings andperformances, spraying the aspirations for the beautiful and the lasting work,with the raise of the "make anything" to its own perfect crowning. Everywhere,the shopping streets, the touristic spots, the art and craft shops offer the samekitsch items, the same imitation jewelry, the same exotic objects. At the sametime, the proper attitude or the contemplative aesthetic was supplanted by aconsumption of images in constant renewal, less saw than swallowed with greatspeed. In front of the television or at the museum, is the hyperconsumer withtheir conduct of zapping and inattentive curiosity. Is it a triumph of commercialdisposable, of the dispersion? In this hiperproduction system, is the Homoaestheticus an endangered species?The author reassures that even real, these phenomena do not represent thewhole of the contemporary relationship between individuals and aestheticexperiences. The sensitivity to the landscape, the "cult of monuments", thefrequency of museums, the taste for interior design, and other experiences,illustrate the growing place of aesthetic appetites.Especially in this phase III of the hypermodernity – moment when this researchis being developed – film, music, fashion, luxury and tourism, for example, areat the heart of the economy: “increasingly it is an aesthetic of consumption thatorders leisure activities.” (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 357)The phase III is called the era of hyperconsume, the phase of commodificationof modern needs, orchestrated by a deinstitutionalized logic, subjective,emotional. (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 41) It is a phase in which the expectations,tastes and behaviors act to itself instead to the other. Several sectorsexperience this phase III, the moment when "the distractive value outweighs thevalue of honor, the preservation of the self, instead of the provocativecomparison, the sensory comfort instead of the ostentatious display of signs." 17
  • 19. (Lipovetsky, 2007: 43). As it‟s possible to observe – in any page of a magazineor in the streets out of a fashion show – in the fashion sector still remain someof these old perceptions, as ostentation, comparison and the quality of honorthat – just – a good could bring. If this sector is not even completely situated inthis called “phase III” it‟s difficult to imagine the step forward to a moment thatcan come afterwards, as one which says Lipovetsky, a time when "the quest forhappiness in consumption will no longer have the same power of attraction, thesame positivity" (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 368). In question, considering the currentfashion system, the maintenance of pillars in the old, lagged values ofsnobbery, taste for the shine, classification and distorted culture of the ego, can,eventually, fall into the void.2.6 FASHION CRISIS: The people make the systemFashion has been branded as frivolous, extravagant and mean. These timeshave passed and it was warrant with respectable connotation of artistic andpsycho-sociological characteristics. What happens is that these arguments arenot able enough to explain the system and other examples can be seen in manyevents of the fashion system and is defended in a futuristic fiction of the fashionjournalist Luca Testoni. He announces in this book a possible the fashion scenein 2015 compared to the event that will happen this year, in real life: the WorldExpo in Milan. The journalist portrays the fashion system by the exaggerationsin blockbusters, media manipulation, and especially the distortion of the originalvalues of the class from the goodwill and talented work to, in short, acompulsive arrogance. His book seeks to predict where this system wouldreach if it had continued with the same attitudes after the first decade of thisnew century. Despite being a fiction, the story depicts a current view of theprofessional environment. The author analyzes the Italian fashion system andsees that the situation in other countries probably would be different,considering the changing attitudes. However, the homogenization of valuesused by the fashion media is similar in many markets, which corresponds to thesame category, short-sighted and dissimulated, indifferent to the moral codes ofthe emerging values in the society. 18
  • 20. 1 Anna Wintour, the editor-in-chief of American Vogue Magazine, an important "behavior setter" and fashion system icon 2 Lisbon Fashion Week October 2010 - Fashion has the power of projecting behaviors and standards. This can results in several implications, in good and bad ways.What is important to note is that whoever it is, what build the systems are thepeople. If any system is in crisis, this crisis is partly a reflection of man-madecrisis. What leads again to the issue of values. The fashion system is a systemthat clearly reflects the human issues. It is a system that cannot be understoodonly in sociological analysis, but in psychological analysis. It is, therefore, at this 19
  • 21. time, a sick system, psychosomatic: neurotic, hysterical, compulsive maniacand certainly, bipolar.The virtual portal WWD Fashion7 did a report in July of 2009, about a meetingbetween the members of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, theCFDA. The report can be analyzed below:CFDAs Forum Debates the Fashion System8NEW YORK — The fashion industry had a group therapy session Tuesday morning,thanks to the Council of Fashion Designers of America.At a town hall meeting convened by the CFDA, designers, retailers and fashionjournalists initially were meant to discuss the relevance of fashion shows and whetherthey should be targeted at consumers or the industry. But that topic rapidly gotsubsumed by a litany of complaints over the entire hyperactive fashion system.Recession fallout; discount-driven shoppers; the disconnect between runway looks andin-store merchandise; ridiculously early deliveries; oversupplied stores; markdownmadness; fashion shows’ potentially breakneck costs; the worldwide reach of runwaycoverage, and the seemingly endless number of seasons were among the thorniersubjects discussed at the private gathering at the Fashion Institute of Technology.Despite those storm clouds overhead, CFDA president Diane von Furstenbergrepeatedly emphasized the upside and offered ways to solidify a sunnier future fordesigners, retailers and the media.“There is no way when you are in the middle of a tsunami that you can changeabsolutely everything,” von Furstenberg, all too familiar with how the economic crisishas taken its toll on the industry, told the crowd. “But one thing that we can do and thatI would like to do is make New York Fashion Week the most dynamic fashion week inthe world.”Scores of CFDA members, including Donna Karan, Francisco Costa, LazaroHernandez and Betsey Johnson, as well as representatives from IMG Fashion, whichproduces Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week, listened attentively, but then piped up to airtheir concerns, as well as their hopes of building a stronger future for the industry oncethe economy rebounds from the global recession. 20
  • 22. “I always like to look for the light at the end of the tunnel, and see how we can growfrom there,” said von Furstenberg.After brainstorming with retailers, designers and editors, she had come to theconclusion it was time to address the issues directly in an open forum. “Everyone hadbeen too greedy, and everyone thought the party was forever,” von Furstenberg said.“We wanted more merchandise, and more of this and more of that, and expect 20percent increases every month, and at some point it just became too much ofeverything. I realized that what we all have to do is reduce the offerings and create thedemand.”Upbeat as some attendees were, several aired concerns about the relevance of theshows, retailers’ rampant discounting, the need for full-priced sell-throughs and thetiming of deliveries.“We are in a crisis,” Karan said flat out. “There’s no question about it.”Having been a proponent of selling and even showing clothes in season for the past 10years, she lived up to her reputation of challenging the fashion cycle and the timelinessof the shows.“We design for the consumer, and right now, I believe the consumer is completelyconfused,” Karan said, adding shoppers don’t know whether they were looking at a pre-season, a fall season, or another delivery. “We should truly focus on the problem andthe solution. The consumer has been trained to buy on sale. The clothes in stores arenot in season, so she is confused. Why should she go out and spend money early inthe season, when in fact come September and October, when the season actuallychanges, the next season is there and it’s called resort? We are putting all the energyinto something that the consumer isn’t really getting, because by then it’s on sale.”2.7 THE FUTURE OF THE SYSTEM: Emerging values "(...) What happens, however, is not so much the loss of values, but the reconstruction of values. This is a "crisis", but as the meaning of the word itself says, the crisis marks the negative processes at the same time as it involves new and positive possibilities. Culminate in opportunities and changes. In other 21
  • 23. words, "loss of values" is not necessarily bad. (ROY H. MAY, 2004: 80)The more the main problems of each epoch are studied, the more these studiesare driven to realize that these problems cannot be understood isolated. Theyare systemic problems, what means that they are interconnected and alsointerdependent. So, if there is any problem derivative from the productionsystem in the aesthetic fields, there is a resonance in another area. Forexample, the population will only be stabilized when the poverty is reducedworldwide. The extinction of animal and plant species on a massive scale willcontinue while the Southern Hemisphere is under the fate of huge debts. Alsothe scarcity of resources and environmental degradation combine with rapidlyexpanding populations, which leads to the collapse of local communities.These problems have to be seen as different facets of one single crisis, which islargely a crisis of perception. “It is a result from the fact that most of us,especially our large social institutions, still agree with the concepts of anoutdated worldview, a perception of reality inadequate for dealing with ouroverpopulated, globally interconnected world.” (CAPRA, 1997: 24)The solutions to the major problems of our time can be even simple. But theyrequire a radical change in our perceptions, our thinking and our values. Andindeed, we are now at the beginning of this fundamental change of worldview inscience and society. According to Capra (1997) now is the beginning of aparadigm shift as radical as it was the Copernican revolution. However, themain difficulty is that this understanding has not emerged among most politicalleaders and didn‟t reach most of the leaders of our corporations, nor the officersand teachers of our major universities.The importance of new valuesOffices, or laboratories, of consumer behavior research as Future Concept Lab9(FCL), point to the movement caused by the evolution of globalization aphenomenon that rescues the value of local cultural knowledge and marketdiversity, in a revival of humanistic values. However, offices and services 22
  • 24. agencies are already applying these concepts such as the Brazilian agency Q3,from Sao Paulo, which offers coaching services, change of values andmarketing value services. According to this agency, a new morality is imposedon citizens. No more individualistic, this new moral need to approach the ethicaland humanistic values. According to them, equality and justice should not beobtained by standardization and mass production, but for a value of acceptanceof differences – the diversity – that brings people together, instead of classifyingthem and break them down.According to the company, these values are part of the search for solutions toan increasingly complex daily lives, again, the result of a globalization that notonly brought benefits, but an excess of information, on the one hand, andcompetitiveness, on the other, which leaves the people more and more stressedand trapped.The idea of an Inclusive Society, instead of fighting for values outdated and withprejudge, can bring positive impacts on society as a whole, as well as oncompany performance. The purpose of this agency is to raise awareness andbusiness leaders to integrate the new social paradigm. But it is interesting tonote that there is a resonance between the research laboratory of trends inMilan and the services agency in São Paulo, in relation to emerging paradigms.Still analyzing the philosophy of this company from Sao Paulo, according tothem, to evolve a system needs to develop qualities based on values, onprinciples, concerned and with compassion, that lead people to work togetherfor the common good: to align interests, skills, talents and beliefs in order toreorganize relationships and capacity to act. In other words, beyond thecomprehension of new values and paradigms as important strategic tools forthe understanding of human movement, which in this case follows a line morehuman, also the humanistic values and its stimulus by itself are a powerful fuelto progress the evolution of the current systems, so far harmful to man andnature. It is an ethically two hands way.Humanistic Solutions 23
  • 25. As mentioned before, the dominant values that have shaped our culture forseveral hundred years, made reference to a "vision of the universe as amechanical system: in the view of the human body, as a machine; in the view ofthe life in society, as a competitive struggle for existence; and the mostnotorious, the belief in unlimited material progress achieved throughtechnological growth. Though, according to Fritjof Capra – who has beenstudying since the 70‟s the ways of thought in the western civilization setting thegrounds for change in many new theories in organismic biology, gestaltpsychology, ecology, general systems theory, and cybernetics – the newparadigm has developed a holistic world view: a world as an integrated whole,humanistic, which can also be understood as an ecological vision. In this way,there is the recognition of the fundamental interdependence of all phenomena:the universe is not a collection of isolated objects but a network of phenomenathat are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent. The humans are justone particular strand in the web of life. (Capra, 1999) "I think that the concern with the "values issue" – we refer here, of course, some values, because, strictly speaking, everything is value – reveals a crisis, a moral and ethical discomfort." (ROY H. MAY, 2004: 8)Our leaders not only fail to recognize how different problems are interrelated,they also refuse to recognize as their so-called „solutions‟ will affect futuregenerations. And as a result from a bad example, the greta part of thepopulation proceed with their life and work without questioning these things.From the systemic point of view, the only viable solutions are the "sustainable"solutions.Sustainable SolutionsThe concept of sustainability gained key importance in the ecological movementand it is really crucial. Lester Brown of the “Worldwatch Institute”10 gave asimple definition, clear and beautiful: "A sustainable society is one that satisfiesits needs without diminishing the prospects of future generations." This, in short,is the great challenge of our time: to create sustainable communities: social and 24
  • 26. cultural environments where people can meet their needs and aspirationswithout diminishing the chances of future generations. Obviously, this involvesquestions of ecology. But sustainability is not limited to environmental issues.The ecology is just part of the concept of sustainability and found on it a way torejoin the political system and the economic system of human values. (CAPRA,1997: 24)Analyzing the former ways of living, ROY H. MAY11 can complete the formerthought, that “life as it has been lived can no longer be sustained, supportedand encouraged.”Values: self-assertion x integrationThe research about the new values in a society can be a long and exhaustivework, which companies pay a lot of money to get the most deep and assertiveinformation. Anyway, as this is not the mission of this research, it‟s important tokeep the information absorbed during trends seminars and by the referenceline of this work. In the case it will be considered the integrated work developedby Capra, to sustain and to visualize better the information from other mediasas the Seminars organized by FCL which explore some of these socontemplated, emerging values.According to Capra, the changes in thinking and values can be seen aschanges in self-assertion to integration. These two trends - the self-assertiveand integrative - are both essential aspects of all living systems. None of themare intensively, good or bad. What is good or what is healthy, is a dynamicequilibrium, what is bad, or unhealthy, is the imbalance - excessive emphasison one of the trends over another. If observed the western industrial culture, it ispossible to see that it was too much emphasized the self-assertive tendenciesand disregard the integrative. This is evident in our thoughts and in our valuesand is very instructive to put these opposing trends side by side. Thought Values self-assertion integration self-assertion integration 25
  • 27. rational intuitive expansion conservationanalysis synthesis competition cooperationreductionist holistic quantity qualitylinear nonlinear domination partnership(CAPRA, Fritjof, 1996: 27)LimitationAccording to Capra (1996), one of the things that can be noticed when lookingat this table is that the self-assertive values – competition, expansion,domination – are usually qualities associated with men, the masculinity. In fact,in a patriarchal society, men are not only favored but also receive economicrewards and political power. This is one of the reasons why the shift to a morebalanced value system is so difficult for most people, and can be especiallyhard for men. Also the social structure as it is, for some men, and also forwomen, regards to a rank of hierarchy and position that are already part of theiridentity, and thus the change to a different system of values generatesexistential fear in them. In other words, the possibility of power, domination andcompetition become – naturally – something primeval, is not interesting for afew people also in the perspective of identity.However, there is another kind of power, a power that is most appropriate forthe new paradigm – the power as influence of others. “The ideal structure toexercise such power is not the hierarchy but the network, which is also thecentral metaphor of ecology.” (CAPRA, 1996)We are what matter, we are humansThe belief that the human is in the top of the food chain, which is a key point forthe rules applied to humans be different of those applied to other animals, forexample, is one part of the old paradigm which is based on anthropocentricvalues (centered in humans). The deep ecology is based on ecocentric values(centered on the Earth and everything that is part of it). In this other vision, allliving beings are members of ecological communities linked together in a 26
  • 28. network of interdependencies. When this deep ecological awareness becomespart of our everyday consciousness, it will emerge a radically new system ofethics.If this is going to happen or not, the point is that this deep ecological ethics isurgently needed today, and especially in science, since most of what scientistsdo doesn‟t act to promote the life or preserve life. With the physicists designingweapons systems that threaten to eliminate life on the planet, with chemicalscontaminating the global environment (by industries), with the biologists freeingunknown types of microorganisms without knowing the consequences, withpsychologists and other scientists torturing animals in the name of scientific andaesthetic progress - with all these ongoing activities, it seems of utmost urgencyto introduce standards of "ecoethics" in science. And thinking about fashion, ifpeople would stay away from the system for one single moment, and thinkabout the price that the nature, the harmless animals, the underpaid humanshave to bear just to justify a seasonal change in the identity expression or theaesthetic differentiation, isn‟t it questionable a solution which keeps the beautyin our bodies and houses but that also assure the right of life – all life – andnon-suffering on Earth?Let’s create values!The writer Roy H. May (2004) quotes Marquínez Argote to explain that valuesare neither legislated nor dictated. No one can impose them. They emerge frominteraction between the community and technological change and other socio-historical change and the new social practices. "The [human being] discoversthe values when they become aware of the new relations between things andtheir own human reality". The values are institutionalized through policies thatgovern society. It is not a process devoid of human intentionality or direction. Inother words, the community itself can take the initiative. The aim is to achievethe maximum participation in the discussion of the meaning of the values andthe establishment of new social practices. Social movements play a key rolebecause crystallize the values, put them into practice and press for its generalvalidity. For example, the environmental movement encourages seriousreflection on the relationship of humans with the environment. From these 27
  • 29. movements, as from other, new values are emerging to support and guide theethics,Where are the values?To talk about reconstruction, shift, evolution, or any other effect of change, ofvalues is something absolutely deep considering that there are political, sexual,urban, national, linguistic, virtual, religious, social, ethnic, cultural, personal andas many as imagined, values in people‟s life. But the fact is that, exactly thevalues which guide the structure of the systems we build are the ones exposedand investigated. As discussed in this research they are mainly ethics,questionable if only for human benefit and in the same time, humanistic, whatmeans, care less about things that can harm and more to those which can fulfill.Certainly, this search for things that fulfill the man, the “soul”, are the greatambitions of all eras, and it‟s unquestionable here its procedure.In 2002, the “MindStyle Magazine” with contents from the studies of FutureConcept Lab, was already connecting the Self – the human studied so far – andSoul as currently going through. It said that with increasing frequency, personalidentity was being reshaped by starting with a spiritual exploration that has setthe definition of one‟s own inner self as a top-priority goal. This is an interestingpoint to understand that all this attempts for the qualities cited earlier, as “new”values, are also dedicated to a self with a soul, regardless the religions or thepractical life. So, it‟s not about „anthropocentrism‟, „theocentrism‟ or maybe even„ecocentrism‟ – which certainly is the weight needed on the balance for now on– but a holistic comprehension of all these experiences may express a sampleof the feelings which nourish life in this moment.Considering this whole mixture it‟s possible to understand that not all places inEarth are living exactly the same experience. It‟s a very complex „recipe‟ and somany different cultures, that is almost impossible to expect exactly the sameattitudes in different areas. Definitely, to consider a new paradigm, a researchcenter must to observe the resonances between cultures in different spots ofthe world, and also the contradicted waves of these resonances. Also, some 28
  • 30. places are too much attached to their roots and tied to old beliefs and valueswhich have strong representation in the nations identity and people‟s mindset.For Future Concept Lab, this period, called by them as Neo Renaissance, isdefinitely a time that witnesses the return of humanistic values identified by boththe recent rise of a Humanistic Management and by the new values attributed todesign, and to the taste of good quality life. The FCL studied the BRIC countriesand it is possible to understand that the growth of these countries may be notonly economic but also of comprehension and apprehension of some importantvalues.In the book DNA Brasil where the Brazilian genius loci is examined, FrancescoMorace explains, in the chapter he wrote, that the experiences lived by theBrazilian people, good and bad, led to a vital relationship in which there is alogic of passion can be the basis of the production in this country, Also there isan acceptance to clarify and improve an economic ethic. The economy is notonly based in the profitable and usable but is also getting into the level ofHuman quality and civil world responsibility. It‟s a country completely based anddriven by the diversity in its own essence, and these qualities must be welldirected to a healthy development of the nation.The FCL also affirms in its Seminar of 200812 dedicated to the BRIC countriesthat “Brazil is today one of the most expressive laboratories of creative diversity,a hub for international exchange of expressive languages. Brazil presents itselfas a true Lab for advanced visions in the area of Aesthetics, fueled by thedynamics of the collective imaginary and by the tangible experience of dailylife.” Also some aesthetics approach, more simplistic and natural are importantvalues that signalize to Brazil.According to Morace (2009), Brazil has many values to be “exported”, in thesense of to be sold – used by industries – but mainly to be recognized aroundthe world: the joy of life, spontaneity in human relationships, the simplicity ofeveryday access to a happy experience for everyone (carnival), but also thevalues of natural products, the fresh consumption of products (fruits andagriculture), the variety and richness of color, the sensuality of the bodies and 29
  • 31. smiles, the naturalness of the environment and the people, and much morevalues that have an humanistic approach and that emerge as those of the nextglobal era. Francesco Morace also affirms that in all the research conducted inthe U.S. in Europe, Australia and Latin America these are recognized as valuestypically Brazilian.Marcelo Ramos13, researcher of the Behavior and Consumption Observatory inSenai Cetiqt (Rio de Janeiro) says that the Brazilian economic growth, theincreasing of the consumption power of the middle classes, the "new luxury",based on simplicity, innovation, quality, functionality and beauty of the objects;the sustainability in the choice of raw materials and production processes as animportant value of products and brands; the "oniconnectivity” (ability to beconnected everywhere); the increasing reflexivity and role of the consumer (asthe “consum-author” identified by FCL, in a book homonymous, as a new wayof consumption guided by new values; the strength of cultural traditions andlocal talent in a globalized world; the estimation of body, beauty and youth inBrazilian culture, and the reflection of these factors in the human quest for ahappier life are the issues in the Brazilian agenda to be investigated by hiscompany. This declaration helps to visualize why this country worthunderstanding its ethos by now and the reason why it is the location chosen tobe connected to a study case on a research that aims to indicate the practice ofhumanistic and sustainable values for a coherent fashion system. In otherwords, there is a specific reason for talking about sustainability and to talk aboutBrazil. Now that the context can be understood, let‟s proceed to thedevelopment of the thought through the „funnel of knowledge‟. 30
  • 32. Chapter Two1 R.D. Laing (1927 – 1989) was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness –in particular, the experience of psychosis. He was Scotland‟s most famous public intellectual.His revolutionary challenges to conventional psychotherapy were read by millions across theworld. Today, though, his work is unfairly neglected, particularly in Scotland. (MILLER, Gavin.R.D. Laing. Edinburgh, 2005.)2 John Locke, figura dominante no periodo do Iluminismo, cujos escritos mais importantesforam publicados no final do século XVII. Fortemente influenciado por Descartes e Newton,Locke produziu um impacto decisivo no pensamento setecentista.3 Pirsig, R. 1974. Excerpt on Scientific Method from Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance,Chapters 8 and 9. William Morrow( Caroline Evans (EVANS, Caroline. Fashion at the edge: Spectacle, Modernity andDeathliness. 2007)5 The French sociologist and philosopher Gilles Lipovetsky analyses consumer society in hisbook Paradoxical Happiness (LIPOVETSKY, 2007). "In a society dominated by leisure there isa cohabitation of daily difficulties and the well-being which results from the democratization ofpleasure.7 Often called "the fashion bible", „Womens Wear Daily‟ (WWD) serves as the voice of authority,international newswire and agent of change for the fashion, beauty and retail industries. Firstand foremost, WWD is dedicated to providing a balance of timely, credible business news andkey womens fashion trends to a dedicated readership. This readership includes retailers,designers, manufacturers, marketers, financiers, Wall Street analysts, international moguls,media executives, ad agencies, socialites and trend makers.8 CFDAs Forum Debates the Fashion System by ROSEMARY FEITELBERG and MARCKARIMZADEH Posted on WEDNESDAY JULY 29, 2009. Last Edited FRIDAY JULY 31, 2009.From WWD ISSUE 07/29/20099 Future Concept Lab is a trends laboratory located in Milan. They have been operating sincethe 1980s in Milan, but now work in over 25 countries and more than 40 cities throughout theworld. FCL provides strategic advice to small and medium size businesses, but have alsoworked for big name brands, such as Nokia, Coca Cola and Disney. They have an office inBrazil and are partners of the “Observatório de Comportamento e Consumo” (Behavior andConsumption Observatory) of Senai Cetiqt in Rio de Janeiro, which are also their partner in thebook DNA Brasil.10 The Worldwatch Institute is an independent research organization recognized by opinionleaders around the world for its accessible, fact-based analysis of critical global issues. TheInstitutes three main program areas include Climate & Energy, Food & Agriculture, and theGreen Economy.11 North American theologian who has studied the practical urgency of ethics as a feature of thepresent time, in his book "Moral Discernment12 Future Vision Workshop: BRIC andMade in Italy 200813 - Por Marcelo Ramos em 08de julho de 2010 31
  • 33. (...) But because there were blood-colored, amber colored wood in abundance, and because thewild morning fire; was a heap of embers in the coal night landscapeand because the land had red trees; and because it was very kind, they gave it the name1 Brazil. Brazil full of grace, Brazil full of birds, Brazil full of light. Excerpt from the poem: The names given to the Land Discovered By Cassiano Ricardo 32
  • 34. 3. BRASIL, BRAZIL ―Giant by its own nature.‖People are responsible for their destinations, but it is important to have ahistorical consciousness in order to understand some basic questions about theevolution of the country such as the reasons why Brazil is the way it is totherefore to be able to perceive certain aspects of its genius loci withoutstereotypes. Thus, the method chosen to tell the history of Brazil – after a verydense chapter – will be in a more dynamic way, according to historical andcontemporary product of this environment, without to extend for informationbeyond the scope of this research, although this is a very rich and interestingtopic even more in international exchange of knowledge.When „Brazil‟ was just the westTo the western of European civilization there were lands pulsing, in a giantcontinental area, occupied by natural groups, primitive, which didn‘t‘ form acommunity, but were a plurality. In these lands there were more than 200 ethnicgroups and 200 languages and dialects spoken by the indigenous people.These groups used to practice agriculture, fishing, hunting, in a veryrudimentary way, almost like the stone age, and they lived in constant conflictwith each other and cannot be compared with cultures seen in other regions ofLatin America as the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs. And because of this archaic wayof living and plurality, the original cultures of all this tribes were not appreciatedby the colonizers and don‘t have almost nothing to do in the general culture ofthe Brazilian people2. Because of this, there was almost no possibility oftransferring values during the process of colonization.What, then, is Brazil? "We, Brazilians, are a people in ‗being‘, but impeded from being so. A group of people mixed as flesh and as spirit, since here the mixture was never a crime or a sin. On it we are made and on it we‘ll continue making ourselves. " (Darcy Ribeiro)According to the Professor Fernando Novais3 "Brazil" is a group of people thatconstituted themselves as a nation, which was organized as a state. In 1500there were none of those three things. Therefore, there was no discovery ofBrazil, because Brazil did not exist or neither was overcast. What happened atthat time were the bases of a Portuguese colonization, which is the basis of our 33
  • 35. arrangement. The history of Brazil is essentially of a colony that became anation. Therefore, the colonization is the basis of our history. The "Brazil""happened" when the population began to think about themselves as differentfrom its predecessors. First, the Luso-Brazilians; Then, less ―Lusos”(Portuguese) and more “Brazilians”, until they felt themselves just Brazilians.This occurs only from the second half of the 18th century, and not before.The Portuguese did not want to create a nation but a colony. Even thecolonization did not begin immediately with Cabral in 1500, but only in 1532,with Martim Afonso de Souza.The marks of colonyOne of the strongest impacts in the history of this country was the belatedcapitalist development and its policy of colonization, marked by a colonization ofexploitation. The colonial and commercial expansion in Brazil was suchmeaningful that undertook deep changes in the economic landscape of Europe.Colonies of exploitation can be considered as the most typical of Europeancolonization. Every economic system is a function of the external market. Thefunction of the Colony was to complete the metropolitan economy. To this end,Brazil was divided into 15 straight lines – which fortunately were naturallychanged during the years – distributed among men who should take care ofeach area. As manpower were brought between 3 and 5 million slaves fromAfrica during 200 years.4Since the days of colonial Brazil, the people had to learn how to deal withoppression in various forms, from violence to trickery, but the good trickery.According to professor of modern history USP Laura de Mello e Souza 5, theslaves often dodged the repression and came up with a mischievous way, in thegood sense, to be able to live together with slavery. It was possible, with smarttricks, to face the order in unfavorable situations.6The colonial slavery, contains the key to explain the countrys past. This wasthe driving force of the Portuguese America unit, and has remained during theindependent Brazil.7Brazil Empire, Brazil independentAccording to the history researcher Armelle Enders8 the ―singular‖ colonizationof Brazil helps to explain aspects of the current political and social education inthe country. Single Lusophone (Portuguese speaker) country of America, Brazilhas had a singular independence without a liberator, a savior. It adopted the 34
  • 36. monarchical form, the territorial unity was preserved. Portugal was a verydifferent realm of federation which was Spain and was one of the oldestNation-states of Europe, and this was an important legacy to Brazil.Before the independence, the Portuguese court moved to Rio de Janeiro in1808, a reversal of colonial process lived only by Brazil in Latin America: Rio deJaneiro became the seat of the Portuguese monarchy. The court did not have tostay in exile, even before the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. But theystayed to build a new empire, because Brazil colony was more powerful thanthe metropolitan Portugal. In 1822 the independence was declared fromPortugal and the royal family established the Empire of Brazil.To Enders. the contemporary Brazil has inherited from the "history of Brazil" theissue that the Brazilians had to get used to rely on themselves. The peoplecreated strategies to survive the general instability. This results in a very difficultlife, but also a great strength. She says impressed with the ability of changing inthe Brazilian society: the creativity, a smart and informal way in order to survive,because people are used to not be able to count on the State. According to thehistorian, the financial crises across the country developed an admirableindividual strength. "There are a lot of misery also, but people figure out how tosurvive. Rather than some people say, I think Brazil has a capacity of collectivemobilization and has a very strong civic engagement."The famous ―knack‖ of ―figuring out‖ (―jeitinho‖) finds its justification in the recentpolitical history of Brazil and it is present in all the sectors of contemporary life inthe country. The living with an unstable state and without having rootedtraditions of services meant that the society acquired a capacity for change andcreativity‘ to overcome the deficiencies of the state.Brazil RepublicIsaac N. Ford went to Brazil in the 1890‘s to see the general effects of thetransformation from monarchy to Republic. Beyond some aspects regardingsome old thoughts of races criteria by Ford, he also said about seeing that the―Brazilians were already living psychologically in the future of the industrialdevelopment proclaimed by the decrees of the provisional government, underthe charm of a mystical faith‖9. Also he said that according to what he saw,―Brazilians had no objection to the intrusion of the future upon the present justso long as the change was gradual and did not involve a complete repudiationof the past‖(FREYRE: 1989).On November 15, 1889, Brazil is no longer an empire from the symbolic act ofthe Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil. There is a new period in Brazilianhistory called ―Brazil Republic‖, which continues until today. After the 35
  • 37. proclamation of the Republic, Brazil has had several names as "United States ofBrazil." But "Federative Republic of Brazil" is the current official name of thecountry: a presidential democracy, restructured in 1985 with the end of militarydictatorship of the Brazilian Army that was in vigor since 1964.USA: Eyes on BrazilIn addition to the political changes there was also an important cultural changein Brazil this time, because instead of emanating from France and England (thenations most influential during the monarchy), the new inspiration came almostentirely from the United States. And it was from this shift in influence thatpreceded a series of consequences of signal importance to Brazilian culture.There was a reform of Brazilian customs and institutions. Some technicalprogresses were also introduced in Brazil. Also, in this moment, were felt thefirst interest from the United States about the Amazon Forest. And then, therewas a considerable indignation against the United States caused by theadvantage that the USA could want to take of the Brazilian capacity to carrydevelopment to that area with the presence of America in the form of labor-saving machines. The USA were ―with their eyes‖ in the country also becauseBrazil was the only constitutional government in the hemisphere, which wasadvancing into the future ―in tranquility and material prosperity‖.Brazil was devoting attention to the education of the people, and this was agreat market to the new technologies that the USA was developing. A lot ofsectors were modernized in this time. The modernization found in Americanproducts and technology was a hope to the country to get out of the remainingelements of a feudal past and pernicious archaism of Latin origin10. It doesn‘tsurprise that the older structures of Rio de Janeiro can be compared with thearchitecture of ancient Rome. The very administration of the Brazilian provinceswas patterned on Roman forms; in the Empire of Pedro II the Romanism of thephysical architecture extended to the social structure as well. And what Brazilneeded more was to develop the country‘s natural resources. In this time, withthe ―hope‖ of modernization there was also a feeling of ―being used‖ along withthe one of ―exploitation‖ in history. Gilberto Freire says about the visit of Agassizin 1865 at Brasil: ―Once pointed in the direction of industrialization, it was understandable that Brazil had turned eagerly to the economic and political patterns of the United States, had become the champion of Pan-Americanism in Washington, and had allowed itself to enter into a commercial treaty ―most favorable to the United States‖, as Ford wrote in 1892.‖ (Freyre, 1986) 36
  • 38. As is possible to conclude, throughout this summary of the most important timesbefore the modern and contemporary history of the country, Brazil has becomea country suspicious of outside interests, though not afraid of the future.Actually, it is a dual feeling, of fear and desire about the possible good thingsthat the future can bring.3.1 THE FUTURE BELONGS TO PEOPLEThe future for Brazil designate leaving one condition which means delay(marked by their past history) and enter a phase of improvement and progress.The own national flag announces the feeling for this ―progress‖ which isconstantly looked by the country since the opportunities began to emerge.However, often this ―progress‖, instead of being encouraged, is stopped by the"order", by the government. Many policy mistakes happened and then the"progress" of the country depended on "each" one effort. It‘s again, about theindividual strength that the approach can be settled to understand someaspects of Brazil. Some governmental researches have been made andcampaigns have used this issue coming with the contemporary result, someyears ago, in which "The best of Brazil is the Brazilian". And it is important tounderstand that Brazil is ―Brazil‖ because as said earlier, it "happened whenpeople began to see themselves as something different.‖ Neither Native Indianor African, nor European, but what belongs to this land now. It‘s a very humanistapproach to a nation, and can be acquired a sense of responsibility, equalityand pride.In recent years the appreciation of the Brazilian identity has been increasinglyrefined in the country through national campaigns undertaken by thegovernment. In addition to that one which "The best of Brazil is the Brazilian"there is also the campaign "I am Brazilian, and then I never give up." Accordingto government surveys11 the companies that adhered to this language felt thedifference and were satisfied with the results. This is about a campaign with theprimary goal of encouraging self-esteem of the people, and marks the style ofthe "Lula era" in the media. Also, the second campaign showed more successbetween the people because the first is not seeing as true when bad examplesof Brazilian behavior (violence for example) were seeing by the people.Anyway, when thinking about Brazil it is fundamental to think in the stigmatizedpeople, with sad marks by the history, as it was possible to observe; in theexploited colony by a country with outdated technology; in the inflow of externalinvestments that had always been much better for the investors from outsidethan to the country, in other words, that just took advantage of the growthphases of the State; in the animosity because people are descendants of amixing between very different cultures and ethnicities and mainly, don‘t have 37
  • 39. "real" roots of one single culture, the Brazilian, but has a culture formed byothers that once saw in these lands the opportunity for a new and better life, outof Europe. This last one, as very well pointed by the researcher João Cavalcantiduring the ―Ted x São Paulo‖ of 2009, it‘s considered by him the ―richness of ourpoverty‖. In fact, Brazilians have their roots diluted what is the opposite of manycountries in the world. In these countries, people have their roots as greatmilestones of density which staunch their creativity and the innovation capacity.This ―to have no roots‖ means, to look back and don‘t have this historicaldensity asking to go to a certain direction, and it is fundamental and alsosomething that improves the natural curiosity of the Brazilian people. The mashup and remix, the collision of cultures are the great differential of the countrynowadays, the blessing over the pain.To better understand "who is Brazil," as "the best in the country is its people,"this mixed up people, one of the strength of the country, it is necessary to payattention to the important process of the population‘s configuration, theconfiguration of diversity: the colonizers, the slaves, and the worldwideimmigrants.Immigration: the brazilians "Brazil has no color. There is a whole mosaic of possible combinations. Talking about race – in the singular or plural – is anti-scientific, socially and ideologically dangerous." (Carlos Lessa, 2006)To understand the cultural aspects that will be discussed later on, it is importantto note that when it comes to roots in Brazil, is to speak of a very delicatematter. No specific culture or ethnicity may be taken as the main ethnic group inthe country, there is no main color in Brazil. What happens is a great mix thathas its stronger substantiality in different regions.Today, in a color scheme found in a research made by the government12,51.4% of the population declare themselves as ―white‖, ―blacks‖ say they are5.9% and 42% say they are ―browns‖, making use of a wide spectrum ofdenominations. The Brazilian writer Oswald de Andrade and many otherdefined Brazil as ―the country of the mixture‖. In other words, Brazil is a bit ofeverything that was established in these lands.In 1808 there was the opening of the ports for the immigration of "friendlynations". The independence in 1822 also cemented this migratory flow to thecountry. According to the Memorial of the immigrant13 between 1870 and 1930came more than 5 million immigrants who went to work in agriculture in thesouth or in the coffee farms in São Paulo (southeast). São Paulo is currently 38
  • 40. considered14 the city with the largest populations of ethnic Italian, Japanese andLebanese out of their respective countriesThe Italian community is one of the strongest, making their presence feltthroughout the city. Of the more than ten million inhabitants of Sao Paulo, 60%(six million people) have some Italian ancestry. As a result, São Paulo is thesecond largest city in the world in consume of pizza.The colonist sent to the South were mainly Germans (starting in 1824, mainlyfrom Rhineland-Palatinate, Pomerania, Hamburg, Westphalia, etc) and Italians(starting in 1875, especially from the Veneto and Lombardy). There wereestablished several colonies of immigrants who, even today, preserve the habitsof their ancestral country.A genetic study15 demonstrated that the European ancestry is what accounts forthe largest share of the estate of the population, followed by African andAmerindian. The opening of the ports was the culmination of this mixture thathas defined the culture and transformed all the people in the "Brazilian".3.2 “WHAT DOESN‟T KILL ME MAKE ME STRONGER”Today the country has 190 million inhabitants. And interestingly, as was saidfrom mouth to mouth, this is a country that does not begin to "work" (whatmeans that new projects are not developed) after the Carnival – a paganfestival built on territory under the authority of the Catholic Church.Brazil imported more African slaves than any other American state, and it wasthe last state to emancipate them. Its culture, which has been molded andremolded by Indian, Portuguese, African, German, Italian, Japanese and manyother influences, is among the most exuberant and creative in the world.The territory always treated as a "backyard" of its kingdom, had to seek for itself―a place in the sun‖. The world‘s economies were growing fast in the earlytwentieth century and began to dispute its hegemony in the global context. Thecolonial condition of conformation in Brazil allowed the growth of those whowere starting a movement of production because for those who were beingdeveloped, it was necessary the undeveloped as a market.World War I breaks out. And then, the great crisis of the 1930s takes Brazilduring the peak of the coffee cycle. The overproduction was acquired by thegovernment, which allowed, somehow, keeping the income of coffee-producingregion, minimizing the effects of global crisis.The Second Great War destroyed the economic scenario in Europe, and part ofthe savings of the economies involved in the conflict came to the Brazilian 39
  • 41. industry and agriculture. This ended up facilitating private equity investmentsthat begin to occur in the late 1940 and early 1950. Also the entrepreneurialspirit of Germans, Italians, Japanese, and Spanish began to change modes andprocesses of production. At this time the scenario of the Brazilian economybegins to undergo deep changes.Always looking to copy the American model and - the familiar – way of thinkingand being from the European, Brazil passed along the decades from 1960 to1990, with crises, stagflation and an uncertain future for the Brazilian society.The politics went through dictatorship, and the political principles begin toundergo changes in search of a prototype that could be better for thepopulation.Closed economy, discontinued, with rudimentary production techniques. But inthe midst of what was happening in other worlds, Brazil also had to follow thecompass of the world economy. So, after years of dictatorship, from 1964 to1985, in 1990 Brazil opened itself to the world, and saw how much it wasdelayed relative to other economies.Since this moment, Brazil has lived a day-to-day competitive, having to rescuethe rhythm of history that was lost in the centuries that have passed. And oftenit is as if there‘s no time to stop the production to think, since the rhythm can‘tstop to recover the delay (and this will be seen again when analyzed theFashion System in Brazil). But as if ―by magic‖, despite all these setbacks alonghundreds of years, something better was being built and solidified.According to the economist Otto Nogami16, Brazil is not a characteristicallymoney saving society, therefore is usual not to have resources for investment.But its population of 190 million people attracts foreign capital to work actively inthe productive sector of the country.And within this context, Brazil has one of the best regulated financial markets ofthe world. This market does not allow financial transactions as they wereperformed in advanced industrial economies like the United States or in Europe.And how could this happen? Throughout history it has been reported, theBrazilian way of being transformed into an individual cautious about the reactionof its ―other‖, established mechanisms of self-protection or corporatistprotection, which, by irony of fate, protected its economy against contaminationof the so-called "sub-prime". (NOGAMI, 2009)The situation is quite different from a China or an India, for example. There, alleconomic activity depends on the advanced industrial economies like the UnitedStates and Europe. If these economies reduce consumption, these countriesneed to reduce production, which generates unemployment and consequentlyless income for consumption, less consumption less employment, and thus arecessionary spiral. 40
  • 42. It is a very different situation of what Brazil has accumulated over the past fivecenturies. The country experiences alternating growth and recession, whichalways made the country look for alternatives, whether knowingly or not, is inthe Brazilian DNA, the natural need to look for solutions.Brazil, the “land of future” ―Tony Blair, visiting Brazil, the British politician defends the thesis that the country [Brazil] represents a new global reality. ‗The balance of power is shifting. From now on, the power must be shared and the developed countries will need to be more humble. Brazil is one of the best symbols of this new reality. It represents the spirit of the century XXI. It‘s not by chance it was elected the headquarters of Olympics and World Cup,‘ said Blair, on the morning of Tuesday (26/10) in the event held in São Paulo, LIDE.‖17Many people and companies have recognized Brazils potential, and it has beenrepeatedly called the "Land of the Future," but Brazil still struggles with its past.Nevertheless, in many ways the future is already here. It has the world‘s eighthlargest economy, larger than Russia, India, and Canada, and, in addition to thestereotypical tropical exports of developing nations, like coffee or minerals, it isalso among the world‘s major producers of soy beans, commercial jet aircraft,automobiles, and television entertainment.Despite having a lot of things to ―organize‖ in the country, the great abundanceis not only about richness that goes to the ―rich‖ people, but what happens nowin Brazil that makes its economy so interesting is the ascension of the class C,the medium class. They are 95 million people, half of the country, and they getfrom 3 to 10 minimum salaries. This is a very important thing that is changingthe scenario of industry in Brazil, because it‘s a phenomenon that took a time tobe seen by the entrepreneurs. Now the industries are studying theseconsumers and are getting attempts to the fact that they want specific products.They are not susceptible to pay more just because they are getting moremoney, but they want more quality, to buy more things, and to pay the same forthe things they used to buy, affirm the journalist Ana Paula Padrão18.Brazil passed through a big social revolution and after two decades of severeeconomic difficulties and much struggle to reform a nation marked by greateconomic inequality, the country began to do justice to the term "middle classsociety." The increase in wages and incomes has led tens of thousands ofpeople in urban slums or rural poverty to acquire their own homes and a life ofcomfort without precedent. 41
  • 43. According to the well-recognized Brazilian magazine ―Época Negócios‖19, theeconomic security has reached unprecedented levels and demographics startedto function as a tail wind for the country. Although there is social injustice, mostpeople lead material lives perceived as decent and similar. This magazine didthe research with Synovate, a research consultancy company from São Paulo,about the aims of the Brazilians in this new economic moment.About this economic moment, the research informs that Brazil increased itsconsumption pattern and inaugurates a new virtuous cycle comparable to theU.S. after the war. Part of this phenomenon, besides the political actions, isrecurrent of an entire industrialization based on import substitution, initially ofconsumer goods and after the entire production chain. The self-esteem of thepeople is good as never before what makes this moment special to produce andto correct things. That‘s a very good time to re-think production; products,costumers, communication, and to present innovation and different systems.In the meantime, about the aims, the research provide an interestinginformation about what make the Brazilians optimist in this important stage:from top to bottom is ―family‖, the ―own future‖, ―professional growth‖,―improvement in life over the last decade‖, ―social growth in the future‖ andbecause their ―lives are better than the lives their parents had‖. This optimisticfeeling is part of 53% of the population, followed by 38% of skeptical and 9% ofunbelievers. Brazil ranks first in the ranking of confidence in the future, aboutthe future happiness according to the international ranking of happiness. IfBrazil is the ―future‖ or not this is something that belongs to the time. What isfact is that much is being done and waiting for that future.But, people don‟t know Brazil "Here, what makes brazil, Brazil is no longer the shame of the political regime or the rampant and "shameless‖ inflation, but the delicious food, the catchy music, the ―saudade‖ that humanizes time and death, and friends that allow resist everything ... "(Damatta, 1986)Brazil is politically divided into 26 states and the Federal District, where theexecutive, legislative and judicial national offices are located. The country has5,564 municipalities, 40 of them have populations exceeding 500.000inhabitants. 42
  • 44. The landscape is quite diverse, with semi-arid regions, mountainous, lowlandtropical and subtropical regions, where the climate ranges from semiaridnortheastern hinterland, passing through the equatorial tropical to thesubtropical areas of the SouthEighth largest economy of the world, Brazil has between 15 and 20% of thebiodiversity of the planet, distributed in 3.6 million square kilometers of severalkind of nature: Amazon forest, remnants of Mata Atlantica,, the Cerrado,Caatinga, the Pampas and Pantanal - one of the largest wetlands in the world,considered by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. Besides the more than 7,000km of beaches mainly of warm waters, are located in Brazil superlatives ofworld geography. The country has also the worlds largest reserve of freshwater, represented, among others, the Amazon basin and the aquifers Guaraniand Amazon.It is a very big country, with 8.547.403,5 km², the 5º in the world in size andpopulation (the extremes are from north to west 4.394 km and from lest to west4.319 km) with bad distribution of the population, overloading some regions,while some regions are left to large farms and little industrialization.In fact there is growth and wealth in each region, from north to south. Accordingto Exame magazine, the Brazilian southeast, region of Rio Janeiro and SaoPaulo, among other states, has a diversified economy that attracts the best―brains‖ in the country.The North, where is the state of Amazonas is growing the construction area andthere are a lot of investment in services and technology sectors.The northeastern region, the cradle of the nation, place of discovery, with itsnine states, is growing faster than other regions of the country thanks to theexplosion in consumption and construction. It is an area with large socialdifferences marked much stronger by the colonization than other areas. Butgrowth opportunities are enormous and a lot of companies are betting on thepower of consumption in the C and D classes of the Northeast.The Center-West region around the capital, Brasilia, is traditionally an area ofagri-business. In recent years, however, shows great growth in the chemicalindustry, food, pharmaceutical, construction and IT services.And the region South with its agricultural plains as essence, is the region with arelatively equal development in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, and hasthe highest literacy rates and life expectancy recorded in Brazil. Today theregion is record on jobs, especially in software development, and the activitiesof import and export.The fashion districts are mainly in the South, Southeast and Northeast as will beseen during this research. 43
  • 45. Image 1: 1- Center-West, 2- Northeast, 3- North 4- Southeast, 5- SouthApart from the different nations which made the country, the centralization ofdifferent people in each region has specific area. The climatic conditions ofeach area also favored this cultural "distance".Many people outside of Brazil do not know well the country, but many Braziliansdo not know also due to its huge size. What comes to the world about Brazil is alook at Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. But Brazil is much bigger than this andeven better in different ways. There is enormous energy in places like Curitiba,Porto Alegre, Salvador and Brasilia. Much of the country is yet to be discoveredby foreigners.3.3 BRAZILIANS AND THE BRAZILEIRISM: DNA "Despite being made from the fusion of such different sources, its remarkable that Brazilians are, today, one of the most homogeneous peoples, both linguistically and culturally and also one of the most socially integrated on Earth. We speak a same language, with no dialects. We dont shelter any vindication of autonomy, nor are we fond of any past. We are actually open to the future. (...) In the very truth of things, what we are is the ―new Rome‖. A late and tropical Rome. Brazil already is the largest among all neo-Latin nations due to its populations magnitude, and it also gains terrain for its artistic and cultural creativity. It needs to be it now in the technology field of future civilization, to establish itself as an economic power of self-sustained progress. We are 44
  • 46. building ourselves in struggle to blossom tomorrow as a new civilization, half-breed and tropical, proud of itself. More joyful, because it has suffered more. Better, because it gathers more mankinds. More generous, because its open to living together with all races and with all cultures and because its settled on the fairest and brightest province on Earth.‖ (Darcy Ribeiro, "The Brazilian People" - Writer, anthropologist and politician.)To write about the Brazilian DNA is a subject so complex and interesting that itdeserves only a single research devoted to this subject. The Observatory ofConsumption and Behaviour from SENAI CETIQT conducted a very interestingresearch on this case and some of the features that will be highlighted here area result of this study. Also it will be salient other characteristics found that aim toenrich the knowledge and understanding of Brazil and its people. Thus, this isnot a general analysis but a focused one, in order to have knowledge of whatmight be added to the understanding of national characteristics.The house, the street and the other world are areas of experience, are threecodes of values, which alternate in the symbolic order of Brazilian culture. Infact, symbolically operate with three dimensions of existence which alternate invarious arenas of social practices. The experience of the Brazilian triangle ritualwith its carnivals, processions and parades, and with their heroes, reflectsdirectly on the basic concepts with which we explain and live our lives. Thesymbolic structure of Brazilian culture pervades social relations, interactionsbetween actors, daily practices, institutional concepts, representations of thecountry and especially our own emotions. The Brazilian culture is like a musicalscore and on it we read our identity. In multiple contexts of our society we knowby heart the tone in which we must play - the codes of the house, the street andof the other world. For more different from each other that we can be, for mostcultural regions that Brazil may have, still, the musical score in many ways isthe same, the symphony is the same Brazilian symphony - singular andcomplex culture. Therefore, as Tom Jobim sayd, "Brazil is not for beginners."20Some intellectuals and writers emphasize the duality of Brazil, as EverardoRocha and Gilberto Freyre. According to Rocha there is a presence of ethicalduplicitous and ambiguous elements in the Brazilian imaginary, somethingclearly identified by the contemporary Anthropology: the idea of the routineexperience of mixtures, divisions and ambiguity of values used to think aboutourselves. Meanwhile Freyre analyses this duality related to the culturalbackground of the country, among Europeans, Native Indians and Slaves. Hebelieves that in general the formation of Brazil has been a process of balancingopposites. This balance attests that cultural richness of the mixture under the 45
  • 47. compensation, positive and healthy. Thus, antagonism and dualities couldmean certain advantages, "a duality not entirely detrimental to our culture inevolution, enriched by one side of spontaneity, freshness of imagination andemotion (…) and from the another by contact, through elites, with science, withthe technique and the thought of Europe. Perhaps nowhere is checking whetherthe encounter with equal freedom, the intercom and also the harmonious fusionof different traditions, before antagonist cultures, as in Brazil‖ (Freyre, 1975)It‘s mainly by the media narration and the consumption system that performsthis globalization of culture in Brazil and worldwide, local and global.Understanding the consumer - and the media as its main narrative support - is acrucial project to understand that experiences are widely shared incontemporary society. Thinking in the importance of the media in the world‘sculture is important to signalize that Brazil has the biggest TV channel of LatinAmerica and the 4th in the world. The midiatic culture, in special, the televisionin the Brazilian case, has an important influence to exchange of culture and the―feeling‖ of the country as one. What makes the brazilians from Amazon Statefeel closer to the Brazilians from the south, is mainly this same ritual providedby the television in all over the country. This strength of TV will be discussedagain when talking about fashion in Brazil. "The starting point is the 1930s during the dictatorship of Getulio Vargas, when the Department of Press and Propaganda (DIP), through instruments such as radio, cinema and the press, became responsible for the broadcast of the ideology of the New State and of guaranteeing "cultural homogeneity".21In this ―Cultural Homogeneity‖ process, many things that are more natural fromthe cultural imaginary of Rio de Janeiro were passed to other regions. Someconcepts are not completely considered and don‘t affect in daily life but they arerecognized as part of the Brazilian culture. So, it‘s with some examination aboutthe Body in Rio de Janeiro, essay developed by Miriam Goldenberg, a BrazilianAnthropologist, that this analysis about the Brazilian DNA will take moreconsistence. For later to talk about fashion in Brazil, it is essential to talk aboutbody. Without a body, there is no fashion. And in Brazil this issue is really a bigthing.More body than clothesMarcel Mauss (1974) says that group of habits, customs, beliefs and traditionsthat characterize a culture also refers to the body. Thus, there is a culturalconstruction of the body, with a valuation of certain attributes and behaviorsover others, what admits to have a typical body in each society. This body,which may vary according to historical and cultural context, is acquired by themembers of the society by the prestigious‘ imitation. 46
  • 48. Individuals imitate actions, behaviors and bodies that were successful and haveprestige in their culture. In the case of Brazil, the imitable women, women ofprestige, are currently the models, actresses, singers and television presenters,all of them taking the body as their main asset, or one of their most importantwealth.(Goldemberg, 2007)According to Goldemberg (2007), another very interesting study to discuss thesingularity of the Brazilian body is the one of the French anthropologistStéphane Malysse (2002). Comparing the Brazilian womans body with theFrench, Malyssa found out that "while in France the production of personalappearance remains focused primarily on the proper clothing, in Brazil is thebody that seems to center the strategies of dressing. The French look forproducing themselves with clothing which the colors, prints and shapesartificially restructure their bodies, concealing some forms (particularly thebuttocks and belly) thanks to its format; the Brazilians have a completelydifferent approach with the culture of dressing, and expose the body. Theclothes are often reduced to a mere instrument of its recovery, in short, a sort ofornament.‖ Within this logic, Goldemberg attempts that Malysse highlights thetendency of French teenagers dress like their mothers. Therefore, the clothes inFrance are part of the appearance‘s aging process. In Brazil, by contrast, thetrend is to dress like young until late. It is the daughter who lends her clothes tothe mother.In some families from Rio de Janeiro, which Miriam Goldemberg researched,the grandmother, mother and daughter used to buy the same brand of clothesand exchanged between them, their clothes. The body and youthful appearanceis in Brazil, a real capital, as Pierre Bourdieu would say (1987). Lookingparticularly the city of Rio de Janeiro, Malysse also shows that the distinctionbetween beachwear, underwear and sportswear in the city tends to disappear,"the clothes play with the hidden / exposed without to cover much more thebody when going from beach to street.In Rio de Janeiro, the female forms are not hidden by the effect of camouflagepromoted by tailleurs, overcoats or large cuts, but, instead, are highlighted:women wear skirts and pants of low waist, valuing the hips and buttocks, puttingthem in relief on the scene. The real trend in Rio is that one that can promotesde body without surpass it. In Rio, the clothes are used primarily to enhancethe shapes of the female body, to display them: the waist and bust are marked,highlighted. These womens bodies worked, molded in the academies, onlysupport garments that leave the body on display valued under the cloth.But this doesn‘t mean that the clothes must to be vulgar or not elegant. There isa subtle game of covering and showing, of compensation where what reallymatters is the body in the sense that shapes which can give a different 47
  • 49. silhouette that doesn‘t enhances the sensuality is not well absorbed by thepeople.One might think in this sense that, beyond the body to be much more importantthan the clothes it is, actually the ‗real‘ clothes: the body is to be displayed,framed, handled, worked, stitched, embellished, chosen, built, produced andimitated. It‘s the body that gets into and out of fashion. The clothes in this caseare just an accessory for the appreciation and exposure of this body style. Andthis body many times is not an indistinct body given by nature. It is a workingbody, healthy, well cared, paradoxically a "cultivated nature," a culture thatbecame nature (Bourdieu, 1987). Examples of this concern is the fact thataccording to the Brazilian Society of Plastic Surgery, Brazilians, especially theBrazilian woman, became, after the U.S. the people who make more plasticsurgery in the world: ―89% of the Brazilian women want to change something intheir bodies‖. (Goldemberg, 2007)This importance given to the body can change in each region focusing more insome specific area of the body like the face, with the use of make-up or naturaltreatments, plastic surgery, etc. or in a great attention with the hair. Also thenatural beauty can be in evidence, with no use of make-up. As it‘s happening inmany cities of the world is possible to see the increase of obesity in a societythat really cares about the body‘s appearance. In this case, the clothes alsohave a function of accessory, meaning that these clothes must help the shapeto look better, but not necessarily hiding.The experience of acquaintanceshipAccording to Francesco Morace in the DNA Brasil research (2009), over thepast five years, an important change in the world of consume regards about thecapacity and desire of people to share information, experiences and even,simply, the opportunities for consumption. Beyond some other areas and fieldsof occurrence as in technology, there was a return, an encouragement tocoexistence. In the cultural fields this is very visible in Brazil with the success ofmajor events, where people participate, producing large collective emotions(such as concert The Rolling Stones in Rio de Janeiro, with millions of people ofall classes together in Copacabana beach). In clothing and design this is alsoseen with the success of products and styles that aim the exchange, theparticipation and the reciprocal recognition. Personal status or prestige to anindividual are typical values of the years 80‘s and 90‘s and doesn‘t mean somuch to this culture as its history and its tradition of sharing practices, whichcan be developed to bring an unique and distinct harmony. 48
  • 50. InclusionBrazil did in its history something that transcends what already happened inEurope: an inclusive society. This is an important point that is being seen by theworld market as a new direction and that has in this country, elements ofsimplicity and creativity. Nowadays is important to develop products that haveauthenticity in its own history, consistency in the usability, to make life easierand simple for an everyday happiness.The fashion in Brazil has these characteristics of inclusion offering products thatgive value to the creative freshness of each own style, different betweenthemselves, in the country. There are collaboration between designers,entrepreneurs and innovative people that look for developing products that arecheaper than in other occidental countries but taking care of the quality, themarketing, the communication and the distribution. Later we‘ll see how thissector is based in national production and feels very comfortable in this position.Joy and irony ―We laugh, we cry, and throw out what happened. We laugh, we cry, and celebrate a new love.‖ (Songwriter: Edu Krieger – Novo Amor)Brazilians are considered a people that have ―joy in living‖. And this is true. Butit‘s also true that there is a lot of problems, stress and sadness in somepeople‘s life. What makes the difference is that great part of these peopleknows how to deal with it and have an escape valve. An ironic statement about what is ostensibly the "culture Basileiro" she celebrates excess, and at the same time draws attention to its own limitations and incompleteness. (Basualdo, 2007)Carnival can be considered one of these moments where everything in life canbe left behind for a while. Brazilians allow themselves to expel the fatigue, tospill the routine, to give vent to stress. Fun is as important to life as to work andto study. It is part of the all the process and necessary to the equilibrium ofpeople‘s life. ―For us Brazilians, not everything that feeds is always good or socially acceptable. Similarly, not everything that is food is food. In other words, the aliment is like a big frame, but the food is the picture, what was valued and chosen among the food, what should be seen and savored with the eyes and then with the 49
  • 51. mouth, nose, good company and, finally, the belly.‖ (Damatta, 2001).The histories that come from all this experiences of fun and social exchangebecome part of the ―comedy of private life‖ as would say the Brazilian writer LuisFernando Veríssimo. Many other writers have the irony in their repertory asNelson Rodrigues and Machado de Assis between many others. The history ofBrazil to not be sad had to be at least comic. This is the way some people usedto take their lives. And it became part of the culture, even when life was better. (…) Every rose is a rose because it is so called Every Bossa is ―Nova‖ (new) and you don‘t care if it is used Every carnival has its end. Every carnival has its end. (…) Let me play of being happy, Let me paint my nose…‖ (Los Hermanos – Todo Carnaval tem seu fim, ―Every Carnival has its end‖)Strong „genetics‟, poor „nutrition‟As already talked about, many of the values of the next ―global era‖ can befound in Brazil. The problem is that in many cases the Brazilians don‘t believeon themselves because it was used for many years the American and Europeanmodels of development. Now the industries and services are having a hard timeto configure a new direction, a new system that can worth for the country.Again, the sustainability is a philosophy that must be considered in this newdirection, with the dynamics of creative process.So, it‘s understandable that the main competitive advantage of Brazil is its ownGenius Loci, while the disadvantage is to use its own inexperience and enhanceits own natural energies, according to Morace (2009). The problem is, byexcellence, conceptual, psychological: to convince the people of the greatpotential in the global market that can be reached organizing new languagesand new aesthetics.BeliefBrazil has its continental size and some important centers because of the JesuitMissions. The Roman Catholicism came with the Portuguese and was theofficial religion for many centuries. It is nowadays the largest country in theworld in number of nominal Catholics, with 73.8% of the population declaringthemselves as Catholic, according to the IBGE Census 2000. However, its 50
  • 52. hegemony must be qualified because of the great religious syncretism in thecountry.The religious diversity is very rich and a result of the cultural mix. Thanks to thevarious immigration processes, the country has various religions (Christian,Islamic, African-Brazilian, Jewish, Buddhist, Spirit, etc.). The state and thechurch are separated what means that there is the freedom of worship. What isabsolutely common is to attend several churches, to frequent one church andthe studies of another or to migrate from one to another during the life and thento build a particular belief that can explains better the experiences of life.The cine-biography "Chico Xavier‖ about a Brazilian spiritual medium is thebiggest grossing- films hit on debut since the rebirth of Brazilian cinema in 1990.The spiritual issue in Brazil is something that has importance but in a differentapproach of the one found in Italy for example. It‘s more about mysticism andexperience than faith in one religion.Arguments on DNAMany other characteristics can be discussed about the Brazilian Genius Loci,but this can‘t be so extensive. It‘s important to clarify the entire scenario wherethis work will be developed and to try to understand it in the best way possible.The comprehension of this DNA is not easy even to the Brazilians, envolved inall this mixture, what makes this moment of development of new languages andesthetics, a very delicate one.According to the Britannic Martin Sorrel, head of the advertising group WPP, ininterview for the magazine Exame22, Brazil indicates interesting changes in theDNA of the ―brand Brazil‖. Today, it relates to seven key characteristics:sensuality, energy, dynamism, glamorous, carefree, fun and daring. All this canbe completed by what João Cavalcanti from the trends bureau Box 1824 affirmsat Ted x SP in 2009, that diversity, passion, creativity and of course, again, joy,are the propellants of the natural curiosity present in the people. This is a highlypositive view. The same survey indicates that Brazilian products are not yetrecognized as innovative or high quality overseas, but that perception hasevolved favorably. Over the last decade, the brand Brazil has become muchmore dynamic and innovative in the eyes of Americans and WesternEuropeans. To host the next year the two largest sporting events in the world -the World Cup in 2014 and the Olympics in Rio in 2016 – is a perfectopportunity to show everything that changed in the country from 20 years ago. 51
  • 53. 3.4 FASHION + BRAZIL Before 1500, when this land that was not called Brazil, PURANGAW was the beauty and it was everywhere. Its people had a strong desire for artistic expression. Each object, of everyday or magic, expressed art and a sense of magic, through lines and plots. (Catalogue H. Stern, 2004)The chic patterns came from France, and the late Belle Epoque in Brazil wererevealed in underwear and in the toilets to go to the theater or the soiree, thesame elongated shape, enhanced by sinuous lines of Art Nouveau.In the twenties happened a very important event in the arts, the Week ofModern Art in São Paulo. The modernist movement was a renewal of languagein pursuit of experimentation, the creative freedom; at break with the past. Theart came to the forefront of modernism. It was the beginning of the Braziliancultural identity.Among the 30‘s and 40‘s fashion seeks for new directions. Its the end of thetraditional giving rise to various shades of blue and red. As fantasy, it helpsbuild character. What happened in Paris was the inspiration and many sewersfrom Brazil used to go to Paris in search of Dior or Givenchy, as a source ofinspiration, after all this was always the natural movement. With the war it wasnot possible to buy from Europe anymore, so, magazines and newspapers usedto help the dressmaker to make the dresses. Before the advent of ready-to-wear is the seamstress who makes the transition to the exciting world offashion. Gradually begins a Brazilian high fashion: Dener, Mme Rosita, CasaVogue, Casa Canada.In the early 60s, there were some kind of fashion shows, with the presence ofFrench couturiers, where the textile industry showed their new creations. AndBrazilian fashion was trying to export: "Brazilian Look", "Brazilian Fashion", and―Brazilian Nature‖.Gradually, emerged factories interested in producing large-scale, designers andfashion events. The various economic crises over the years, however, wereharmful to the development of industry, which suffered the problems ofexchange rate variation and high taxes. Most part of the brands didn‘t survivethese bad moments in the economy and politics. Only 15 years ago all the chainhas managed to re-establish more precisely when fashion calendar of Brazilbegan to organize with Phytoervas Fashion. Today, Brazil has several fashionweeks in major capitals of the country.Fashion doesn‟t belong to Brazil 52
  • 54. Fashion, as ‗everything‘ else, was brought from Europe to Brazil during thehistory and it was followed as long as the products were offered here brought bysome rich families and then copied. Even in the last century when the factorieswere rehearsing a Brazilian fashion, it was actually just a Brazilian production.The fashion was something to be tracked, like a rule that Europe knew how toplay with. Even the factor of having a very different climate, the idea was theprestigious imitation. The Hollywood movies were also part of this process, in amassive way.Since 15 years ago – just the age of a teenager – the Brazilian fashion is takingits real participation in the national market in a competitive way. The system ofproduction, fast and competitive took Brazil in a moment that the countryneeded to develop its industry. And in this rhythm, the industries wereconcerned in to know how to do it, and how to sell it. Not so much about identitywas considered. Actually, not so much about the Brazilian identity was reallytrue in that point, and some points are still not well defined. The identitystructures that were settled were laden with emotions and moments that hadpassed by history and should evolve with the proposal to think about the Brazilbased on its more general configuration and cultural practices of the everydaylife.The Brazilian media also maintains ties, unintentionally, following the idea – in adelay – of the international standards. One example is the coverage of thefashion weeks. As Brazil is in the southern hemisphere, the seasons are theopposite of the ones in Europe, for instance. In September, while the collectionsof the spring summer 2011 are being showed to be used in the next year inEurope, during the respective seasons, in Brazil it is already spring, of 2010 andthe summer of 2011 will be in December/2010, January/2011 andFebruary/2011. So, as the products won‘t be available yet, the magazines showthe fashion shows, ―translated‖ to the Brazilian ―hemisphere‖ condition, as―spring summer 2011/2012‖. The problem is that many brands take the fashionshows in Europe as really trendsetters, what is not a verdict anymore. Thisbrands that apprehend in this way the news, are not necessarily copiers, butthere is intrinsic in the fashion culture of many brands that if in Europe is a fadto wear high-waisted pants, in Brazil there will be many of these silhouette, notas a copy, but as it ―was supposed to be‖, even if the majority of the Brazilianbodies don‘t look good on it, some brands will insist in offering this kind ofproduct. It‘s a lack of attitude of some media and also the fault in interpretationof the manufacturers about the Brazilian identity and DNA.Of course that many people will still dream about what is going on in Euorpe,Asia or America. This is natural, especially in a globalized world where peoplehave the where people have the reach of all kinds of information. But to Brazilreally be competitive, it must to know better its costumer and its surround; Stoplooking up to the north for producing. 53
  • 55. There is also a very interesting phenomenon regarding the television in thefashion market. The fashion shows are becoming more important in Brazil andwell produced, but what really ‗makes‘ fashion is the television. It doesn‘t matterthe social class, there is a space for disseminating style in a very strong way.Recently some soap operas are investing in scripts about fashion to enhancethis characteristic. Now there is already a specialized website 23 that sells onlywhat there is on the TV. The great Brazilian department stores are also lookingfor these kinds of references to offer what the market wants. Also a newapproach is what some stores are doing, launching collections inspired incharacters with the style consultancy of important designers, a specializedwebsite of television says24: many designers use to watch the TV to be closer tothe ―real trends‖ in Brazil and also because some of them are fans of the soapoperas as the designer Alexandre Herchcovitch.The fact is that the people need a Brazilian consciousness that respects theBrazilian body, a "balanced body of contrasts". As Gilberto Freyre said, ―Brazilshould follow fashions adapted to tropical climates, rather than ‗passively followand sometimes grotesquely, fashions from all over European or NorthAmerican‘ clothing, shoes, adornment, hairstyle, perfume, floor, smiling, kissingin, behavior, mode of being female‖.And Brazil is having a good time in its fashion system, because people like tobuy the local brands because they offer a really good quality in products andstyle that satisfies many people. Brazilian fashion is doing well. But could bedoing better, looking more to inside as their customers are doing.Anyway, something special is going on in Brazil that has nothing to do withcultural clichés like soccer and samba. Significantly, the tremendous energy inBrazil‘s fashion market is flowing from both inside and outside the country. Forglobal fashion brands, Brazil is a land of opportunity. Brands like Diane vonFurstenberg, Missoni, Chanel, Gucci, Louis Vuitton and Burberry have made, orare making, large investments there, opening stores in major urban centres —mostly in São Paulo, but also in the capital city Brasilia, a fast-emerging marketfor luxury goods.But fashion in Brazil is not interested only in luxury goods, and fashion theredoesn‘t have this aim in its growing path. ―Amongst the so-called BRICcountries, Brazil is the only one with a major fashion industry of its own.According to Suleman Anaya a contributing editor at The Business of Fashion,there are countless Brazilian ready-to-wear and accessory brands which havebeen highly successful with domestic consumers and are now setting theirsights outside Brazil.‖25The Brazilian high-end boutiques and malls are always packed with customers.This is the result of a complex set of interconnected conditions, many of whichhave been a long time in the making as primary force the healthy 54
  • 56. macroeconomic context. The fact already explained about great populationsjoining the middle and upper-middle classes are also significant important shiftsto the numbers of fashion industry and of course, the current self-confidence ofthe country.The country‘s relative geographic isolation has had a positive effect on thecountry‘s domestic fashion market. According to Sara Andrade, the influentialfashion editor of Vogue Portugal thinks Brazil‘s self-reliance is one of thecountry‘s greatest assets. ―One of the things Brazil has working for it is that it‘sa country that really supports their own — their own production, their ownartists, and even their own trade. That makes it less dependent on othercountries‖(ibden). Brazilian consumers seem to bet on their own designers, asmuch as they do on foreign brands. Even those who can afford to buy from bigEuropean houses like Prada or Valentino, deliberately seek out Braziliandesigners. Also the prices of international brands considering the exchange andthe taxes over imported seems out of sense for many people that see in localbrands beauty, quality, style and status as the foreign ones.The domestic fashion businesses that have been around for 5-10 years are nowreaching a certain maturation point, expanding their reach with diffusion linesand new stores. Oskar Metsavaht‘s wildly successful label Osklen is a goodcase and will be shortly analyzed later.Osklen supplied the gap about a urban and also very ―brazilian‖ brand, whatmany other brands are getting better to do now, and must do it. But there wereother gaps that the manufacturers knew how to approach. Unlike in Europe orthe US, where there are many high-street options, most brands fall into twoextremes: they have very low-profile brands like C&A, where you can get thingsof rather low quality at a really cheap price and, on the other end: designerbrands, like Maria Bonita and smaller independent labels that offer good qualityand design at a high price point, but affordable.‖ The consumer who wants gooddesign — and that is the majority of middle and upper class of Brazilians — haslittle choice but to buy from designers brands. In a way, the lack of affordablefashion options has forced consumers to spend on, and thereby support,serious domestic fashion labels.Brazilians have also long had an appreciation for aesthetics and quality. Andthis makes fashion to have a special place in Brazilian culture. It‘s something ofa national pastime and a topic of everyday household conversation, not just aluxury of the urban, privileged classes.Richard Barczinski is general director in Brazil for Hermès compares Brazil toRussia and China, where he frequently has to go, giving him a unique vantagepoint for a comparison: ―In terms of potential, China maybe the championbecause it is experiencing such tremendous growth and has such a hugepopulation, but culturally Brazil may have an advantage because the consumer 55
  • 57. here is highly sophisticated and informed. People here appreciate not just thevalue of something expensive, but the value and pleasure of good design andmaterials.‖ Also a spokesperson for Gucci singled out the Brazilian customer‘s―deep knowledge of hides‖ as an asset for the brand: ―The more precious andexotic the hides, the more they are appreciated‖ says Suleman Anayain thearticle. These characteristics point even more to the inclusive personality offashion and to the aesthetics nature of the people.Where Fashion happens26Brazil is the 6th largest textile park in the world. The whole production chainmakes a total of about 30.000 enterprises. In 2005, the fashion market in Brazilproduced 7.2 billion pieces and consumed 1 million tons of textiles. The sectorstotal income was $ 32.5 billion and 1.65 million jobs.All over the country has some manufactures from really small to enormouscompanies. But some special places are more significant to the FashionIndustry. Most production is in the south and southeast. Together, the regionsmeet 86% of national production. There is, however, a growing share of theNortheast - around 12%. The small and medium businesses account for almost70% of production, but most jobs in the sector is generated in small businesses.Each state puts forward its own fashion event, and this becomes theadvertisement space of the productions. These are supposed "different modesof presentation of Brazilian culture" and are rearticulated in the two competitors:São Paulo (the São Paulo Fashion Week) and Rio de Janeiro (with FashionRio).With this it was created, or rather, recreated the idea of "Two Brazils." SãoPaulo, with fashion shows of urban character, metropolitan, congregating inparticular brands of São Paulo and Minas Gerais. Rio, the beachy Brazil, whichthe fashion shows are related to lightness, white, or colored, with little clothing,therefore with brands identified with the craft and coastal – there attending Riode Janeiro, Ceará, and in a very shy way, the state of Bahia. The AmazonianBrazil comes in a diffuse, yet striking (as inspiration), and the backcountry,almost doesn‘t appear.Within the fashion industry is worth emphasizing what makes the link betweenall this different regions, and one of them is the use and production of thejeanswear. The country has some of the largest manufacturers of jeans in theworld and is also a major consumer of the product. An example is Vicunha27,leader in the segment, with 40 years old. It produces 40% of the indigo in Braziland has a very modern industrial area not only in Brazil but also in othercountries, as subsidiaries. 56
  • 58. Many brands explore the jeanswear within its own style and this define one ofthe most important style of the Brazilians, from the beach to country inside:urban, simple and practical.As seen before, Rio de Janeiro has almost a mythical representation in Brazilalso because is the center of the television companies, where the artists live,the musicians, where the carnival happens mainly, and for many other reasonsregarding the history of the country. And in this process, Ipanema as theneighborhood that better represents the myth of the lifestyle ―carioca‖ is in theend, the representative of the Brazilian myth. As it‘s possible to observe, life inBrazil is not at all just about beaches, samba and parties. There are more thanthousands of cities away from the coast and many people that never even wentto Rio de Janeiro as many others that don‘t like samba. But this myth isrecognized by many of them and accepted, maybe not as the ―real life‖ of many,but at least as a desire.The brand Osklen knew how to develop this lifestyle in a way that matches withthe people that live in Rio and also with those that are not from there. The brandis inspired in the dynamism of the metropolis and also in the exuberance of thenature and this combination seems to be quintessential in the ―Brazilianformula‖, which can‘t be seen as a natural paradise or an exotic tropical country.The people know that there are beautiful natural things, but also that life isurban, and usually in big cities. This marriage of ideas is important, of course indifferent percentages according to the aim of the brand.Osklen has an integrated perception of nature, culture and society, associatedto a really good aesthetics, very clean and modern. It is considered 28 by WGSNas one of the most influent and inspirable brands in the world. The brand alsohad a whole page article in Vogue America and was appointed as ―FutureMaker‖ by WWF-UK.The style of the brand is casual-chic but it also have simple options as t-shirtsand beach shorts. Osklen also ―sells‖ in their own stores in Brazil, America,Europe and Japan, an authentic Brazilian lifestyle, contemporary andcosmopolitan, with products in technological material and concerned with theenvironment. This is a great example of a brand that knew how to approach allthe things that were outlined in this chapter to make its own history.Osklen offers well-made directional design that is wearable and therebyaccessible to a wide audience. And even though it‘s far from inexpensive (anOsklen t-shirt can cost 700 Reais, or almost US$400, while dresses andsignature pieces often run much higher), the label‘s clothes are still moreaffordable than foreign fashion, due in part to Brazil‘s extremely high importduties. Indeed, to gauge the company‘s success it‘s enough to look down:everyone in São Paulo seems to be wearing Osklen shoes, easily recognizableby a stripe on their sole. ―Osklen and other local labels are able to produce their 57
  • 59. goods using mostly domestic materials, which is not that surprising consideringBrazil‘s abundant natural resources, another factor that reinforces the country‘srelative autonomy from external economies‖, says the Business of Fashion29.Brazil is not a mature country in design as some of the Europeans and the US.So, as it still growing, Brazil is having an opportunity to create a new system, anew point of view about goods, especially fashion: to present a new approach. Ithas the opportunity to avoid the mistakes and to take advantage of shifts in themindset which are happening all over the world, with different behaviours in theconsumption, which has much to do with its internal characteristics, with itsvalues.It is important, first of all, to understand that it‘s necessary to have moreplanning about what to produce and to have conscience of the end of the chain.It is necessary to know better about ―ourselves‖ and to explore (discover,search) instead of to exploit (abuse, impose) our genius loci in order to revealmore things connected to our current culture, mind/lifestyle and our tastes.To produce just for competing/producing is not on discussion anymore. Brazil isa creative country but afraid of making mistakes, boxed. But the mistakes at thistime are more likely if new ideas are not developed, if there is no innovation andno solution, if there is the omission of the environment and lack of authenticity.Maybe, in this search for making something cool, Brazil should also developsomething good. Image 1 Osklen Summer 2010 58
  • 60. Image 2 Osklen Summer 2010Image 3 Osklen Winter 2008 59
  • 61. Image 4 Osklen Winter 2008 Image 5 Osklen Fall 2008 60
  • 62. Image 6 Osklen Summer 2008Image 7 Osklen Summer 2008 61
  • 63. Image 8 Osklen Summer 2008 - "United Kingdom of Ipanema"Image 9 Sandals made of fish leather that would be thrown away 62
  • 64. Image 10 Osklen sneackers 63
  • 65. CHAPTER 31 Brasilico, derivative from the Portuguese language, it means from the color of “brasa” (ember), thecolor “brasílica”, brasil, which were found in the forests of Brazil, in the wood of “Pau-Brasil”, also thecolor of the ink that was used over the body of the natives, like a red color.2 Manuela Carneiro da Cunha . “Carneiro da Cunha discute papel dos índios” (20/3/2000) – By RenatoSztutman <>3 Fernando Novais. "Não podemos nos transformar em índios" (24/04/2000) – Interview of the retiredProfessor of the History Department of USP (University of São Paulo) and professor of economics atUNICAMP(University of Campinas to the website of Folha de São Paulo. Por João Batista Natali <>4 Carlos Lessa. “O Brasil não é bicolor”. (25/10/2006). Published at “Valor Econômico”. Carlos Lessa is atitular professor of Brazilian Economy at URJ (University of Rio de Janeiro).<>5 Laura de Mello e Souza is the author of "Desclassificados do ouro" (Graal,1982), "O Diabo e a Terra deSanta Cruz" (Companhia das Letras, 1986), "Inferno Atlântico" (Companhia das Letras, 1993), História daVida Privada no Brasil" (organizer of the vol. 1, Companhia das Letras, 1997) and "Norma e Conflito"(Editora UFMG, 1999)6 Laura de Mello e Souza. “Intolerância é legado colonial”. (20/03/2000). By Marcos Flamínio Peres<>7 Jacob Gorender. “Para Gorender, escravidão manteve unidade nacional”. (27/3/2000) by MauricioPuls to the website of the journal Folha de São Paulo<>8 Armelle Enders. “Francesa faz elogio do ‘jeitinho’”. (27/03/2000). By Fatima Gigliotti to the website ofthe journal Folha de São Paulo. Enders is a Professor of the “history of the XIX century” and the“European colonization” at the University of Paris 4 and lecturer of Brazilian History at the ÉcolePratique des Hautes Études in Paris. She is specialist in the history of Brazil of the XIX and XX centuriesand the European civilization. Books: "Histoire du Brésil - Questions au 20ème Siècle" ("História do Brasil- Questões ao Século 20", Complexe, Bélgica, 1977) and "Histoire du Rio de Janeiro" (Fayard).<>.9 FREYRE, Gilberto. Order and Progress: Brazil from Monarchy to Republic. University of California Press.Los Angeles, California. 1986.10 The great transformations which had overturned Europe during the Middle Ages and at the beginningof Modern times had scarcely reached Portugal. Roman traditions, roman architecture, and adegenerated form of the Latin language still were flourishing there when that nation founded itstransatlantic colonies and, in all these colonies, the conditions of the metropolis were never changed.FREYRE, Gilberto. Order and Progress: Brazil from Monarchy to Republic. 198611 / home /13 Brasile, la stella del Sud. Archivio Storico dellEmigrazione Italiana (11/12/2007).<>15 Economist by the Faculdade de Economia e Administração da Universidade of São Paulo (FEA-USP),specialized in Local Government by the Local Autonomy College (Tokyo, Japan), doctor in productionengeneering by the Escola Politécnica da Universidade de São Paulo. Vice-coordinator of the MBAprograms of the Instituto Brasileiro de Mercado de Capitais (IBMEC) São Paulo and manager ofsecurities. 64
  • 66. 17 “Brasil simboliza nova relação de poder mundial”, diz Tony Blair, by Elisa Campos at 26/10/2010.<,,EMI182414-16418,00-BRASIL+SIMBOLIZA+NOVA+RELACAO+DE+PODER+MUNDIAL+DIZ+TONY+BLAIR.html>18 Ana Paula Padrão at “Será que a TV aberta já conhece a nova classe C?” 13/09/2010 <>19 Época Negôcios: “O Sonho Brasileiro”, by Alexandre Teixeira, nº42, pages 107 to 121, august 2010.Editora Globo.20 Everardo Rocha in the book DNA BRASIL organized by Patricia Dalpra. (2009).21 Taiane Fernandes is a journalist, teacher and PhD in Multidisciplinary CultureSociety and the Federal University of Bahia (UFBA), Brazil, and researcher at the Center for StudiesMultidisciplinary Culture - CULT ( It was a substitute teacher at the Faculty ofCommunication UFBA, assistant to the Board of Culture of Bahia and Management Award winnerDirections Itaú Cultural by dissertation: Cultural Policies - The Department of Culture and Tourism of theState of Bahia 1995-2006.22 "É a hora de vender o Brasil" by Angela Pimenta at 11/05/2010. <>23 Inside Brazil’s Booming Fashion Industry by Suleman Anaya – 5th August, 2010 . <>26 All these data were found in the survey "The Market for Fashion in Brazil - Clothing, Textiles &Accessories Stockings," produced by the Institute for Studies and Industrial Marketing (IEMI) and theBrazilian Association of Textile and Apparel Association (ABIT), with Agency of Promotion of Exports andInvestments (APEX Brazil).27 According to the website of OSKLEN 65
  • 67. The world will not evolve past its current state of crisis by using the same thinking that created the situation. Albert Eistein 67      
  • 68. 4. A SUSTAINABLE BRAZILIAN CASENEW SYSTEMS, PERCEPTION AND VALUES: HOW TO APPLYThe main goal of this project is to develop innovation in Brazil through values(intangible). To understand the importance of working on values, two chapterswere dedicated, one to comprehend the general aspects and the other one tocomprehend local aspects. As it was possible to see, Brazil has itscharacteristics, which must be comprehended to the understanding of this entireproject. The sustainability is one of the most important sectors to apply valuesfor 2 main reasons: 1- it is too hard to approach the effectiveness and 2 – itclaims for the changing of the mindset, first of all, of the thinking (intangible), notonly the activity (tangible).4.1 SUSTAINABILITYThe humanity already consumes 25% more the natural resources of the planetthan the capacity of renovation on Earth1. IF the consuming level continuesbeing the same, in less than 50 years it would be necessary 2 planets Earth toattend the necessities of water, energy and food.So, even with the implementation of another system of production, it isimportant to change things by changing the relationship of consumption. Forexample, many people may think that fast fashion is a solution for the crisis infashion system. But maybe it is only a symptom, and indication of thebanalization of the goods, of the work and of the resources.According to GS&MD (by Info Money) not only the planet is asking for a newway of production but also the consumers. Even being still in the basic level,they already bring changes in the dynamics of consuming alterating thestructures of businesses, products, channels and brands. The research alsosays that in Brazil the consumers would pay 8% more to have a sustainableproduct, 44% adopt “sustainability” in the daily life and 66% believe that thereare a small range of products in this line; 45% believe that sustainability is toconsume in a equilibrated way and 63% of the people look for sustainableinformation on internet. “To be seen as a pioneer in this sector may mean thesuccess”, says the research.BUT WHAT IS SUSTAINABILITY? 68      
  • 69. Concept and lines of thoughtAs observed, sustainability is still a very new concept and generating manyquestions when it comes to supplant one activity for another, since the systemremains the same. While the whole system is not in fact changed, and theconsumers’ mindsets do not change in their relation to the products for asustainable way, it will actually be very complicated to produce in a sustainableway without the footprints. While the system is the same, there will be carbonfootprints, waste of something, and misuse of another, at some point in thecycle. What matters is to reduce the impact and transform the mindset. Andthen, for something good to be actually done, and not just the ‘less bad’, it willneed a complete “redesign of the industry" as proposed by the GreenBlue , acompany that aims to help the industry to become sustainable.Sustainability: ConceptsEnvironmental Sustainability: "The concept of sustainability refers to systemicconditions under which, at the regional and global, human activities must notinterfere with the natural cycles in which are based all that provides theresilience of the planet, and at the same time, should not deplete its naturalcapital, which will be transmitted to future generations. " (MANZINI & VEZZOLI,2005.)Sustainable development: "It is the political process, participatory approachthat integrates economic, environmental, spatial, social and cultural, be itcollective or individual, with a view to reaching and maintaining the quality oflife, whether in times of availability of resources, in periods of scarcity, with theoutlook for cooperation and solidarity between peoples and generations."(Silva,2006). "(...) A process of transformation that occurs smoothly in the dimensionsof spatial, social, environmental, cultural and economic from individual toglobal." (Silva, 2006).Triple valuesAdapted from an article first published in Corporate Environmental Strategy:International Journal of Corporate Sustainability, August 2002.According to the International Journal of Corporate Sustainability (2002), thetriple bottom is a tool for integrating sustainability into the business agenda.“Balancing traditional economic goals with social and environmental concerns, ithas created a new measure of corporate performance.” Opportunities to pursueinnovation and the creation of value in the design process can be obscured bybusiness just concerned with the bottom line. “New tools for sustainable design 69      
  • 70. triple bottom is a tool for integrating sustainability into the business agenda. Balancing traditional economic goals with social and environmental concerns, it has created a new measure of corporate performance. Opportunities to pursue innovation and the creation of value in the design process can be obscured by business just concerned with the bottom line. New tools for sustainable designcan refocus product development from a a process aimed at limiting end of pipe can refocus product development from process aimed at limiting end of pipeliabilities toto one geared to creating safe, quality products right from the start. liabilities one geared to creating safe, quality products right from the start.”(ibden) (ibden)This new design perspective means a a triple top line growth from products that This new design perspective means triple top line growth from products thatenhance the well-being ofof nature and culture while generating economic value. enhance the well-being nature and culture while generating economic value.InIn these new human systems, materials become food for the soil or flow back to these new human systems, materials become food for the soil or flow back toindustry forever. When the principles ofof ecologically intelligent design are widely industry forever. When the principles ecologically intelligent design are widelyapplied, both nature and commerce can thrive and grow. applied, both nature and commerce can thrive and grow.   Image 8:TThe oncept  of  ofractal  Ecology  is  embodied  in  the  fractal  triangle.  I  was  developed  for  analyzing  and   Image  1   he  c concept F Fractal Ecology is embodied in the fractal triangle. I was developed for analyzing understanding  opportunities  to  grow  value.  The  goal  is  not  goal is noteto balance economy, ocial  equity  but  to   and understanding opportunities to grow value. The to  balance   conomy,  ecology  and  s ecology and social equity but to optimize aximize  value  in  value in of  tareas of the triangle throughdintelligent design. optimize  and  m and maximize all  areas   all he  triangle  through  intelligent   esign.The commitment toto sustainability can starts with a clear understanding of the The commitment sustainability can starts with a clear understanding of theeconomic goals and the sense ofof purpose that comes from having built an economic goals and the sense purpose that comes from having built anenterprise. It’s important to create wealth and provides jobs and a a belief to do enterprise create wealth and provides jobs and belief to do better by the environment.better by the environment. Often, sustainable business practices meet the triple bottom line by minimizingOften, sustainable business practices meet the triple bottom line by minimizingthe impacts ofofindustry. These are important first steps toward identifying the impacts industry. These are important first steps toward identifying problems, but ultimately they are strategies for managing negative effects-anproblems, but ultimately they are strategies for managing negative effects-anagenda built on trying toto be "less bad." agenda built on trying be "less bad."BUT, IS LESS BAD BEING GOOD? !"#The fashion industry needs to wake up for sustainability, that is what believe #Grace Cabral, director of the company which organizes Fashion Week andFashion Rio. The socio-environmental development is still in its infancy inBrazil, compared to the initiatives of London and other capitals of fashion. So, tomake less bad, again, in Brazil, is already to make something, especially if ithas a strong social active. 70      
  • 71. But if a real change doesn’t happen and the industries stop in the researchand development of a sustainable, holistic system, minimizing the impact ofindustry might only slow down ecological destruction. According toWilliam McDonough & Michael Braungart : “we are pursuing something entirely different. Its a strategy of change that sees todays innovations as the first steps in a transition from the maintenance of an aging system to the creation of a new one. Rather than trying to limit economic growth or reduce the impact of industry, we are creating the foundation of a system in which products and industrial processes are so intelligently designed they dont need to be regulated. Instead, they create wholly positive effects, a large and beneficial ecological footprint. We might call this new world of commerce sustaining rather than sustainable, which suggests to us a more fulfilling agenda than the maintenance of a damaging system. Why choose a meager, limiting diet when we can create real sustenance with designs as safe, nutritious and productive as those nature gives us?”For the duo, this will require a new definition of quality in product, process andfacility design. Quality is embodied in designs that allow industry to enhance thewell-being of nature and culture while generating economic value. With thesepositive aspirations at every level of commerce anchors intelligent, sustainingdesign deep within corporate business strategy. In the moment when “gooddesign drives the business agenda, the path toward sustainability turns fromtrying to be ‘less bad’ to identifying new opportunities to generate a widespectrum of value.” (McDonough and Braungart, 2002)In other words, asking “How can I grow prosperity, celebrate my community,and enhance the health of all species?" the results are likely to be far morepositive and enriching than those gained by using less material to make anexisting product or measuring its performance against a bottom line standard.Cradle to CradleAs this research was saying since the beginning, there is something biggergoing on, something related to the systems of things as they are, andconsequently, the mindset of people. This is the big change of perspective ofthe last century, to the beginning of the design process, assigning value to amultiplicity of economic, ecological and social questions that enhance product 71      
  • 72. value. McDonough and Braungart (2002) are doing a work that already put inpractice the aims of this research, but not by the eyes of design, but for it. Theyexemplify that “When designing a new textile line, for example, we asked howan upholstery fabric could replenish nature, totally eliminate waste, and providea safe working environment for the employees of a textile mill. The result was abeautiful fabric created with ingredients so safe it filtered the water runningthrough the mill during production, making regulations and health concernsobsolete. After its useful commercial life as an upholstery fabric, the materialcan be composted and used to restore soil-the trimmings from the mill, in fact,become mulch for the local garden club. Distributed by an international textiledesign firm, the fabric has been a splendid success. No waste. No liabilities.Lower costs. Higher margins. In short, only assets and positive effects.” Every product, whether or not it is designed with environmental health in mind, is produced and used in an interconnected world. This is the fundamental insight of ecology. But our value systems often obscure that fact; most of us still in some way identify with one of the prevailing ideologies of the 20th century. (McDonough and Braungart, 2002)They also explain that each of these schools of thought – capitalism, socialism,ecologism – was inspired by a genuine desire to improve the human condition.But taken to extremes – reduced to isms – the stances they inspired canneglect factors crucial to long-term success. Even ecological concern, stretchedto an ism, can neglect social, cultural, and economic interests to the detrimentof the whole system. In short, holding one of these concerns as the ultimategoal often puts economy, ecology and equity at cross-purposes.It is an infinitely interconnected world, It is important to see rich relationships inthese value systems, to discover opportunities in honoring the needs of allthree, rather than inherent conflicts, much the way an ecologist sees infinitelycomplex and productive natural communities where others see "nature, toothand claw."McDonough and Braungart are the diffusors of the “Cradle-to-Cradle” model,because according to them, to fine-tune the engines of industry, dilutingpollution and slowing the loss of natural resources without examining the designflaws at their source is a system that remains based on a cradle-to-gravemodel. In fact, these reforms take for granted-institutionalize, even-theantagonism between nature and industry. The result: business strategies builton restricting industry and curtailing growth, an unappealing compromise basedon the limitations of a century-old industrial model. This is a commercial culture,to the dead end, created by an intention to be less bad. 72      
  • 73. The Cradle to Cradle Design rejects the assumption that the natural world isinevitably destroyed by human industry, or that excessive demand for goodsand services is the ultimate and inevitable cause of environmental ills. AsMcDonough and Braungart (2002) say, “Industrial design is flawed because itsfoundations developed in a world in which few understood or appreciated theinterconnectedness of people and nature, the relationship between economyand ecology, or the principles of the earths natural systems.”But now, with people’s ever-growing knowledge of the living earth-withecological intelligence-design it is possible to reflect a new spirit. The principlesmust to be modeled on natural systems, the perpetual flows of energy andnutrients that support the earths biodiversity. Its intention: to apply theintelligence and effectiveness of these systems to product and process design,so that commerce can grow prosperity, celebrate cultural diversity and enhancethe health of all species.   Image  2:    WASTE  EQUALS  FOOD  -­‐    If  there  is  no  mixture  of  metabolisms,  each  cycle  can  be  continuous,  as  natural  or   as  synthetic;  the  If there is decompose,  cof metabolisms, eachbcycle can be continuous, asecond  would  as Image 9: first  would   no mixture ome  back  to  nature  and   e  a  raw  material  again  and  the  s natural or be   synthetic; the first would decompose, come back to naturerash. be a raw material again and the always  recycled;  there  would  be  no  t and second would be always recycled; there woul be no trash. For the industry this means: developing materials, products, supply chains, andFor the industry this means: developing materials, products, supply chains, and manufacturing processes with systems modeled on natures cradle-to-cradlemanufacturing processesorganisms waste becomes natures cradle-to-cradle cycles, in which one with systems modeled on food for another. Whencycles, in this principle-waste equals food-to product conception and material applyed which one organisms waste becomes “food” for another. Whenapplyed management, flows this principle-waste beginning of the product conception and material equals food-to creation of goods and services thatflows management, it’s the beginning of the creation of after each useful life that flow effectively within closed-loop systems, providing goods and services eitherflow effectively for nature or high quality materials for new products. nourishment within closed-loop systems, providing after each useful life eithernourishment for nature or high quality materials for new products. Environmental destruction is a complex system in its own right - Environmentalwith deeper causes that are difficultin its own widespread, destruction is a complex system to see and right - widespread, our ancestors,causes that areautomatically, understand. Like with deeper we may react difficult to see and understand. Like our may look for ways to purge with terror and guilt, and we ancestors, we may react ourselves - - abundance, with 73   exhortations to consume and produce less its     by minimizing, avoiding, reducing and sacrificing. Humans are condemned as the one species on the planet guilty of burdening it beyond what it can withstand; as such, we must
  • 74. automatically, with terror and guilt, and we may look for ways to purge ourselves - which the “eco-efficiency” movement provides in abundance, with its exhortations to consume and produce less by minimizing, avoiding, reducing and sacrificing. Humans are condemned as the one species on the planet guilty of burdening it beyond what it can withstand; as such, we must shrink our presence, our systems, our activities, and even our populations so as to become almost invisible. (Those who believe population is the root of our ills think people should mostly stop having children.) The goal is zero: zero waste, zero emissions, zero “ecological footprint.” As long as human beings are regarded as “bad,” zero is a good goal. But to be less bad is to accept things are they are, to believe that poorly designed, dishonorable, destructive systems are the best humans can do. This is the ultimate failure of the “be less bad” approach: a failure of the imagination. From our perspective, this is a depressing vision of our species’ role in the world. What about an entirely different imagination. From our it a failure of the model? What would mean to be 100 percent good? the world. (…)Reframing our industrial and social systems to be 100 What about an entirelypeople, the planet and our economy is a percent good for different model? What would it mean to be 100 percentthat taps into deep energy. (McDonough and wild idea good? Braungart, 2002, page 66). percent good for people, the planet and our economy is a wild idea that taps into deep energy. (McDonough and Braungart, 2002, page 66).  Image 10: The Melissas shoes from Brazil can be an example of one metabolism process. Itis made 100% he  Melissas  shoes  from  Brazil  can  be  an  example  of  tat least, if the brand would is  made  1the of   Image  3:  T of plastic. Its not an organic material, but he  “one  metabolism”  process.  It   collect 00%  products again, they rganic  material,  but  at  recyclethe  and notould  collect  the  products  again,  tat least not to eed   plastic.  Its  not  an  owould just need to least,  if   it brand  w to buy plastic anymore, or hey  would  just  nbuy morerplastic. and  not  to  buy  plastic  anymore,  or  at  least  not  to  buy  more  plastic.  It  wouldn’t  become  trash,  but   to   ecycle  it   h, but always, raw material. always,  raw  material.According to their method, innovative companies already pursuing thesestrategies are finding their way by listening to signals from outside the company 74    itself-signals in the community, the environment and the world at large. Andthey   are staying on track by allowing a few basic principles to guide their work:Signal Your Intention: Commit to a new paradigm rather than to an incremental
  • 75. According to their method, innovative companies already pursuing thesestrategies are finding their way by listening to signals from outside the companyitself-signals in the community, the environment and the world at large. Andthey are staying on track by allowing a few basic principles to guide their work:PRINCIPLES:Signal Your Intention: Commit to a new paradigm rather than to anincremental improvement of the old. The eco-effective strategy takes intoaccount that we are not in a perfect world; we are all, in some ways, intransition. Embracing real innovation within the context of todays market is notonly possible, its the key to a prosperous future.Restore: Strive for "good growth," not just economic growth.Feed Forward: Perfecting an existing product is not necessarily a goodinvestment. Maybe its time to create a new niche. Currently, many designersare productively engaged developing safe dyes for fabric. But what if dye wereobsolete? We looked to birds for guidance on that question and learned that thebrilliance of avian plumage is a prismatic effect; birds feathers are essentiallyclear and reflect different parts of the spectrum. Imagine polymers designed invarious crystalline shapes shimmering with color. Imagine light replacingchemicals in the textile industry.Prepare for the Learning Curve: Recognize that change is difficult, messy,and time consuming. Nike is currently working on a number of initiatives, suchas designing shoe materials for true recycling, that will take time to come tofruition.Celebrate Your Legacy: Understand and celebrate the far-reaching impact ofyour creative acts. Design can create effects from the molecule to the region,influencing everything from soil chemistry to the well-being of workers in a sunlitfactory.Accept Intergenerational Responsibility: David Orrs legacy answers thequestions posed by our final principle: How can we support the rights of all livingthings to share in the worlds abundance? How can we love all of the children ofall species for all time? A building that nourishes its surroundings and the mindsof those who inhabit it is a step in the right direction. As Orr told: "The Xgeneration doesnt see much hope in the world. I wanted to give them a senseof hope and the competence to act on that hope. This building gives thempossibilities, not just wishful thinking." 75      
  • 76. In complement to this last comment in the method of Cradle to Cradleprinciples, about generations, it’s not a coincidence that the development of thisresearch for the building, the spark for some different ideas and possibilities, iscoming not from people from the X generation, but from the Y generation.According to the book of Sidnei de Oliveira, “Geração Y: O nascimento de umanova versão de líderes” (Generation Y: the birth of a new version of leaders),says that it’s the nature of this generation to seek the change and one of itscharacteristics is to question everything. The founder of the Coletivo Verde, thebrand that will be analysed, also fits this generation, of people born between1979 and 1990.From Green Design to Good Design: The Science of Product Quality* * Interpretation of Cradle to Cradle ®As explained before, today, being "less bad" continues to be the strategy ofchoice for many environmentalists and green designers. But such approach, asmuch as it is based on good intentions, can create a whole range of deleteriouseffects. And because "less bad" strategies tend to define the world by what wecannot do, they can stifle inspiration and creativity.Actually, the efficient use of energy and materials can be a valuable part of abroad strategy of change and it can help slow down and turn around the currentindustrial system.How about an entirely different model? In the natural world, the processes ofeach organism in a living system contribute to the health of the whole.Understanding these regenerative qualities empowers us to recognize that allthe materials we use as designers-even highly technical, synthetic materials-can also be seen as nutrients. Textiles for draperies, wall coverings andupholstery fabrics can be designed as biological nutrients, which naturallybiodegrade and restore the soil after use, while technical nutrients, such asnylon carpet fiber, can provide high-quality resources for generation aftergeneration of safe, synthetic products, recyclable.The laws of nature are the bedrock of good design and material chemistry is thekey indicator of quality in this new context. The product chemistry can find outsafe, healthful alternatives. The result: a new palette of materials that nourishesrather than depletes the world.This new conception of design can be an empowering force. Understanding ofdesign as an expression of intelligence with nature, and by tapping into goodscientific support, designers can begin to lay a principled foundation for creatingbeautiful, healthful, delightful places for people to inhabit. Quality in this contextis not measured by a cost-benefit analysis, a benchmark derived from 76      
  • 77. regulations or a simple bottom line standard; quality becomes a measure of howwell a design supports, enhances and celebrates the health and well-being ofpeople and nature. Whether or not you call it green, this is good design.Thinking about fashion, which has in its principles the idea of beauty, in differentexpressions of course, or even, the aesthetic expression of life in clothes, thephenomenon of the ephemeral: Imagine if fashion becomes restricted to a feworganic products as the solution. What happens is that nowadays there is anextreme use of derivate from petroleum in everything, there is the abusive useof pesticides, and an unhealthy stimulus of ephemerality. The system is incollapse. So, the solution is probably not to decrease the level of beauty and artexpression, but find new solutions, new possibilities that don’t damage thenature. If the industrial revolution was capable to invent everything we havenowadays, there are possibilities to do everything again in a not harmful way.This just never was the priority. Now it is.Driving the change: By William McDonough & Michael BraungartDesigners’ actionsCradle to Cradle method instructs that when the product the manufacturerneeds doesn’t exist the way it is supposed to be, they need to tell supplierswhat they need, specified. The demand can make the best. Just as industriescan pool materials, designers can pool purchasing power, drive the market.Designers dont need to be scientists but must to be researches, to understandthe new context of design decision-making is the key to empowerment.Get support, access to scientific expertise and the latest tools of designchemistry can give the freedom to practice each ones craft with confidence inthe products chosen.Value Recovery PotentialTo recover value and maintain materials in closed loops, materials either returnsafely to soil or are recyclable as a technical nutrient. Evaluation of the valuerecovery potential of a material is based on the following considerations:Is it technically feasible to compost or recycle the material?Does a recycling or composting infrastructure exist for the material?What is the resulting quality of the recycled material or compost? 77      
  • 78. Have the materials and products been designed to facilitate post-use valuerecovery?Energy ProfileAs industry moves toward renewable energy sources based on current solarincome, materials and products can be evaluated for their effective use ofenergy. This process includes the following considerations:What is the energy intensity of a materials or products creation?What is the quality of energy (exergy) required for its creation?What energy sources are used in its creation, distribution, use, and valuerecovery processes? (Renewables vs. non-renewables.)Key Concepts of Cradle to Cradle Method:Biological Metabolism: The natural processes of ecosystems are a biologicalmetabolism, making safe and healthy use of materials in cycles of abundance.Biological Nutrient: A biodegradable (or otherwise naturally degradable)material posing no immediate or eventual hazard to living systems that can beused for human purposes and can safely return to the environment to feedenvironmental processes.Cradle-to-Grave: A model of industrial systems in which material flows on alinear path, from extraction through a brief use phase, before ending up aswaste. Cradle-to-grave systems are sometimes referred to as the "take-make-waste" model of industry.Cradle-to-Cradle: Amodel of industrial systems in which material flowscyclically in appropriate, continuous biological or technical nutrient cycles. Allwaste materials are productively re-incorporated into new production and usephases, i.e. "waste equals food."Downcycling: The practice of recycling a material in such a way that much ofits inherent value is lost (for example, recycling plastic into park benches).Eco-Effectiveness: Cradle to Cradle Designs strategy for intelligent andhealthy materials use, designing human industry that is safe, profitable, andregenerative, producing economic, ecological, and social value. 78      
  • 79. Eco-Efficiency: The strategy for "sustainability" of minimizing harm to naturalsystems by reducing the amount of waste and pollution human activitiesgenerate.Eco-Lease: Leasing system for implementing the Product of Service strategy.(See Product of Service below.)Ecological Intelligence: The elegant intelligence of natural systems andprocesses (such as nutrient cycling, interdependence, celebration of diversity,solar power use, regeneration, etc.).Externalities: The unforeseen or unaccounted negative impacts of a products,service, or system. Cradle-to-cradle approaches ask designers to identify andameliorate potential externalities as part of the intelligent design process.Good growth: In nature, growth is good. The real question we should beasking is: "What kind of growth do we want to promote?" Cradle-to-cradledesign talks, not about being "less bad", but about doing more good, not aboutminimizing damage, but about maximizing delight.Good industry: The current conversation about environmental and socialchallenges too often points to industry at the enemy. This is a mistake. The truevillain is bad design, and the solution is an industry that makes intelligent,informed design decisions. Cradle-to-cradle thinking is the key to thesedecisions.Life Cycle Assessment: A technique for assessing the potential environmentalimpacts of a product by examining all the material and energy inputs andoutputs at each life cycle stage.Product of Consumption: A product designed for safe and complete return tothe environment, which becomes nutrients for living systems. The product ofconsumption design strategy allows products to offer effectiveness without theliability of materials that must be recycled or "managed" after use.Product of Service: A product that is used by the customer, formally or ineffect, but owned by the manufacturer. The manufacturer maintains ownershipof valuable material assets for continual reuse while the customer receives theservice of the product without assuming its material liability. Products that canutilize valuable but potentially hazardous materials can be optimized asProducts of Service.Quality Dividend: Value which accrues to a product or service as a directresult of increases in its design quality. Cradle-to-cradle approachesdemonstrate that quality dividends can equal or exceed efficiency-based valuecreation strategies. 79      
  • 80. Intelligent Design: Design which takes into full account the inputs andexternalities of a products, service, or system. Intelligent design is iterative,requiring constant feedback, revision, and redesign as new informationemerges.Technical Metabolism: Modeled on natural systems, the technical metabolismincludes the processes of human industry that maintain and perpetually reusevaluable synthetic and mineral materials in closed loops.Technical Nutrient: A material that remains in a closed-loop system ofmanufacture, reuse, and recovery (the technical metabolism), maintaining itsvalue through many product life cycles.Unmarketables: Materials to be eliminated from human use because theycannot be maintained safely in either biological or technical metabolisms.Upcycling: The practice of recycling material in such a way that it maintainsand/or accrues value over time (the opposite of downcycling).Sustainability in BrazilPeople are the result of the surrounding where they live.Brazil has in its history a lot o environmental issues and conflicts, which writemany ideologies approaches regarding the sustainability in Brazil. According tothe brazilian philosopher, Marilena Chauí, the term ideology appears for the firsttime in 1801 in a book of Destutt de Tracy, Eléments dIdéologie (Elements ofideology). "Intented to elaborate a cience of the genesis of ideas, treating themas natural phenomena which expresses the relationship of human body, as aliving organism, with the environment).” The alienation of people is related tothe bad information passed to the big mass. The Internet is changing thisscenario.Also the sustainability is a process, which respects one of the main wealth ofthe country and also one of the main important identitarie aspect of the country.The biodiversity of nature and the diversity of people are in the basis of theBrazilian culture. So, the ethnics and class relations together with socio-ambiental are building the ideology of sustainability. The sustainability inBrazil is not only green, but maybe also black, white and red. It has a human, asocially ethic face. 80      
  • 81. 4.2 COLETIVO VERDEThe Coletivo Verde “Green Collective” started as a blog, in February 2010, todisseminate ideas, actions and products that contribute to a better world. Theconcept is of a nice space to share information about green products,companies, social, fair trade, actions and information to guide people to a worldmore fair and sustainable. The atmosphere of the blog is informal, to makepeople to feel free to share and interact with all available information on the blogand improve the knowledge and the concept of sustainability.The owner is Guilherme Augusti Negri, a 27 years old man who alwaysdreamed of working with services and products which could create a positiveimpact in the world. He worked for six years in the area of Digital Marketing inand now had an insight to “follow his heart”, as he says in the blog.The companys mission is to produce and sell sustainable products, workingalong the value chain with raw materials and ecological fair-trade. Guilhermetakes this idea as a challenge which he hopes “to learn and to contribute.”Based on two main pillars, quality and sustainable development, the products ofColetivo Verde aim don’t cause harm in any part of the process, from thecreation, investing time in the supplier research, and thinking about how tomake better the production and the sale of each piece. However, to achieve thisgoal, many obstacles must be overcome, analyzed the current context of Brazil,a country that had to industrialize rapidly to be competitive and to win the delayfollowing the western ways of development.So the brand has its core values as social and ecological. The attitude of theowners is to review and to recycle ideas ( work in the MINDSET level) inorder to achieve the ideal goals. "The big challenge is that sustainability is anew attitude and the market still cannot understand the depth of thischange," says Guilherme. 81      
  • 82. Image 4: The owner, Guilherme, wears the T-shirt Image 5: The wife helps in the brand and also wears the T-shirt: Familiar styleWhat he means is that there isn’t a sustainable economy and industrialdevelopment in Brazil to facilitate the work of a company like his. Therefore, itrequires personal effort to learn the entire production chain with their own eyesto make possible a production with the name of Coletivo Verde, and not justmake a greenwashing ( just using the value that sustainability represents, asmany brands do, as a marketing tool). It is really difficult to start a sustainable 82      
  • 83. brand from the zero. And for this company, the concept of sustainability mustbe integral, holistic. It is its DNA.The activity of stimulation of sustainable thinking earned the founder of ColetivoVerde a rapid recognition. Because it is a brand that express its identity throughthe Internet – vehicle which currently has 75 million users in Brazil2 - andbecause he has a dedication to disseminate information with good referencesand easy to read, he is becoming a "reference" in the industry and between thebloggers. The open chat, informal website, facilitates to dialogue with peopleand it was perceived by other companies such as Unilever, who invited him tojoin a possible sustainable blog of the brand. The big cosmetics companyNatura also gave him an invitation, more interesting in this case, to participatewith a stand at an event of the brand, "Natura Nós3", a festival that bringstogether music, sustainability, and a manifest of the "well-being well" slogan ofthe brand (Natura). Image 6: Pattern and T-shirt 83      
  • 84. Image 7: Pattern of Gandhi.BRAND ANALYSISThe productColetivo Verde thought of a way to inform, disseminate and encouragesustainable thinking through a product. And an apparel product seemed to bethe best way to get in contact with people through a need. The idea was alreadysettled: to develop a T-shirt. But how to develop a sustainable and quality shirtthat was commercially viable?The brand did a lot of research, considering the possibilities in Brazil and itcame to the conclusion that for the Brazilian reality the best option was to makea shirt of 50% PET and 50% cotton.Characteristics of Sustainable Collective Green Shirt:The shirt is woven with PET (50% Pet and 50% cotton) of Aradefe4. All theprinting is done with water based inks, not to generate wastes. 84      
  • 85. Image 8: The fabric used from AradefeThere is a lot of attention in modeling the t-shirts, which is in frequentimprovements to meet the Brazilian public, with such different measures causedby miscegenation. There are male shirts and female “babylooks”. And accordingto the owner, in every inch of the shirts there is “dedication, love andsustainability.”The sale is made via e-mail, a simple, personal selling, which tells people inavery personal service, the exact options, size and colors available.The shirts were made in the colors “champagne”, pink and green moss and thevalue of each piece is R$49 (aprox. U$25).The sustainability checklist of Coletivo VerdeFairtrade: Production 100% fair trade. “We know its difficult, especially in theharvest and industrial chains but try to get as close as possible and as close tothe ideal.” Certification within the standards FLO (Fairtrade LabellingOrganizations International).Goals: Production in 100% Fair Trade. 70% cotton products with certificationwithin the international consortium GOTS. 30% of PET products, with PartnerEnvironmental Certification. Carbon Free - with brand-neutral footprint – “Apartfrom day to day operations, such as site, energy used in office our goal is tomap the entire chain of production and any kind of transport including freight tothe end customer to measure the carbon footprint and neutralize it.” (GuilhermeA. Negri)The way chosen for neutralization is the restoration and maintenance of nativeforests, or the protection of native forests to "immobilize" the carbon. “Weunderstand that this is a very bold step and work to be done in a progressivemanner, because we need to measure the emission of third parties and takeactions of great financial support. Our goal is to be in 2012 with at least oneclothing line that is already fully mapped and neutralized in carbon emissions.”(Guilherme A. Negri)The immediate action is direct communication with suppliers (faction/silk) forenergy expenditure policies and the measuring of these costs, the search forpartners who will make the measurement and the neutralization of carbonemitted. 85      
  • 86. Reduction of Waste Resources and Reuse Program: In addition to aninternal program to reduce and recycle the material inside (office andproduction), they are creating a program to analyze the expenses of rawmaterial and reduce it. The waste generated will be reused or sent to recycle.The cases of industrial processing /spinning /dyeing they will make the selectionof suppliers that have a clear policy and certified waste treatment and especiallywater use and disposal of effluents into water with such byproducts of dyeing.In the service providers, they are implementing policies for reuse as the flaps ofthe T-shirts. And they are studying the possibility of creating a patchwork bagwith the leftovers and always to use more wisely the fabric.Proactive and Continued Surveillance: Besides working with the specificcertifications for each process they will personally review each case anddocument them and display them via the web. The frequency will be annual, orby exchanging one supplier.They affirm that will ensure to their “community and consumers” the truth behindwhat they fight for.Encouraging consumers to use the product after the lifetime of the product orgive hints and tips on what to do with the products (eg the shirts can betransformed into aprons and more). They also intend to organize and sponsorevents in exchange for clothes.Stationery / Advertising: Any advertising will be done with paper or FSCcertified by the competent organs and ink with water-based or anothertechnology more sustainable. We will encourage the use of electronic media forpreservation of paper. All use will be aware and be rethought.Packaging: the concept of zero-discharge. Biodegradable and possible to re-use after the purchase.Raw Material:The products were thought to follow two lines, the basis of PET fabric + cotton(50/50) and the ORGANIC cotton (100%)Pet Fabric: Nowadays they work with the fabric PET due to shortages in themarket for certified organic cotton and judging after study to be the bestsustainable alternative in Brazil. By February of 2011 the brand is going to becertified in the Ecocert5 certification.Organic Cotton: They aim to have it as 70% of the line as soon as possible andto have the consortium of certifying by GOTS (Global Organic Textile Standard).The focus in the search for local suppliers of cotton continues, but if they still 86      
  • 87. don’t find it, the best choices are to look for it in South America and later inIndia.Processing / Wiring / Dyeing: The choice of suppliers within the standards ofGOTS are already selected. They have a special concern about the dyeing.Ink/ Silk: They are testing and analyzing the MSDS6 for each paint. The defined:A water-based, non-PVC and phthalate free.Analysing the SituationGuilherme sees the solutions found as just the crawl of sustainable possibilitiesthat will in fact, make the difference in the clothing manufacturing process.In Brazil, a major world producer of cotton, organic cotton is produced very little.Companies that produce tend to have already sold the whole plantation to largecompanies. Thus, small businesses have no choice but to import. Othercompanies choose to do their own planting, an attitude that also requires a bigbudget.To Coletivo Verde the social issue is as important as the ecological. And in fact,Brazil is a country in which these two problems are in very close levels ofconcern.Thus, the businessman found out that to import the organic cotton that hedoesn’t have a real knowledge about the conditions of origin, makes no sense.The fact of contributing to social issues in Brazil is a huge asset and has a greatweight to the first steps of the brand.Organic cotton is the goal of the brand, as the smartest option for sustainableproduction. But until then, to the company’s comprehension, the surest way toproduce T-shirts with lower social and environmental impact in Brazil was the50% cotton and 50% PET. "Brazil does not have self-sufficiency in production of organic cotton," says Adriana Ramalho, director of development for Wal-Mart. "Therefore, we need to seek for alternative fibers. (CLAUDIA MAGAZINE - 04/2008)"In our analysis we found that in Brazil is almost impossible to get organiccotton and most of the fabrics produced here import the yarn from India, Turkeyand China, besides the emission of carbon from the transport distance itprevents us from reviewing and take responsibility for the raw material, andthese were the two major drawbacks of this tissue which made the choice aboutthe PET fabric to overlap in this first moment. The big advantage of the PETfabric is that it recycles a material that would be thrown in the trash and turns on 87      
  • 88. the shirt, in other words, it is an extremely intelligent way of reuses the plasticand reduces the use of regular cotton." (Guilherme A. Negri) Only the cotton crop accounts for about 30% of pesticide use on earth, contaminating the soil and rivers. I mean, the search for alternative raw materials and renewable energy is now a major industry challenges. (CLAUDIA MAGAZINE - 04/2008)The brand asks by the blog to the consumers if they know a better solution toindicate, until a reliable supplier of organic cotton to be available in Brazil. Thecotton option has even more environmental assets. For this, they created acommunity blog, "Green Fashion" for entrepreneurs, designers and interestedparties to discuss new ideas.Para ele, a reutilização de garrafas que iriam para o lixo é algo extremamentebenéfico para o meio ambiente e para as pessoas. A vida útil absurdamentealta, infinitamente maior do que tecidos a base de 100% de algodão, tambémorientaram o empresário que se posiciona contra o “fast fashion”:For him, the reuse of bottles that go to the trash is extremely beneficial to theenvironment and people. Also the fabric has a life absurdly high, far higher thanthe fabric 100% cotton, quality that also guided the entrepreneur who takes astand against the "fast fashion": "The Fast Fashion is a maximum of consumption that tells us frantically: buy, discard what you can and don’t think about it. We are precisely at a moment when we must rethink our attitudes and be more aware of our actions. The planet is suffering and we are moving toward an ecocide, the changes must begin with us. "(Guilherme A. Negri on the blog Coletivo Verde) 88      
  • 89. Image 9: Pattern about the Global Warming: subtle ironyThe prints are made by designers of the manager’s network and follow a line ofeco-consciousness with a playful tone sometimes. There is also a message of"nature" and "society" in an iconic style.As the issue of the transport cannot yet be solved – by the implementation of adistributive logistics responsible by the brand itself – Coletivo Verde chose todevelop a better package. And this is an example of the search for improvementof the business: a packaging developed with organic material meets theexpectations of post-use, but at the time of posting, the Postal Service put it in abox and saddle with lots of tape. In other words, the regulations of the postalservice to avoid business problems, called safety standards, make the productto lose all its original direction. 89      
  • 90. Image 10: The package designed by "Design Simples" to Coletivo Verde - the solution didnt achieve the ideal level, so they are still researching a new way. Made of bambooCompanys initial goal: to produce sustainable fashion at the lowest possibleenvironmental impact. To show through fashion, how to bring sustainability intothe daily life. To continue with the support from partners and customers towardthe goal of being a referential company in sustainability and quality.The collective issue: "We need your help, your honest feedback and yourideas to construct a new experience and improve sustainability in all ouractions."Market ResearchThe straight talk to the consumer facilitated the understanding of who they are.In a survey conducted by the brand, they’ve got the feedback from the shirtspurchased, the socio-economic profile of consumers and also indices of thefollowers of facebook and the movement of Internet users on the page. Toreceive opinions about the blog the brand did a promotion of a T-shirt raffleamong those who answered to questions. And this was an important step toimprove some technical aspects. Later I will highlight ideas for public projectdevelopment for the brand.CHALLENGES: Re-think the solutionThe PET issue: Brazil is now the second country in recycling bottlespolitereflalato ethylene, the popular PET, after Japan, according to the sensedisclosed in 2008 by the Brazilian Association of PET (Abipet). 90      
  • 91. Currently, are recycled in Brazil 253000 tons of material, which corresponds toa reuse of almost 55%, a rate that exceeds the U.S. (which recycles 23.5%),Argentina (27%), Europe (40%) and Mexico (15%).But while 45% of recycled PET are still wasted in dumps and landfills or aredumped into the soil, rivers and seas, Brazil imports this material. To completethe demand for raw materials, our industries buy PET used in other countries. "What will provide a leap in the recycling of PET is to create a robust system of collection. The alternative collection, made by cooperatives, allows only small gains," says Marçon. What must to contribute to this is the National Policy on Solid Waste pending in the Senate. According to the project, created two decades ago and approved by the House of Representatives a few weeks ago, the responsibility for the destination of the waste is shared by governments, businesses and citizens. "With the project, all municipalities will be required to perform the selective collection, "says André Vilhena, executive director of Cempre7 (2010)Today the public collection of recyclable material is ridiculously small. Only 405of the 5,561 municipalities undertake the separation of organic waste fromclean. This means that in most Brazilian cities, raw materials such as plastic,aluminum, metal, glass, paper boxes and long life are laid in the dumps andlandfills. As shown in solid waste policy, the citizen is also responsible forproper disposal of garbage and should act. How? Separating the trash at homeand requiring the collection of public sector organizations. Who wins with all thiseffort is the individual citizen.The issue: The recycling rate for PET, however, needs improvement, becausethe country today consumes almost six times more new PET, so theres morePET today than was left in the last century. Which means that maybe theclothes using PET are not using a product that would go to waste, but are takingthis product out of a recycling cycle of products made by plastic.What does this mean?That Brazil recycles 253,000 tons, but still produces six times more plastic. Thishappens possibly because obviously, in addition to increased consumption,there is also the deviation of plastics to other areas like fashion. According tothe Institute Akatu, the level of reuse of the material does not yet meet domesticdemand, in addition, the textile industry is the one that uses it. Thus, there aretwo issues to be analyzed: 1 - PET collected for recycling could be entering thecycle of things that in this moment are made essentially of plastic. 2 - Thebottles that are not recycled, aren’t recycled because there is not a structure to 91      
  • 92. collect all the bottles, and not because there isn’t what to do with it. In otherwords, making clothes of PET is not to give a destination for bottles that wouldgo to the garbage, because the plastic selected to be recycled has a destinationanyway: the increase in production shows the market demand. "A bottle of soda has many other applications, can be transformed into resin for surfboards and swimming pools, car mats, containers and tubes. In other words, the textile, chemical, automotive and plastics processing already dispute for the PET. Today the bottle is the third most reused materials in Brazil (54.8%). The second is of cardboard (79.6%), normally recycled by companies. " (Época Negócios, 08/04/2010)There is also the case of the methodology second the material metabolisms, aview that the mixture of plastic with an organic product creates a"Frankenstein," which at some point, many years from now, with no more re-usemakes this product literally become garbage therefore it will not decompose orbe recycled, as says McDonough (2003) “Perhaps even worse was the problem of dealing with the proposed fabric once its useful life was completed. PET could not be composted or turned back into natural nutrients and the cotton could not be recycled into industrial use; the material was what McDonough referred to as a “Frankenstein product” — a mixture of natural and synthetic materials, neither of which could be salvaged beyond the current life cycle.”In many sectors, companies from top to bottom in the chain of supply are facingthe same challenge: while well-intentioned, an isolated action or requirement tomake the company greener can create a long series of unintendedconsequences that together overshadow the benefits .But anyway, in the Brazilian production system today, what is the bestalternative?The organic cotton imported, which "increases the carbon footprint and are notaware of the growing area, and farmers involved in cultivation?The PET with cotton, which supposedly recycles plastic bottles that would be inthe garbage, to become a utility, clothing, but also becomes a closed loopproduct after some time?The normal cotton using insecticides, herbicides, fungicides, growth regulators,defoliants, desiccants, adjuvants, one of the most polluting industries in theworld?According to the Harvard Business Review in an article by Hau L. Lee, everycompany – in any place of supply chain, not just the end - should have a more 92      
  • 93. holistic approach to sustainability and to promote structural change larger thanusual. This may include radical innovations in production processes, theestablishment of fundamentally different relationship with business partners(relationships that may evolve into new models of service) and evencollaboration with several companies to build new structures in the industry.In other words, it is the change of a system that is currently based in agriculture,raw material suppliers, manufacturers of fabric, clothing, laundry and brands.Sustainability becomes very difficult in a cycle that involves so manycompanies, people and distances.For larger companies it is much easier to produce a sustainable product and aBrazilian example is the production (but not actually of design) the NaturalFashion. It can be defined as a model company in the textile market, withcommercial organic products and fair socially. The organic cotton have a naturalcolor since it is born, the result of a partnership with EMBRAPA, which hasdeveloped genetic improvement of the product, resulting from the intersection ofcolored cotton primitive (in existence for thousands of years in green, brown,red, beige and white) with the cotton Seridó, possessor of the longest-resistantfiber in the world, allowing extremely modern spinning machines for the textilesector.This cotton is planted in manual harvesting areas and has resulted in a cleanproduct, maintaining soil and ground water free of extraneous elements -chemicals that harm the ecosystem. Socially fair, because they don’t use hand-to-child labor, but the practice of family farming and the use of manpowercooperatives, mothers clubs and associations in the suburbs of CampinaGrande. The planting and harvesting are done by people in the region so as togenerate resources for local families. Local crafts (crochet, macrame,Renaissance, hand embroidery, application, hand weaving) is also used byvaluing the Northeastern culture and generating resources for their ownmanpower exists in the city - social dignity. A correct process from start tofinish, which results in menswear, womenswear, childrenswear, accessories,decor items and toys. But maybe it still has a certain lack in the fashion appeal.Clearly, the issue of sustainability is adding complexity and many challenges inmanaging a global supply chain which must be considered from end to end.For those who have the ability to control production more closely or evenpersonal, or rather, enterprise-level, one possibility might be more holistic, as anintegral production.In conversation with the manager of Coletivo Verde, it was established that oneof the possibilities for the use of organic cotton is the formation of a group ofsustainable brands that could buy together a whole harvest of cotton productionin Brazil. Meanwhile, the search for contacts and suppliers must continue to find 93      
  • 94. the most suitable option to make the shift of production as soon as possible,using the organic cotton. Besides environmental issues that seem to be morereasonable with organic cotton, there is also the question of touch, coolness ofskin breath and quality of a product 100% natural in skin contact in order toavoid allergies and health problems.4.3 DEVELOPING THE CASE: COLETIVO VERDEAs it was possible to observe, the sustainability parameters can present verydifferent and paradoxical ways. Since it is a recent area and still with fewsatisfactory results, the solution probably lays in research and development ofnew synergies which there are no mix of metabolisms allowing the re-cycle ofall kinds of materials, as the cycles in nature are done. Thus, the brand alreadyhas a main point in his mission as a company and many other points to beworked as a fashion company, and this was settled since the beginning, thecommitment with the investigation for new solutions, conceptual andtechnological. Thus, analyzing the other aspects of the brand, in severaldifferent angles, there are also some improvements to achieve the goal of beinga sustainable fashion brand.As the brand is very young and first of all, it’s a way of communicating theconcern with environmental and social issues, it is normal that there is nodesign team working on the style (only when required to make the patterns).Also the unique products developed are the recycled PET T-shirts, so they havea large path from now on to look for better options. This is a big opportunity tothe brand to position its products in a more innovative way of dealing with thesustainability and in the same time it is also a difficult case because until now,the DNA is all about the sustainability. In this moment, this is a strong point forthe brand, because as mentioned before, Brazil is in its process of improvingthe sustainable actions. No wonder that the owner already had greatopportunities and visibility with this approach. But considering a shift in thesystem in the next years, it would be naïve to drive a brand only with the valueof sustainability, considering all the values that can be used to a Brazilianbrand, with a humanistic and environmental proximity, in this special moment.As the owner suggested, he wants a brand that doesn’t look hippie or distantfrom people’s urban life. This open mind to its project is an opportunity todevelop an additional value to carry the brand towards the sustainability. Also,the same action is necessary to enlarge the potential of exploring a brand’sconcept. 94      
  • 95. Resuming, the work to be developed with the brand is to make it COOL andGOOD, competitive with regular fashion products, but cleaner and responsible.If the market is changing, this brand wants to be in the same path of thechange, for good.4.3.1 INVESTIGATING THE NUMBERSReturning to the fact that the brand knows their main customers, let’s visualizewho they are, what can helps in next analysis.Information collected by Coletivo Verde in action straight with thecustomers: Age of the customers 40+   30-­‐40   7%   8%   13-­‐20   19%   20-­‐30   66%   95      
  • 96. States where they live STATES   INTERNATIONAL   2   OTHERS   6   PE   3   CE   2   ES   3   PB   2   BA   5   MG   13   DF   5   PR   19   SC   7   RS   15   RJ   18   SP   303  4.3.2 WEB INFORMATIONDemographics according to its Facebook Fan Page: 96      
  • 97. Website Movement provided by Google Analytics: from 1st July to 31stAugust, 20108Site Usage39,234 Visits57,003 Pageviews1.45 Pages/Visit80.92% Bounce Rate00:01:29 Avg. Time on Site81.47% % New VisitsTraffic Sources OverviewReferring Sites: 27,762.00 (70.76%)Direct Traffic: 6,241.00 (15.91%)Search Engines: 4,493.00 (11.45%)Other: 738 (1.88%)32,605 people visited this siteVisitors Overview39,234 Visits32,605 Absolute Unique Visitors57,003 Pageviews1.45 Average Pageviews00:01:29 Time on Site80.92% Bounce Rate81.47% New VisitsCountry/Territory Visits PagesBrazil: 37.710Portugal: 612United States: 248 97      
  • 98. Japan: 159Argentina: 61France: 53United Kingdom: 38Germany: 36Spain: 36Canada: 25Pages on this site were viewed a total of: 57.003 times4.3.3 E-COMMERCE IN BRAZILBrazil was the main market for e-commerce in Latin America between 2007 and2009, according to a study just released by Visa and conducted by researchunit AmericaEconomia Intelligence.9The report says that the country recorded the highest growth in the region, with170% last year (in 2009). Besides a turnover that reached about 23 billionreais (13.23 billion dollars).It is expected that by the end of 2011 the region will have a 58% increase inonline sales to reach around 60 billion reais (34.5 billion dollars).According to the study, among the main factors responsible for change areincreasing the use of the web between the big retailers, the expansion of thetourism industry, better security measures and computer penetration andbroadband services.Coletivo Verde only sells by internet and until now, as an experience of theproduct’s acceptance, the sell is conducted by an e-mail request. The plans ofthe brand is to open the online store until the end of the year. 98      
  • 99. Social profile of the E-commerce in Brazil (in R$) - Number of Transactions Data: Less  than  1000   Between  1000  and  3000   Between  3001  and  5000   Between  5001  and  8000   More  than  8000   Doesnt  say   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40  The numbers provided by this research show that most part of the e-commercebuyers have an income between R$1.000,00 and R$5.000,00, more than 60%.These are people considered the middle-class, the one that had a big growingthese last years in Brazil. Age range - Number of transactions (%) Data: Unfl  17  years   Between  18  and  24  years   Between  25  and  34  years   Between  35  and  49  years   Between  50  and  64  years   More  than  64  anos   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35   40  As it is possible to see, the age range of all e-commerce transactions until 17years old is really small compared to the other ones. But in the sells of ColetivoVerde the sells until 20 years old represents 19%. Of course that probably thereis a bif number of people between 17 and 20 that can be considered the gapbetween the two researches, but anyway, it is a number to pay attention on it. 99      
  • 100. An speculation can be the factor that to buy in Coletivo Verde, anyone, from anyage can buy, because to pay the customer has to go to the bank and deposit.Usually the teenagers until 17 years old don’t have a credit card, so, to offeranother way of payment even when the online store starts, maybe is a wiseoption. The possibilities that can be considered are: credit card payment and abank billing. Education Degree - Number of Transactions (%) Data: Elementary  School   High  School   Graduafon  not  finished   Graduated   Post  graduate   0   5   10   15   20   25   30   35  The number of graduated, graduation not finished and post-graduated peopleare correspondent to almost 80% of the e-commerce buyers. This data mayconfirm the fact that the strong point of Coletivo Verde is in the quality ofinformation provided by the blog. People read it, comment, give ideas,suggestions and participate. This participation of this consumer suggests thebehavior indicated by Future Concept Lab of the “Consum-author” (2008), “anindividual with innovation in their blood and brain, and always greaterexpectations in every field, from fashion to technology and to the media, fromthose everyday purchases to journeys and to free time.” According to LuciaChrometzka, from FCL, in the web 2.0 era “people are participating in the newdemocracy, regarding access to information, technology and industrialprocesses, shaping the future of various business sectors.”104.3.4 SWOTStrenght: Open chat blog; Informal and democratic space where people feelfree to comment and participate; Subjects posted; Sustainable product (see the 100      
  • 101. image below); Patterns; Little bag; Attitude; Blog; Participation in fairs. Theowner is becoming a reference in sustainability considering the dedication tofind better solutions. The professional behavior, treatment and courtesy in theblog. Customer service. Network. The treatment of the customers as acommunity of people to share thoughts and actions.Weaknesses: It’s not made with organic cotton; Comfort and transpiration of a 50%synthetic product; Still doesn’t sell with credit card; Small number of options ofcolors, shapes and patterns. Doesn’t have a design team;Opportunities: Sustainable events; Foruns, discussion on internet, televisionand magazines; To develop a new concept of sustainability in Brazil. E-commerce in Brazil. A brand driven towards humanistic values. Partnershipsand co-brandings. To make a portal with a very simple language. Actions thatinvolve more the customers. A collection line. Promotions.Threats: Doesnt have another concept developed; What if sustainability becomes alaw in some years from now and the brand doesnt have another added value?Price can’t be more expensive. Frequency in the rhythm of launching newproducts. If there is no implementation of new solutions after a great period oftime. Small brand, so limited investment in innovation technology. 101      
  • 102. How the World feels about a sustainable brand: Source: Cohn & Wolfe. Esty Environmental Partners. Landor. Penn Schoen Berland. In a 11 Collaboration between Good and Column Five.Legend: 102      
  • 103. Objectives of COLETIVO VERDE:The challenges are to comprehend sustainability beyond the most popularconcepts, to meet what can be developed better, how, both in technology and inits basic concepts;To transform the activism in a fashion brand, in order to bring the concept ofsustainability to the physical plan, representative of the raw concept thatactually drives this activism;To be able to comprehend the mindstyle and to fit into the lifestyle of itscustomers, and future customers;To have the values of sustainable development in its DNA;To add values regarding to the Brazilian Genius Loci;The mission is the sustainable innovation (mindset), social respect andconsumer involvement in the actions of the brand;4.3.5 SUSTAINABILITY: TANGIBLE AND INTANGIBLE ACTIONSSustainability is a concept, which can be approached in different waysconsidering the possibilities of each sector. To understand better the waystowards sustainability, a diagram was created to this research.The idea is to set a starting point in the top level which resumes the sustainabledevelopment as “sustainable” in the meaning of “green” and ethics, in themeaning of social mainly. The idea is to achieve the equilibrium in each part ofthe modular system, as: sustainable and ethical, for the people, planet andproducer of profit, and off course, bringing values but also a physical and realsolution. Certainly each case can have a “physical approach” in a different way,considering the kind of activity of each brand. But in the high end, this diagramneeds to bring ideas and practices. 103      
  • 104.   Image  11:  The  sustainable  development  diagram  by  Carolina  Leal  LimaConsidering this, the brand must be evaluated in the items: Core values, Image,Product, Aim (thinking and doing), Communication, Capacities, Positioning andPotential, in order to be evaluated the order of progress to achieve the diagramholistic function aspects. Explaining again, this modular system was createdin this research to make it more clear the process, necessary to approacha new system, a new mindset and new perspective of a whole sector asthe fashion/textile one.THE SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DIAGRAMStatus quo (where the brand is now): The analysis will start with thestrongest point explored by the brand, which is in this case, the sustainability(as green). Even having an ethical approach, maybe the sustainability is moreevident. But it doesn’t mean it is the better-done process. As already explained,the low investment possible makes it difficult to come up with a technologicalsolution, as the value solution is explored too much in a “green sense”. The 104      
  • 105. problem is that if the message is too obvious, it becomes strict to people whoare already interested in sustainability and in the end, the message doesn’tspread very well.Goals towards ethical-sustainabilityThe production needs to bring solutions as values (intangible) and astechnology (tangible) already putting together ethics + sustainability, otherwisethe sustainable development is incomplete.Values towards ethical-sustainability: This is part of the intangible aspects ofthe brand, and the starting point of a holistic approach. It consists in spreadcorrect messages about the sustainable development and make peopleunderstand that it is a system and not only a practice. That it must be added bybig companies to really be effective and the most important, that it must begood instead of less bad. Even if the product offered is not yet good, it is themain goal regarding to technological aspects, but to spread this understandingcan be so important as the good solution by itself.Doing this, the company can help to change the mindset. But how this messagewill be spread? T-shirts are modern pamphlets, this is true, but maybe “eco T-shirts” have a limited reach. It is very important that the brand position itself as abasic brand, in order to take the gap of the brazilian market in sustainableproducts. But, where is this gap? This gap is in the fact that there are basicbrands but not 100% concerned with sustainability; there are sustainabledevelopers producing cool things but not with basic prices; there aresustainable brands with basic prices and not cool clothes even in basics; andthere are a lot of cool brands, with basic options but with almost nothing ofsustainable (only what refers to environmental laws). In other words, a brazilianbrand that is urban, basic, cool, easy going and relaxed, really concerned withsustainable development and which develops a non-cliché brazilian style ismissing in Brazil.So, if Coletivo Verde considers to open its market in this way, it needs anotherconcept, another value that not only the sustainable one. To equilibrate thediagram, let’s explore this value towards the ethical points: the socialapproach. 105      
  • 106. A SOCIAL CONCEPTColetivo already says everything: it is collective, inclusive, grow with the help ofpeople who care about helping a brand to grow in a good way and also it is abrand that help other brands, share information of suppliers, participate ofcongresses, foruns and many cultural and sustainable events. The idea isalready spread by all this participation and sharing, but it is important to bespread also by the products, as it was his objective creating the brand.The fact is that, to spread a message can be done with a t-shirt and a quote.But this is not the only way to spread a message. It can be more subtle andreach more people in this way.How?So Coletivo is collective, is social, it cares about ethics and the human values.These characteristics must be part of the brand as an approach, as a conceptto make it easier the communication with people.The actions of the brand, the style of the product, the patterns, the dialogue, thewebsite, the on line store, the pictures, all the communication as long as all theproducts and the design ideas, the marketing promotion must have this strongidea of something “collective”, inclusive, social, ethical. The idea of sharing, ofthe social medias, of creating communities can be explored by the brand. Alsothe Brazilian characteristics of acquaintance, of diversity, energy, activity, theget together, joy and empathy will be part of the sustainable development ofColetivo Verde as Values Milestones. 106      
  • 107. To understand better some values chosenEmpathy: The charisma of the owner in the way he treats the customer mustbe outlined and this reflects to the affection quality that the brand brings. Heopens his “heart” in the “about us” of the webpage saying that he was feelingunhappy with the old work and now is doing something he believes. People feelconnected to this idea of making a better world and a bonding happens. This isan extremely valuable fact that shows also the openness and exposure offeelings of the Brazilian people. It is a good way of communicating but also hasalways to be balanced in a professional attitude, what until now is visible in hiswork.Sharing and collaborating: Again, the strong point of sharing ideas,information, suppliers, and trying to make a community of people who havesimilar beliefs and also different ideas is very important. There is a humblenessand respect for the others ideas, exposed to all Internet users, which bringsmutual aid. There is also a sense of get together, friendship and union. As thename says, it is a “collective”. And in my point of view, if the sustainability is inthe DNA of the brand, is not only a marketing strategy, the name of the fashioncollection could be only “Coletivo”, while Coletivo Verde is the space fordiscussing the sustainability. A lot of people when answering the questionsabout Coletivo Verde in the research they did, use to say “Coletivo” only,instead of “Coletivo Verde”. In some years from now, maybe the sustainabilityparadigm is close to be effective and there will be other human and naturalvalues that “Coletivo” could set up, that has no color, not “green” or “yellow” or“blue”. Anyway, “Coletivo Verde” is the name, and it must continue, but this issomething to think about, the idea of the clothes being the result of somethingmade by the effort of a “collective” of people, by the use of ecological and socialmethods, products and process in order to create a good product;Young spirit and healthy: The style of the blog is not driven for teenagers,adults or older people. It is really basic and has a mix of customers. As showedin the graphic before, more than half of the customers are between 20 and 30years old. The possibility of other shapes and small differences in design canattract also older customers, from 30 to 40 years old, that are the biggest part ofthe e-commerce buyers. This is an opportunity to be taken by the brand as theconcept of sustainability by itself doesn’t have age, but can represents a healthylifestyle, what many Brazilian look for, followed by the idea of a young and freshmind. a) To set the concept: actionsThis is the moment when the sustainable approach, the brand identity, thestandards of sustainable solutions and the Brazilian Genius Loci must be puttedtogether to become the fashion identity of Coletivo Verde. 107      
  • 108. Talking to the owner, he defined that he would like the brand to be very urban,cool and simple: he believes in the basic style. The emphasis could be in thepatterns. In his idea, the patterns must be not “cute” but maybe ironic or funny.He wants a brand “good vibe”.In this case, there is already a resonance with the Brazilian personality and thestyle expected by the owner. The simplicity, the casual daily style, basic, isreally important in the Brazilian market, and it is the style of the most part of thebrands that are doing well in the country. Another style that works very well isthe one for people going to work, but it’s not the case here. Anyway, dependingof the case, it can also be an option for those that are permitted to wearsomething more informal in working situations.The brand is for active people, of all ages, that have this energy for tryingsomething out of the regular patterns, which represents health, life, well-beingand ethical. This is a message that communicates to many ages, so the designmust reflect also these possibilities, even in a very basic style.The t-shirts developed until now are very unisex and this is an interestingapproach of genders mixes. Maybe the shapes though, could be more exploredand stimulate also the Brazilian taste for clothes that play with the body in verysubtle ways.A natural atmosphere must be enhanced by the style of the pictures in the newonline store, as pictures spontaneous and the idea of group, friends,acquaintanceship and collective. Maybe the main pictures can be of momentsspent together in a group not of models, but regular people) and the pictures ofthe clothes in a spontaneous way, alone (as they already do). The quality of thepictures must be really good and the photographer must have a good feeling tocatch the natural beauty of these moments.The main Genius Loci of Brazil to be explored by the designers are the ones ofJoy and Irony, but not in a child style. This can be developed in a moreconceptual way and to play with the possibilities of colors and maybe theBrazilian “graffiti fine art”, in collaboration with good artists.In other words: Acquaintanceship, friends, fun, irony, joy, nature, health,life, collective, human, Brazil, fair, good. These are words that can provide alot of influences to the creative mind of the designers. The designers can playwith all the references, in an ethical funny way, about the historicalcharacteristics of Brazil. The Brazilian nature can be represented in colors,shapes, shades, lines and funny things found in the biodiversity and can bemixed with worldwide biodiversity of Brazilian immigrants’ descendants originsfor example. It is interesting in some way to put the Brazilian energy, or relatedto something that has a connection with Brazil, but not in a so iconic way. 108      
  • 109. The website can be responsible for making the purchase a conscious act whenin the moment of the purchase, the customer must to be sure that needs thatproduct and like it. It is about helping the feeling after the experience of buying,a good experience, without the feeling of guilt.BANIWA collaborationIn the product an example is the collaboration with the Indian tribe Baniwa. Thetribe is located in the north of the Amazon forest. This means almost Colombiaand also a place that almost 99% of the population will never pass by. It alsomeans a culture that many Brazilians would never know about. This would bepossible if some organizations didn’t have find out the artistic talents of the tribeand the organization capacity of these people. Nowadays they produce manycraftsmanship products with a great quality level and sell it not on the streets ofthe big cities, but in big shops of the big cities as Tok Stok (a brazilian “Ikea”style but more sophisticated). They also sell products as spices, have a greatdesign work on all this material and now want to develop patterns to clothing.They’ve got in contact with Coletivo Verde (even from so far they reached them)and asked to buy some eco t-shirts in order to produce their new products.This is an amazing opportunity to Coletivo to not only sell the t-shirts to theBaniwas (what could make their own t-shirts cheaper, because it is a biggerproduction) but it is an opportunity to share knowledge and maybe find outsustainable and natural ways of producing. The Baniwas can be oriented toexpress in artistic ways the values of Coletivo and Coletivo can learn valueswith the Baniwas.   Image  12:  Craft 109      
  • 110.   Image  13:  In  the  north  of  Amazonas,  almost  Colômbia       Image  14:  logo  Baniwa   110      
  • 111.     Image  15:  The  website  of  Tok  Stok  selling  Baniwa  products  The  tribe  already  won  many  awards:  Public  Management  and  Citizenship  2001,  World  Bank  of  Citizenship  2002,  Award  Social  Entrepreneur  Ashoka/Mckinsey  2001  and  Chico  Mendes  Award  2002,  from  the  Ministery  of  the  Environment.  Techonology toward ethical-sustainability:The technological approach is about investing in research and have thecommitment of looking to the levels of Cradle to Cradle concept.To establish a new standard;According to the book by John Grant in the book The Green MarketingManifesto (2009), there are three ways of approaching the sustainability: 1-establishing new standards and communicating; 2- sharing the responsibilityand to collaborate; 3- to sustain the innovation and reshape the culture. 111      
  • 112. What Coletivo Verde is taking as a first step, here considered as a Valueapproach, can be the same as the 3rd step of Grant: to sustain the innovationand reshape the culture, in the sense of reshape the culture by communicatingthrough a product.The C2C (Cradle to Cradle) paradigm sets that it’s a complete system that mustand will be changed. So, for those that don’t have conditions to bringtechnological changes, in my point of view, should be able to be always makingthe good in different levels.What does this mean?That the knowledge may be spread and collaborations with big companies orresearch sectors can be done.It can sounds paradoxical try to achieve the good doing the less worse. But,again, this is a schema considering the possibilities of the Brazilian reality ofsmall business growth. Maybe in United States and Germany, where WilliamMcDonough and Michael Braungart are from, respectively, things happen in adifferent rhythm. And also, the companies they worked for are establishedcompanies, suppliers of textiles and companies like BASF and FORD. But to berealistic, “how to start” a sustainable brand when you are 27 years old, in Brazil,can be a little bit different.Considering this, the C2C can be a philosophy line to be reached, while otherways, maybe better, are not discovered in this mysterious phase of systemsshift. But there is a path until to be able to do it, and a compromise of notrelaxing in this path, in relation to the improvement of materials, processes andconcepts.John Grant’s book approach the phase 1 in the case of a regular brand thatwants to be sustainable but how to do it without doing a greenwashig (to usethe sustainability as a marketing strategy only). But as Coletivo Verde growstowards the sustainability aim, let’s consider the communication as the activismalready practiced (things must be adapted to each case). So, it’s possible to saythat the phase 1 is well developed and must be strengthened by the continuousimprovement of information and the spread of a new mindset.According to my evaluation, Coletivo Verde is in the phase 2, where thedevelopment is made by chatting, sharing information, participating of eventsand spreading the sustainability concern. As a result, it helps the education ofpeople and the shaping of a community. Also the results can be seencommercially and in some environmental reduction of damage. This step isbeing consolidated by the participation of an important event, the “Natura Nós”;by the Forum created “Moda Verde” to discuss specific ideas; by the invitationto participate in the bloggers bench of a marathon for fundraising to the 112      
  • 113. Association of Assistance to Disabled Children (AACD) in an event calledTeleton which will be broadcasted in national level by the television channelSBT; and the project of developing a sustainable national event next year withmany other people working as voluntaries and collaborators. With so manyparticipation and opportunities it is important to spread right concepts and tostimulate also, with the idea of green (Verde) also the idea of collective(Coletivo).The fact that the brand is only online is an important symbol of what John Grantaffirms to be an important vehicle to the change into the sustainable innovation.According to him, the web is changing business models and showing each timemore, the value of the service rather than a product. So, this is something toevaluate, the creation of platforms instead of products.While the product is still the main case, it is necessary to think in the ways tomove to the 3rd phase, where there is a sustainable innovation and the reshapeof the culture, what can get closer to the paradigm of C2C. This phase isprobably a long term moment but it can be faster if some actions are prioritized.As the brand has already a good network, it would be valid to find organizationsthat are moving in the same thought direction and try to cooperate with them. Aplatform of new production system can be established with organizations likeInsituto-e12, in the sense of technological development, the Instituto-e is one ofthe most creative ones in Brazil, and it is idealized by Oskar Metsavaht, theowner of Osklen. The Instituo-e developed the e-fabrics, for development ofbetter materials, which intends to communicate and represent the values ofbiodiversity in Brazil, traditions and culture , indicating the possibility ofgenerating business opportunities to all the textile chain in the world. They workwith raw materials from renewable character to be used for the production chainof fashion in general. And there is a real “fashion” approach on it, in the qualityand aesthetics of the materials. The organization also works with recycled PET,but the idea of developing a separated metabolism system can be anopportunity to this organization that has founds for innovation, as a new line ofthinking the sustainability, connected to the idea of a young small brand,representing a community of young people looking for better eco and socialproducts. It is a completely different identity that Osklen has, and it wouldn’t beharmful to it. Also because the e-fabrics are developed for the use of Osklenand to be sell to other brands. Also the e-fabrics are not completely perfect, butthey are positioned to the same aim.Just for information, the Instituto-e, e-fabrics, developed the technology to usefish leather by Osklen. The “badejo” is a fish that is basically used for feeding,and the other parts go to the production of animal feed. Their skin is usuallydiscarded as trash. Therefore, the use of this skin avoids the waste. The catchof this fish is done consciously and not predatory, with respect to environmental 113      
  • 114. laws and the reproduction periods of species. This still doesn’t mean that to useanimal skin is good, but in this case, they are really using trash, because thisskin was not used for anything else. Hopefully, there is a politics of keeping thisconcept of avoiding the waste and not offering more “fish” in the market.SENAI CETIQT is a the main center of textile studies in Latin America, andhave many offices concerned to bring innovation to the sector. A project couldbe presented to Senai Cetiqt in order to develop textiles and accessories withthe aim of “waste equals food”. It is part of the Association of the TextileIndustry in Brazil and if the importance of this shift would be presented, maybea partnership could happen.To continue the advance of the standards, to change the use of the PET andcotton fabric to the organic cotton one, is one of the first practical actions.Also the new products that will be necessary, as buttons, must to respect theidea of separated metabolisms, prioritizing the use of organic materials, asBrazil doesn’t have an efficient separated trashes’ collect system for recycling.As a transitive point between phases, is the organization of the event which thebrand intends to organize. Coletivo Verde has the chance to participate ofsomething inclusive, different of the models used by the fashion system andwith a well-cared aesthetics, that doesn’t pass the idea that sustainability is farof the real urban life, but with concepts which shows that this urban modern lifeis also part of the nature. Metals, petroleum, rubber, animals, trees, rivers, it isall from Earth, it is all part of the same biosphere. The problem is when thingsare putted where they shouldn’t be.Regarding to a new standard is also the necessity of making the brand becomecompetitive as regular brands, in the sense that the effectiveness ofsustainability is in the moment that it pleases not only because of the cause, butbecause of itself. Otherwise, we can watch the separation of those that let theaesthetics beside for something more sustainable and of those that prefer theaesthetics than to act correctly in respect with the environment. While there is avisible separation in peoples’ choices, there is no effectiveness. When beautyand sustainability get together, and the world don’t get deprived of theirachievement of beauty, comfort and technology, but learn how toconsume in a less emotional, compulsive way, and there is no naturalharm, but only cycles, as defined, from cradle to cradle, probably, anholistic, sustainable development will be happening. 114      
  • 115. CHAPTER 4                                                                                                                          1  Instituto  AKA  2  3  4  5  6  A  material  safety  data  sheet  (MSDS)  is  a  form  containing  data  regarding  the  properties  of  a  particular  substance  7  8  Information  received  from  Coletivo  Verde  9­‐commerce-­‐no-­‐brasil-­‐faturou-­‐23-­‐bilhoes-­‐de-­‐reais-­‐em-­‐2009-­‐diz-­‐estudo/  10  11  12                                             115