Systems fashion and sustainability values as innovation drivers in brazil


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The reconfiguration of Designs‟ DNA that rather than continue to focus its
attention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, to reconciling the human
state. No longer about the lifestyle, design is about the lifecycle, and products
are about meaning. The comprehension about the values that are emerging in
the society and Brazil as respective place where some of them can be found,
takes the research to the analysis and improvement of a brand that has a lot to
contribute with the new paradigms

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Systems fashion and sustainability values as innovation drivers in brazil

  2. 2. To my mom who showed me that men and nature are one;To my dad who showed me some things in the world are not making sense; To my aunt who put these things together; To my ‘grandmas’ who hold everything with love. 1
  3. 3. ABSTRACTKeywords: Systems, fashion, sustainabilityThe reconfiguration of Designs‟ DNA that rather than continue to focus itsattention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, to reconciling the humanstate. No longer about the lifestyle, design is about the lifecycle, and productsare about meaning. The comprehension about the values that are emerging inthe society and Brazil as respective place where some of them can be found,takes the research to the analysis and improvement of a brand that has a lot tocontribute with the new paradigms. 2
  4. 4. INDEX1.INTRODUCTION…………………………………………………………………..52. SYSTEMS………………………………………………………………………….72.1 WHY DO WE THINK AS WE THINK: The mindset…………………………72.2 CHALLENGING CONVENTIONAL THINKING:Challenging the system……………………………………………………………122.3 FASHION SYSTEM……………………………………………………………..142.4 CIVILIZATION OF DESIRE: The system and the consumption………..162.5 AESTHETIC BARBARISM?.......................................................................172.6 FASHION CRISIS: The people make the system………………………….182.7 THE FUTURE OF THE SYSTEM: Emerging values……………………….213. BRASIL, BRAZIL…………………………………………………………………333.1 THE FUTURE BELONGS TO PEOPLE………………………………………373.2 “WHAT DOESN’T KILL ME MAKE ME STRONGER”……………………..393.3 BRAZILIANS AND THE BRAZILEIRISM: DNA……………………………..443.4 FASHION + BRAZIL…………………………………………………………….524. A SUSTAINABLE BRAZILIAN CASE………………………………………….674.1 SUSTAINABILITY: Concept and lines of thought………………………..804.2 DEVELOPING THE CASE: COLETIVO VERDE…………………………….914.2.1 INVESTIGATING THE NUMBERS………………………………………….924.2.2 WEB INFORMATION…………………………………………………………93 3
  5. 5. 4.2.3 E-COMMERCE IN BRAZIL………………………………………………….954.2.4 SWOT…………………………………………………………………………..984.2.5 BRAND’S CONCEPT……………………………………………………….1004.2.6 BRAND’S PRODUCT AND PROMOTION IDEAS: Applying the conceptin the details……………………………………………………………………….1055. CONCLUSION…………………………………………………………………..1206. BIBLIOGRAPHY………………………………………………………………...122 4
  6. 6. 1. INTRODUCTIONThe systems we inherited from the Industrial Revolution are built on a way ofmanufacturing model that generates products designed for a one-way trip thelandfill. Much of them are toxic. And most of these conditions are the result of anot aware conceived plan; they are the signals of flawed design. And they areeverywhere.So, if there is an obsolete system ruling things, it is very difficult to have aneffective change in products and processes from a day to another. How does asystem start to change? In this research the way to know how to start changingsome things is taken, and the industry, in special, the fashion industry will bequestioned and consequently, also the sustainable solutions.The fact is that sustainable development agenda, typically aims to reduce, re-use and recycle, creating "more goods and services while using ever-lessresources and producing less waste and pollution." So, how does fashionshould to behave to be able to practice a sustainable development? Or better, isa sustainable development the real solution? Probably yes, but whichsustainable development? There are so many ways of approachingsustainability. The first decade of the new century is producing already morequestions than answers. But a well-placed question can be better than a badplaced answer. Therefore, the arguments to construct a new mindset are themain effort of this research.What is visible, though, is that this is a way regarding to the structure ofperceptions and paradigms. And these structures are built by the values of thesociety, its social imaginary, and the interconnections of social,cultural andindividual life. And these values can drive the innovation. So, to put the thoughtsin practice, a place and a case are chosen. The „funnel of knowledge‟ will taketo the understanding that Brazil has many reasons to be comprehended by nowand the study of a Brazilian case is an opportunity to highlight these valueswhich are being speculated here, and also to provide an orientation consideringall the issues that will be discussed in terms of values, approach and aesthetics. 5
  7. 7. “Is the system going to flatten you out and deny you your humanity, or areyou going to be able to make use of the system to the attainment of human purposes?” Joseph Campbell 6
  8. 8. 2. SYSTEMS2.1 WHY DO WE THINK AS WE THINK: The mindsetThe world view and the system of values that underlie our culture have beenformulated in its essentials in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Between1500 and 1700 there was a drastic change in how people describe the worldand in their whole way of thinking. This change led to Western civilization inthose aspects that are characteristic of the modern era. In the sixteenth andseventeenth centuries "the notion of an organic universe, living and spiritualwas replaced by the notion of the world as if it was a machine, and the world‟smachine has become the dominant metaphor of the modern era. Thisdevelopment was brought out by revolutionary changes in physics andastronomy, culminating in the achievements of Copernicus, Galileo andNewton" (Capra 1999: 49). Considered as the "Age of the Scientific Revolution",this moment in history began with Copernicus. However, the true change inscientific opinion was caused by Galileo Galilei. "The role of Galileo in thescientific revolution is well beyond his achievements in astronomy (...). He wasthe first to combine scientific experimentation with the use of mathematicallanguage to formulate the laws of nature discovered by him, so he is, therefore,considered the father of modern science "(ibid.).To enable scientists to mathematically describe the nature, Galileo postulatedthat they should restrict themselves to the study of the essences of materialbodies - forms, quantity and movement - which could be measured andquantified. According to the psychiatrist R. D. Laing1, in this process, whichbecame an obsession for scientists, nothing has changed the world more thanthese four hundred years of quest for measurement and quantification. Thus,sensibilities, ethics, aesthetics, values and consciousness were lost.In “The Turning Point” the writer Fritjof Capra, Ph.D. at Vienna University,explains about the philosophical implications of modern science, bringing adifferent vision of the reality, enhancing changes in our thoughts, perceptionsand values. In his analysis, he explains that, like Galileo, Descartes believedthat the language of nature was mathematics, and his desire to describe nature 7
  9. 9. in mathematical terms has led him to his most famous discovery. By applyingthe numerical geometric relationships, he could correlate algebra and geometryand doing so he established a new branch of mathematics, now known asanalytic geometry. The essence of his method was discarding the doubt, andcomes to a thing that cannot be doubted, the existence of himself as a thinker,coming to his famous statement "Cogito, ergo sum." I think, therefore I am. Themethod of Descartes is analytical. It is to decompose thoughts and problemsinto their component parts and arrange them in logical order. This method isperhaps his greatest contribution to science. This essential feature of thoughtmade possible the development of scientific theories and implementation ofcomplex technological projects. According to Capra, Descartes created themethod that made it possible for NASA to take the man to the moon. Image 1 cabeFor Descartes, the material universe was a machine, nothing else but amachine. There was no purpose, life or spirituality in the matter. The natureworked according to mechanical laws, and everything in the material world 8
  10. 10. could be explained by the organization and movement of its parts. Thismechanical picture of nature became the dominant paradigm of science in theperiod that followed Descartes. He gave to the scientific thought its overallstructure, the conception of nature as a perfect machine, governed by exactmathematical laws.The drastic change of nature‟s image, of the organism to the machine, had apowerful effect on peoples attitudes in relation to the natural environment. Theorganic worldview of the Middle Ages meant a system of values that led to anecological behavior. Capra quotes Carolyn Merchant, the writer of The Death ofNature who says that “While the Earth was thought to be alive and sensitive,would be a violation of human ethical behavior to carry out destructive actsagainst it. The image of Earth as a living organism and nurturing mother servedas a cultural restriction. Those restrictions disappeared when there was themechanization of science. The Cartesian conception of the universe as amechanical system has provided a "scientific" support for the manipulationand exploitation of nature that have become typical in the Western culture. Inthis context, the scientific knowledge became the way to the purpose of men tobecome the masters and rulers of nature.Descartes created the conceptual framework for the science of the seventeenthcentury, but his conception of nature as a perfect machine, governed by exactmathematical laws, remained just as a simple vision in his life. Descartescouldn‟t do more than to sketch the outlines of his theory about the naturalphenomena. The man who brought to reality the Cartesian dream andcompleted the scientific revolution developing a complete mathematics‟reformulation of the mechanistic view of nature and therefore held a grandsynthesis of Copernicus, Kepler, Bacon, Galileo and Descartes‟ works wasIsaac Newton. The Newtonian physics, the crowning achievement ofseventeenth-century science, remained as a solid foundation of scientificthought until a large part of the twentieth century.Newton unified trends from previous studies and developed a methodology inwhich natural science has to rely thereafter, by formulating the general laws ofmotion, which govern all objects in the solar system, from stones to planets. 9
  11. 11. The unquestionable success of Newtonian physics and Cartesian belief, in thecertainty of scientific knowledge, led directly to the emphasis that was given inour culture, to a heavy investment and development of science and technology.In the course of Newtonian physics, Locke2 developed an atomistic conceptionof society, describing it in terms of its basic component, the human being. Asthe properties of gases and atoms are reduced, Locke tried to reduce theobserved patterns in society to the behavior of individuals. So he went to studyfirst the nature of the individual human being, and then, tried to apply theprinciples of human nature to politics and economics problems. When Lockeapplied his theory of human nature to social phenomena, he was guided by thebelief that there are laws of nature governing human society, similar to laws thatgovern the physical universe. According to John Locke, these laws included,among others, the natural freedom and equality between all individuals. Hisideas became the basis for the system of values during the Iluminism andthese had a strong influence on the development of modern economic andpolitical thought.Other important events marked the structure of human consciousness as theknowing about Darwin‟s Evolution theory and Einsteins scientific trials, whichare intellectual monuments of the early twentieth century. In the beginning ofthe XX century other physicists have also discovered several phenomenarelated to the structure of atoms and this exploration of atomic and subatomicworld brought scientists with a strange and unexpected reality that sprayed thefoundations of their worldview and forced them to rethink in a totally again.Any adjustment in a system is not easily accepted. So, come to be requiredprofound changes in concepts of space, time, matter, object, cause and effect,which are fundamental concepts, according to Capra, to our way ofexperiencing the world.Fritjof Capra affirms that “the evolution of a society, including the evolution ofits economic system, is closely linked to changes in the system of valuesthat underpins all its manifestations. The values that inspire the life of a societywill determinate its world view, as well as religious institutions, enterprises andscientific technology, besides the political and economic actions that 10
  12. 12. characterize it. Once expressed and codified the set of values and goals, it willform the structure of perceptions, intuitions and choices of a society in order tohave innovation and social adaptation. As the system of cultural values change- often in response to environmental challenges - new patterns of culturalevolution come into sight.” (CAPRA, 2006:182) "The overall name of these interrelated structures, the genus of which the hierarchy of containment and structure of causation are just species is system. The motorcycle is a system. A real system. To speak of certain government and establishment institutions as “the system” is to speak correctly, since these organizations are founded upon the same structural conceptual relationships as a motorcycle. (…)There‟s no villain, no “mean guys‟ who wants them to live meaningless lives, it‟s just that the structure, the system demands it and no one is willing to take on the formidable task of changing the structure just because it is meaningless. But to tear down a factory or to revolt against a government or to avoid repair of a motorcycle because it is a system is to attack effects rather than causes; and as long as the attack is upon effects only, no change is possible. The true system, the real system, is our present construction of systematic thought itself, rationality itself, and if a factory is torn down but the rationality which produced it is left standing, then that rationality will simply produce another factory. If a revolution destroys a systematic government, but the systematic patterns of thought that produced that government are left intact, then those patterns will repeat themselves in the succeeding government. There‟s so much talk about the system. And so little understanding." - Robert Pirsig, 19743 11
  13. 13. This work is concerned about these values, these meanings – which withtechnological, social, intellectual (and other) developments – are beingmodified. As observed, was through key moments of the transformation in thecomprehension skills that values have been renovated and applied to life.Taking this in consideration, everything we know in the world, the human notion,can change all of a sudden. While this doesn‟t happen in a so drastic way, it isimportant to keep pace with the signs of society.EconomyThe economy is defined as the discipline that deals with the production, thedistribution and the consumption of wealth. It tries to define what is valuable atany given time, studying the relative values of trade in goods and services. Sothe economy is, among the social sciences, the most clearly dependent ofvalues. The economic growth in our culture is inevitably linked to technologicalgrowth. Individuals and institutions are hypnotized by the wonders of moderntechnology and come to believe that for every problem there is a technologicalsolution. “Whether the problem is political, psychological, or ecological, the firstreaction that comes almost automatically is to address it by implementing ordeveloping some new technology. To the over-consumption of energy isproposed the nuclear energy, lack of political vision is compensated by makingmore bombs and missiles, and the poisoning of the natural environment isameliorated by the development of special technologies that, in its turn, affectthe environment in a still ignored way. While seeking for technological solutionsto all problems, we usually just limit ourselves to transfer them from one point toanother in the global ecosystem, and, too often, the consequences of the"solution" are more harmful than the original problem.2.2 CHALLENGING CONVENTIONAL THINKING: Challenging the systemDavid Carlson, renowned for his knowledge of strategies in design,communication and brand development, and David Brent Richards, multiawarded winning Chartered Architect and Designer, also ex Dean of Design at 12
  14. 14. Saint Martins, created together the “David Report”, an „arena‟ which aims tocover the intersection between design, culture and business with a creative andhumanistic appeal. By challenging conventional thinking they are trying to makea difference.In March 2010, it was launched an issue of David Report called "Time to rethinkdesign. In this edition, the report question if design is maybe being one of this“solutions” that can be more harmful than helpful. According to the research,design is now a great source of pollution. As process and a phenomenon,design has degenerated into a state of aesthetic proliferation that has reachedaccumulative and destructive levels, in terms of loss of meaning, value, andidentity. “The result is a vacancy of purpose, a world full of „designer jetsam and flotsam‟ that is swilling around or embedded into or above our planet; poorly designed products, unwanted solutions, unfriendly materials, and a mutli-choice of artefacts that are discarded as fast as they were adopted.” David ReportLike other areas, the design has been participating in a system where theinnovation lies in the creation process and possible industrialization. The searchfor a good design is often unquestioned and extrapolates to an argument inwhich all ideas must be made, masked by the permissive process of „designsolutions‟. According to David Report, the diagnosis is not making Designbetter, but making Design matter.“Making Design matter should be about „mind over matter‟. Using our creativeminds, our collective imagination and ability to evolve human construction. Theact of design is a truly powerful human intervention, but we must do it lightly andwe must think more coherently before we act. All design should support orstrengthen life in one way or another. Does design have a value if it does notfavour the human context? Design remains an isolated foreign object when it 13
  15. 15. has no sense of belonging; it employs no reward and processes no genius loci.The best design has so often managed to transfer social trends and lifestylechanges into successful responsive products and services. It does so byholding onto a holistic perspective, which respects humanistic values andcultural identity. Designs‟ DNA needs to be reconfigured. Rather than continueto focus its attention upon invention, innovation, and enterprise, it should bereconciling the human state and contributing humbleness, compassion,empathy and beauty. To transcend the norm, and to leave the world a betterplace than we found it. Design is no longer about the lifestyle, but the lifecycle.Everything that is manmade is designed, so we cannot blame nature foroverreacting or the current design aware generation for poor quality. We mustorientate our endeavors towards understanding ambiguity and contradiction,embracing diversity over uniformity and identifying inclusiveness, overexclusiveness.”What David Report is working on is to break with the cycle of a system that nolonger makes sense, as something that lost its basic values. To rethink asystem is to watch the collective cultural memory needs, is to listen to newnarratives, to take time to ponder and revalue our lives.2.3 FASHION SYSTEM “A system of morality which is based on relative emotional values is a mere illusion, a thoroughly vulgar conception which has nothing sound in it and nothing true.” - SocratesAs a product of design, fashion is also participating of this system that must tobe questioned instead of just produced. Producing by producing is just anobject. Nothing to do with the fashion defined by Gilles Lipovetsky as “the firstmajor mechanism for the consistent social production of personality on display"(LIPOVETSKY, 1989). 14
  16. 16. This Fashion System, sharp, at the edge commercially, of the big global brandsand of mass production is a result of the civilizing process and of the economicsystems based in the economic growth at all costs . A system, unscrupulous, inthe borders of beauty and horror, addressed to contemporary anxieties andspeculations about body and identity has now to define which role it plays inarticulating contemporary concerns about the self and the world.Caroline Evans investigated fashion with the lighting in the sector, proposed byLipovetsky that “fashion is socially reproductive, training us to be flexible andresponsive to change in a fast-changing world: fashion socializes human beingsto change and prepares them for perpetual recycling.”(LIPOVETSKY, 1994:149) According to Evans, the personality of fashion, kinetic, is the personalitywhich a society in the process of rapid transformation most needs. As animportant role to play, fashion was promoted from superficial and frivolous, to apart of the “civilizing process”. Indeed, it is, but it is also, equally, capable ofproviding a resistant and opposing voice to that process.4In an interview during a degree graduation event at Parsons, the designerDonna Karan said to FITs Valerie Steele her thoughts about the sector and thesystem: "I think theres been a shift in a fashion designers approach to fashion. The old system is Lets create a dress, lets put it down the runway, thats the end of it. I think its far more complicated right now . . .I think were on the cusp of something major. I really think conscious consumerism is where its at . . . There are so many more messages out there than just, This is the hot new item of the season. There has to be consciousness within the clothing . . . and something that people want to wear, something that makes them feel good, feel good on the outside and feel good on the inside." Donna Karan (02/05/2010)5To the writer Anne Hollander (author of the books “Seeing Through Clothes”,“Sex and Suits”, and “Feeding the Eye”) “the reign of fashion represents a 15
  17. 17. genuine desire for personal and creative freedom that cannot simply bemanipulated”. This approach connected to the role of fashion in constructingclass, gender and age identities, and the diverse ways in which fashions arecreated and imposed, also with the democratic possibilities afforded in afashionable society are arguments that always set fashion as somethingfascinating and intriguing of human‟s personality usually discarded the fact thatit is, above all, a social and economic system.2.4 CIVILIZATION OF DESIRE: The system and the consumptionTo understand the systems that rules the contemporary thought andconsequently, life, for further analysis of the fashion system, can be a way tomake things clearer and understandable, in order to avoid the conclusion fromthird parts of any inclination to political lines, partisanship or utopic idealism. Tounderstand how the culture of production unfolded in the twentieth century canmaybe open some insightful perspectives to a better comprehension about therelation between people, production of goods and nature, without prejudices.Hopefully it also can bring some simple and useful inputs for fashion and designfields.Regarding to the contemporaneity results of the systems, Gilles Lipovetsky6presented in his book "Le bonheur paradoxal" (Paradoxal Happiness) a newmodernity which coincides with the "civilization of desire", built during thesecond half of the twentieth century. This refers to a revolution that happenedwith the new guidelines of the capitalist system on its way to a perpetualstimulation of demand, and commercialization of indefinite multiplication ofneeds – an issue that we‟ll turn the handle again during the research. Accordingto the author, the consumption capitalism has taken the place of the productioneconomics. The affluent society has changed the ways of life and habits, and asa result, a new hierarchy of ends: a new relationship with things and with time,with themselves and others. This society of mass consumption is aphenomenon that has changed profoundly the lifestyles and tastes, aspirationsand behavior. 16
  18. 18. 2.5 AESTHETIC BARBARISM?According to Lipovetsky (2007), our age has witnessed a wave of vulgar andpornographic images. It also testifies to a legion of happenings andperformances, spraying the aspirations for the beautiful and the lasting work,with the raise of the "make anything" to its own perfect crowning. Everywhere,the shopping streets, the touristic spots, the art and craft shops offer the samekitsch items, the same imitation jewelry, the same exotic objects. At the sametime, the proper attitude or the contemplative aesthetic was supplanted by aconsumption of images in constant renewal, less saw than swallowed with greatspeed. In front of the television or at the museum, is the hyperconsumer withtheir conduct of zapping and inattentive curiosity. Is it a triumph of commercialdisposable, of the dispersion? In this hiperproduction system, is the Homoaestheticus an endangered species?The author reassures that even real, these phenomena do not represent thewhole of the contemporary relationship between individuals and aestheticexperiences. The sensitivity to the landscape, the "cult of monuments", thefrequency of museums, the taste for interior design, and other experiences,illustrate the growing place of aesthetic appetites.Especially in this phase III of the hypermodernity – moment when this researchis being developed – film, music, fashion, luxury and tourism, for example, areat the heart of the economy: “increasingly it is an aesthetic of consumption thatorders leisure activities.” (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 357)The phase III is called the era of hyperconsume, the phase of commodificationof modern needs, orchestrated by a deinstitutionalized logic, subjective,emotional. (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 41) It is a phase in which the expectations,tastes and behaviors act to itself instead to the other. Several sectorsexperience this phase III, the moment when "the distractive value outweighs thevalue of honor, the preservation of the self, instead of the provocativecomparison, the sensory comfort instead of the ostentatious display of signs." 17
  19. 19. (Lipovetsky, 2007: 43). As it‟s possible to observe – in any page of a magazineor in the streets out of a fashion show – in the fashion sector still remain someof these old perceptions, as ostentation, comparison and the quality of honorthat – just – a good could bring. If this sector is not even completely situated inthis called “phase III” it‟s difficult to imagine the step forward to a moment thatcan come afterwards, as one which says Lipovetsky, a time when "the quest forhappiness in consumption will no longer have the same power of attraction, thesame positivity" (LIPOVETSKY, 2007: 368). In question, considering the currentfashion system, the maintenance of pillars in the old, lagged values ofsnobbery, taste for the shine, classification and distorted culture of the ego, can,eventually, fall into the void.2.6 FASHION CRISIS: The people make the systemFashion has been branded as frivolous, extravagant and mean. These timeshave passed and it was warrant with respectable connotation of artistic andpsycho-sociological characteristics. What happens is that these arguments arenot able enough to explain the system and other examples can be seen in manyevents of the fashion system and is defended in a futuristic fiction of the fashionjournalist Luca Testoni. He announces in this book a possible the fashion scenein 2015 compared to the event that will happen this year, in real life: the WorldExpo in Milan. The journalist portrays the fashion system by the exaggerationsin blockbusters, media manipulation, and especially the distortion of the originalvalues of the class from the goodwill and talented work to, in short, acompulsive arrogance. His book seeks to predict where this system wouldreach if it had continued with the same attitudes after the first decade of thisnew century. Despite being a fiction, the story depicts a current view of theprofessional environment. The author analyzes the Italian fashion system andsees that the situation in other countries probably would be different,considering the changing attitudes. However, the homogenization of valuesused by the fashion media is similar in many markets, which corresponds to thesame category, short-sighted and dissimulated, indifferent to the moral codes ofthe emerging values in the society. 18
  20. 20. 1 Anna Wintour, the editor-in-chief of American Vogue Magazine, an important "behavior setter" and fashion system icon 2 Lisbon Fashion Week October 2010 - Fashion has the power of projecting behaviors and standards. This can results in several implications, in good and bad ways.What is important to note is that whoever it is, what build the systems are thepeople. If any system is in crisis, this crisis is partly a reflection of man-madecrisis. What leads again to the issue of values. The fashion system is a systemthat clearly reflects the human issues. It is a system that cannot be understoodonly in sociological analysis, but in psychological analysis. It is, therefore, at this 19
  21. 21. time, a sick system, psychosomatic: neurotic, hysterical, compulsive maniacand certainly, bipolar.The virtual portal WWD Fashion7 did a report in July of 2009, about a meetingbetween the members of the Council of Fashion Designers of America, theCFDA. The report can be analyzed below:CFDAs Forum Debates the Fashion System8NEW YORK — The fashion industry had a group therapy session Tuesday morning,thanks to the Council of Fashion Designers of America.At a town hall meeting convened by the CFDA, designers, retailers and fashionjournalists initially were meant to discuss the relevance of fashion shows and whetherthey should be targeted at consumers or the industry. But that topic rapidly gotsubsumed by a litany of complaints over the entire hyperactive fashion system.Recession fallout; discount-driven shoppers; the disconnect between runway looks andin-store merchandise; ridiculously early deliveries; oversupplied stores; markdownmadness; fashion shows’ potentially breakneck costs; the worldwide reach of runwaycoverage, and the seemingly endless number of seasons were among the thorniersubjects discussed at the private gathering at the Fashion Institute of Technology.Despite those storm clouds overhead, CFDA president Diane von Furstenbergrepeatedly emphasized the upside and offered ways to solidify a sunnier future fordesigners, retailers and the media.“There is no way when you are in the middle of a tsunami that you can changeabsolutely everything,” von Furstenberg, all too familiar with how the economic crisishas taken its toll on the industry, told the crowd. “But one thing that we can do and thatI would like to do is make New York Fashion Week the most dynamic fashion week inthe world.”Scores of CFDA members, including Donna Karan, Francisco Costa, LazaroHernandez and Betsey Johnson, as well as representatives from IMG Fashion, whichproduces Mercedes-Benz Fashion Week, listened attentively, but then piped up to airtheir concerns, as well as their hopes of building a stronger future for the industry oncethe economy rebounds from the global recession. 20
  22. 22. “I always like to look for the light at the end of the tunnel, and see how we can growfrom there,” said von Furstenberg.After brainstorming with retailers, designers and editors, she had come to theconclusion it was time to address the issues directly in an open forum. “Everyone hadbeen too greedy, and everyone thought the party was forever,” von Furstenberg said.“We wanted more merchandise, and more of this and more of that, and expect 20percent increases every month, and at some point it just became too much ofeverything. I realized that what we all have to do is reduce the offerings and create thedemand.”Upbeat as some attendees were, several aired concerns about the relevance of theshows, retailers’ rampant discounting, the need for full-priced sell-throughs and thetiming of deliveries.“We are in a crisis,” Karan said flat out. “There’s no question about it.”Having been a proponent of selling and even showing clothes in season for the past 10years, she lived up to her reputation of challenging the fashion cycle and the timelinessof the shows.“We design for the consumer, and right now, I believe the consumer is completelyconfused,” Karan said, adding shoppers don’t know whether they were looking at a pre-season, a fall season, or another delivery. “We should truly focus on the problem andthe solution. The consumer has been trained to buy on sale. The clothes in stores arenot in season, so she is confused. Why should she go out and spend money early inthe season, when in fact come September and October, when the season actuallychanges, the next season is there and it’s called resort? We are putting all the energyinto something that the consumer isn’t really getting, because by then it’s on sale.”2.7 THE FUTURE OF THE SYSTEM: Emerging values "(...) What happens, however, is not so much the loss of values, but the reconstruction of values. This is a "crisis", but as the meaning of the word itself says, the crisis marks the negative processes at the same time as it involves new and positive possibilities. Culminate in opportunities and changes. In other 21
  23. 23. words, "loss of values" is not necessarily bad. (ROY H. MAY, 2004: 80)The more the main problems of each epoch are studied, the more these studiesare driven to realize that these problems cannot be understood isolated. Theyare systemic problems, what means that they are interconnected and alsointerdependent. So, if there is any problem derivative from the productionsystem in the aesthetic fields, there is a resonance in another area. Forexample, the population will only be stabilized when the poverty is reducedworldwide. The extinction of animal and plant species on a massive scale willcontinue while the Southern Hemisphere is under the fate of huge debts. Alsothe scarcity of resources and environmental degradation combine with rapidlyexpanding populations, which leads to the collapse of local communities.These problems have to be seen as different facets of one single crisis, which islargely a crisis of perception. “It is a result from the fact that most of us,especially our large social institutions, still agree with the concepts of anoutdated worldview, a perception of reality inadequate for dealing with ouroverpopulated, globally interconnected world.” (CAPRA, 1997: 24)The solutions to the major problems of our time can be even simple. But theyrequire a radical change in our perceptions, our thinking and our values. Andindeed, we are now at the beginning of this fundamental change of worldview inscience and society. According to Capra (1997) now is the beginning of aparadigm shift as radical as it was the Copernican revolution. However, themain difficulty is that this understanding has not emerged among most politicalleaders and didn‟t reach most of the leaders of our corporations, nor the officersand teachers of our major universities.The importance of new valuesOffices, or laboratories, of consumer behavior research as Future Concept Lab9(FCL), point to the movement caused by the evolution of globalization aphenomenon that rescues the value of local cultural knowledge and marketdiversity, in a revival of humanistic values. However, offices and services 22
  24. 24. agencies are already applying these concepts such as the Brazilian agency Q3,from Sao Paulo, which offers coaching services, change of values andmarketing value services. According to this agency, a new morality is imposedon citizens. No more individualistic, this new moral need to approach the ethicaland humanistic values. According to them, equality and justice should not beobtained by standardization and mass production, but for a value of acceptanceof differences – the diversity – that brings people together, instead of classifyingthem and break them down.According to the company, these values are part of the search for solutions toan increasingly complex daily lives, again, the result of a globalization that notonly brought benefits, but an excess of information, on the one hand, andcompetitiveness, on the other, which leaves the people more and more stressedand trapped.The idea of an Inclusive Society, instead of fighting for values outdated and withprejudge, can bring positive impacts on society as a whole, as well as oncompany performance. The purpose of this agency is to raise awareness andbusiness leaders to integrate the new social paradigm. But it is interesting tonote that there is a resonance between the research laboratory of trends inMilan and the services agency in São Paulo, in relation to emerging paradigms.Still analyzing the philosophy of this company from Sao Paulo, according tothem, to evolve a system needs to develop qualities based on values, onprinciples, concerned and with compassion, that lead people to work togetherfor the common good: to align interests, skills, talents and beliefs in order toreorganize relationships and capacity to act. In other words, beyond thecomprehension of new values and paradigms as important strategic tools forthe understanding of human movement, which in this case follows a line morehuman, also the humanistic values and its stimulus by itself are a powerful fuelto progress the evolution of the current systems, so far harmful to man andnature. It is an ethically two hands way.Humanistic Solutions 23
  25. 25. As mentioned before, the dominant values that have shaped our culture forseveral hundred years, made reference to a "vision of the universe as amechanical system: in the view of the human body, as a machine; in the view ofthe life in society, as a competitive struggle for existence; and the mostnotorious, the belief in unlimited material progress achieved throughtechnological growth. Though, according to Fritjof Capra – who has beenstudying since the 70‟s the ways of thought in the western civilization setting thegrounds for change in many new theories in organismic biology, gestaltpsychology, ecology, general systems theory, and cybernetics – the newparadigm has developed a holistic world view: a world as an integrated whole,humanistic, which can also be understood as an ecological vision. In this way,there is the recognition of the fundamental interdependence of all phenomena:the universe is not a collection of isolated objects but a network of phenomenathat are fundamentally interconnected and interdependent. The humans are justone particular strand in the web of life. (Capra, 1999) "I think that the concern with the "values issue" – we refer here, of course, some values, because, strictly speaking, everything is value – reveals a crisis, a moral and ethical discomfort." (ROY H. MAY, 2004: 8)Our leaders not only fail to recognize how different problems are interrelated,they also refuse to recognize as their so-called „solutions‟ will affect futuregenerations. And as a result from a bad example, the greta part of thepopulation proceed with their life and work without questioning these things.From the systemic point of view, the only viable solutions are the "sustainable"solutions.Sustainable SolutionsThe concept of sustainability gained key importance in the ecological movementand it is really crucial. Lester Brown of the “Worldwatch Institute”10 gave asimple definition, clear and beautiful: "A sustainable society is one that satisfiesits needs without diminishing the prospects of future generations." This, in short,is the great challenge of our time: to create sustainable communities: social and 24
  26. 26. cultural environments where people can meet their needs and aspirationswithout diminishing the chances of future generations. Obviously, this involvesquestions of ecology. But sustainability is not limited to environmental issues.The ecology is just part of the concept of sustainability and found on it a way torejoin the political system and the economic system of human values. (CAPRA,1997: 24)Analyzing the former ways of living, ROY H. MAY11 can complete the formerthought, that “life as it has been lived can no longer be sustained, supportedand encouraged.”Values: self-assertion x integrationThe research about the new values in a society can be a long and exhaustivework, which companies pay a lot of money to get the most deep and assertiveinformation. Anyway, as this is not the mission of this research, it‟s important tokeep the information absorbed during trends seminars and by the referenceline of this work. In the case it will be considered the integrated work developedby Capra, to sustain and to visualize better the information from other mediasas the Seminars organized by FCL which explore some of these socontemplated, emerging values.According to Capra, the changes in thinking and values can be seen aschanges in self-assertion to integration. These two trends - the self-assertiveand integrative - are both essential aspects of all living systems. None of themare intensively, good or bad. What is good or what is healthy, is a dynamicequilibrium, what is bad, or unhealthy, is the imbalance - excessive emphasison one of the trends over another. If observed the western industrial culture, it ispossible to see that it was too much emphasized the self-assertive tendenciesand disregard the integrative. This is evident in our thoughts and in our valuesand is very instructive to put these opposing trends side by side. Thought Values self-assertion integration self-assertion integration 25
  27. 27. rational intuitive expansion conservationanalysis synthesis competition cooperationreductionist holistic quantity qualitylinear nonlinear domination partnership(CAPRA, Fritjof, 1996: 27)LimitationAccording to Capra (1996), one of the things that can be noticed when lookingat this table is that the self-assertive values – competition, expansion,domination – are usually qualities associated with men, the masculinity. In fact,in a patriarchal society, men are not only favored but also receive economicrewards and political power. This is one of the reasons why the shift to a morebalanced value system is so difficult for most people, and can be especiallyhard for men. Also the social structure as it is, for some men, and also forwomen, regards to a rank of hierarchy and position that are already part of theiridentity, and thus the change to a different system of values generatesexistential fear in them. In other words, the possibility of power, domination andcompetition become – naturally – something primeval, is not interesting for afew people also in the perspective of identity.However, there is another kind of power, a power that is most appropriate forthe new paradigm – the power as influence of others. “The ideal structure toexercise such power is not the hierarchy but the network, which is also thecentral metaphor of ecology.” (CAPRA, 1996)We are what matter, we are humansThe belief that the human is in the top of the food chain, which is a key point forthe rules applied to humans be different of those applied to other animals, forexample, is one part of the old paradigm which is based on anthropocentricvalues (centered in humans). The deep ecology is based on ecocentric values(centered on the Earth and everything that is part of it). In this other vision, allliving beings are members of ecological communities linked together in a 26
  28. 28. network of interdependencies. When this deep ecological awareness becomespart of our everyday consciousness, it will emerge a radically new system ofethics.If this is going to happen or not, the point is that this deep ecological ethics isurgently needed today, and especially in science, since most of what scientistsdo doesn‟t act to promote the life or preserve life. With the physicists designingweapons systems that threaten to eliminate life on the planet, with chemicalscontaminating the global environment (by industries), with the biologists freeingunknown types of microorganisms without knowing the consequences, withpsychologists and other scientists torturing animals in the name of scientific andaesthetic progress - with all these ongoing activities, it seems of utmost urgencyto introduce standards of "ecoethics" in science. And thinking about fashion, ifpeople would stay away from the system for one single moment, and thinkabout the price that the nature, the harmless animals, the underpaid humanshave to bear just to justify a seasonal change in the identity expression or theaesthetic differentiation, isn‟t it questionable a solution which keeps the beautyin our bodies and houses but that also assure the right of life – all life – andnon-suffering on Earth?Let’s create values!The writer Roy H. May (2004) quotes Marquínez Argote to explain that valuesare neither legislated nor dictated. No one can impose them. They emerge frominteraction between the community and technological change and other socio-historical change and the new social practices. "The [human being] discoversthe values when they become aware of the new relations between things andtheir own human reality". The values are institutionalized through policies thatgovern society. It is not a process devoid of human intentionality or direction. Inother words, the community itself can take the initiative. The aim is to achievethe maximum participation in the discussion of the meaning of the values andthe establishment of new social practices. Social movements play a key rolebecause crystallize the values, put them into practice and press for its generalvalidity. For example, the environmental movement encourages seriousreflection on the relationship of humans with the environment. From these 27
  29. 29. movements, as from other, new values are emerging to support and guide theethics,Where are the values?To talk about reconstruction, shift, evolution, or any other effect of change, ofvalues is something absolutely deep considering that there are political, sexual,urban, national, linguistic, virtual, religious, social, ethnic, cultural, personal andas many as imagined, values in people‟s life. But the fact is that, exactly thevalues which guide the structure of the systems we build are the ones exposedand investigated. As discussed in this research they are mainly ethics,questionable if only for human benefit and in the same time, humanistic, whatmeans, care less about things that can harm and more to those which can fulfill.Certainly, this search for things that fulfill the man, the “soul”, are the greatambitions of all eras, and it‟s unquestionable here its procedure.In 2002, the “MindStyle Magazine” with contents from the studies of FutureConcept Lab, was already connecting the Self – the human studied so far – andSoul as currently going through. It said that with increasing frequency, personalidentity was being reshaped by starting with a spiritual exploration that has setthe definition of one‟s own inner self as a top-priority goal. This is an interestingpoint to understand that all this attempts for the qualities cited earlier, as “new”values, are also dedicated to a self with a soul, regardless the religions or thepractical life. So, it‟s not about „anthropocentrism‟, „theocentrism‟ or maybe even„ecocentrism‟ – which certainly is the weight needed on the balance for now on– but a holistic comprehension of all these experiences may express a sampleof the feelings which nourish life in this moment.Considering this whole mixture it‟s possible to understand that not all places inEarth are living exactly the same experience. It‟s a very complex „recipe‟ and somany different cultures, that is almost impossible to expect exactly the sameattitudes in different areas. Definitely, to consider a new paradigm, a researchcenter must to observe the resonances between cultures in different spots ofthe world, and also the contradicted waves of these resonances. Also, some 28
  30. 30. places are too much attached to their roots and tied to old beliefs and valueswhich have strong representation in the nations identity and people‟s mindset.For Future Concept Lab, this period, called by them as Neo Renaissance, isdefinitely a time that witnesses the return of humanistic values identified by boththe recent rise of a Humanistic Management and by the new values attributed todesign, and to the taste of good quality life. The FCL studied the BRIC countriesand it is possible to understand that the growth of these countries may be notonly economic but also of comprehension and apprehension of some importantvalues.In the book DNA Brasil where the Brazilian genius loci is examined, FrancescoMorace explains, in the chapter he wrote, that the experiences lived by theBrazilian people, good and bad, led to a vital relationship in which there is alogic of passion can be the basis of the production in this country, Also there isan acceptance to clarify and improve an economic ethic. The economy is notonly based in the profitable and usable but is also getting into the level ofHuman quality and civil world responsibility. It‟s a country completely based anddriven by the diversity in its own essence, and these qualities must be welldirected to a healthy development of the nation.The FCL also affirms in its Seminar of 200812 dedicated to the BRIC countriesthat “Brazil is today one of the most expressive laboratories of creative diversity,a hub for international exchange of expressive languages. Brazil presents itselfas a true Lab for advanced visions in the area of Aesthetics, fueled by thedynamics of the collective imaginary and by the tangible experience of dailylife.” Also some aesthetics approach, more simplistic and natural are importantvalues that signalize to Brazil.According to Morace (2009), Brazil has many values to be “exported”, in thesense of to be sold – used by industries – but mainly to be recognized aroundthe world: the joy of life, spontaneity in human relationships, the simplicity ofeveryday access to a happy experience for everyone (carnival), but also thevalues of natural products, the fresh consumption of products (fruits andagriculture), the variety and richness of color, the sensuality of the bodies and 29
  31. 31. smiles, the naturalness of the environment and the people, and much morevalues that have an humanistic approach and that emerge as those of the nextglobal era. Francesco Morace also affirms that in all the research conducted inthe U.S. in Europe, Australia and Latin America these are recognized as valuestypically Brazilian.Marcelo Ramos13, researcher of the Behavior and Consumption Observatory inSenai Cetiqt (Rio de Janeiro) says that the Brazilian economic growth, theincreasing of the consumption power of the middle classes, the "new luxury",based on simplicity, innovation, quality, functionality and beauty of the objects;the sustainability in the choice of raw materials and production processes as animportant value of products and brands; the "oniconnectivity” (ability to beconnected everywhere); the increasing reflexivity and role of the consumer (asthe “consum-author” identified by FCL, in a book homonymous, as a new wayof consumption guided by new values; the strength of cultural traditions andlocal talent in a globalized world; the estimation of body, beauty and youth inBrazilian culture, and the reflection of these factors in the human quest for ahappier life are the issues in the Brazilian agenda to be investigated by hiscompany. This declaration helps to visualize why this country worthunderstanding its ethos by now and the reason why it is the location chosen tobe connected to a study case on a research that aims to indicate the practice ofhumanistic and sustainable values for a coherent fashion system. In otherwords, there is a specific reason for talking about sustainability and to talk aboutBrazil. Now that the context can be understood, let‟s proceed to thedevelopment of the thought through the „funnel of knowledge‟. 30
  32. 32. Chapter Two1 R.D. Laing (1927 – 1989) was a Scottish psychiatrist who wrote extensively on mental illness –in particular, the experience of psychosis. He was Scotland‟s most famous public intellectual.His revolutionary challenges to conventional psychotherapy were read by millions across theworld. Today, though, his work is unfairly neglected, particularly in Scotland. (MILLER, Gavin.R.D. Laing. Edinburgh, 2005.)2 John Locke, figura dominante no periodo do Iluminismo, cujos escritos mais importantesforam publicados no final do século XVII. Fortemente influenciado por Descartes e Newton,Locke produziu um impacto decisivo no pensamento setecentista.3 Pirsig, R. 1974. Excerpt on Scientific Method from Zen and the Art of Motorcycle Maintenance,Chapters 8 and 9. William Morrow( Caroline Evans (EVANS, Caroline. Fashion at the edge: Spectacle, Modernity andDeathliness. 2007)5 The French sociologist and philosopher Gilles Lipovetsky analyses consumer society in hisbook Paradoxical Happiness (LIPOVETSKY, 2007). "In a society dominated by leisure there isa cohabitation of daily difficulties and the well-being which results from the democratization ofpleasure.7 Often called "the fashion bible", „Womens Wear Daily‟ (WWD) serves as the voice of authority,international newswire and agent of change for the fashion, beauty and retail industries. Firstand foremost, WWD is dedicated to providing a balance of timely, credible business news andkey womens fashion trends to a dedicated readership. This readership includes retailers,designers, manufacturers, marketers, financiers, Wall Street analysts, international moguls,media executives, ad agencies, socialites and trend makers.8 CFDAs Forum Debates the Fashion System by ROSEMARY FEITELBERG and MARCKARIMZADEH Posted on WEDNESDAY JULY 29, 2009. Last Edited FRIDAY JULY 31, 2009.From WWD ISSUE 07/29/20099 Future Concept Lab is a trends laboratory located in Milan. They have been operating sincethe 1980s in Milan, but now work in over 25 countries and more than 40 cities throughout theworld. FCL provides strategic advice to small and medium size businesses, but have alsoworked for big name brands, such as Nokia, Coca Cola and Disney. They have an office inBrazil and are partners of the “Observatório de Comportamento e Consumo” (Behavior andConsumption Observatory) of Senai Cetiqt in Rio de Janeiro, which are also their partner in thebook DNA Brasil.10 The Worldwatch Institute is an independent research organization recognized by opinionleaders around the world for its accessible, fact-based analysis of critical global issues. TheInstitutes three main program areas include Climate & Energy, Food & Agriculture, and theGreen Economy.11 North American theologian who has studied the practical urgency of ethics as a feature of thepresent time, in his book "Moral Discernment12 Future Vision Workshop: BRIC andMade in Italy 200813 - Por Marcelo Ramos em 08de julho de 2010 31
  33. 33. (...) But because there were blood-colored, amber colored wood in abundance, and because thewild morning fire; was a heap of embers in the coal night landscapeand because the land had red trees; and because it was very kind, they gave it the name1 Brazil. Brazil full of grace, Brazil full of birds, Brazil full of light. Excerpt from the poem: The names given to the Land Discovered By Cassiano Ricardo 32
  34. 34. 3. BRASIL, BRAZIL ―Giant by its own nature.‖People are responsible for their destinations, but it is important to have ahistorical consciousness in order to understand some basic questions about theevolution of the country such as the reasons why Brazil is the way it is totherefore to be able to perceive certain aspects of its genius loci withoutstereotypes. Thus, the method chosen to tell the history of Brazil – after a verydense chapter – will be in a more dynamic way, according to historical andcontemporary product of this environment, without to extend for informationbeyond the scope of this research, although this is a very rich and interestingtopic even more in international exchange of knowledge.When „Brazil‟ was just the westTo the western of European civilization there were lands pulsing, in a giantcontinental area, occupied by natural groups, primitive, which didn‘t‘ form acommunity, but were a plurality. In these lands there were more than 200 ethnicgroups and 200 languages and dialects spoken by the indigenous people.These groups used to practice agriculture, fishing, hunting, in a veryrudimentary way, almost like the stone age, and they lived in constant conflictwith each other and cannot be compared with cultures seen in other regions ofLatin America as the Incas, Mayas and Aztecs. And because of this archaic wayof living and plurality, the original cultures of all this tribes were not appreciatedby the colonizers and don‘t have almost nothing to do in the general culture ofthe Brazilian people2. Because of this, there was almost no possibility oftransferring values during the process of colonization.What, then, is Brazil? "We, Brazilians, are a people in ‗being‘, but impeded from being so. A group of people mixed as flesh and as spirit, since here the mixture was never a crime or a sin. On it we are made and on it we‘ll continue making ourselves. " (Darcy Ribeiro)According to the Professor Fernando Novais3 "Brazil" is a group of people thatconstituted themselves as a nation, which was organized as a state. In 1500there were none of those three things. Therefore, there was no discovery ofBrazil, because Brazil did not exist or neither was overcast. What happened atthat time were the bases of a Portuguese colonization, which is the basis of our 33
  35. 35. arrangement. The history of Brazil is essentially of a colony that became anation. Therefore, the colonization is the basis of our history. The "Brazil""happened" when the population began to think about themselves as differentfrom its predecessors. First, the Luso-Brazilians; Then, less ―Lusos”(Portuguese) and more “Brazilians”, until they felt themselves just Brazilians.This occurs only from the second half of the 18th century, and not before.The Portuguese did not want to create a nation but a colony. Even thecolonization did not begin immediately with Cabral in 1500, but only in 1532,with Martim Afonso de Souza.The marks of colonyOne of the strongest impacts in the history of this country was the belatedcapitalist development and its policy of colonization, marked by a colonization ofexploitation. The colonial and commercial expansion in Brazil was suchmeaningful that undertook deep changes in the economic landscape of Europe.Colonies of exploitation can be considered as the most typical of Europeancolonization. Every economic system is a function of the external market. Thefunction of the Colony was to complete the metropolitan economy. To this end,Brazil was divided into 15 straight lines – which fortunately were naturallychanged during the years – distributed among men who should take care ofeach area. As manpower were brought between 3 and 5 million slaves fromAfrica during 200 years.4Since the days of colonial Brazil, the people had to learn how to deal withoppression in various forms, from violence to trickery, but the good trickery.According to professor of modern history USP Laura de Mello e Souza 5, theslaves often dodged the repression and came up with a mischievous way, in thegood sense, to be able to live together with slavery. It was possible, with smarttricks, to face the order in unfavorable situations.6The colonial slavery, contains the key to explain the countrys past. This wasthe driving force of the Portuguese America unit, and has remained during theindependent Brazil.7Brazil Empire, Brazil independentAccording to the history researcher Armelle Enders8 the ―singular‖ colonizationof Brazil helps to explain aspects of the current political and social education inthe country. Single Lusophone (Portuguese speaker) country of America, Brazilhas had a singular independence without a liberator, a savior. It adopted the 34
  36. 36. monarchical form, the territorial unity was preserved. Portugal was a verydifferent realm of federation which was Spain and was one of the oldestNation-states of Europe, and this was an important legacy to Brazil.Before the independence, the Portuguese court moved to Rio de Janeiro in1808, a reversal of colonial process lived only by Brazil in Latin America: Rio deJaneiro became the seat of the Portuguese monarchy. The court did not have tostay in exile, even before the final defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte. But theystayed to build a new empire, because Brazil colony was more powerful thanthe metropolitan Portugal. In 1822 the independence was declared fromPortugal and the royal family established the Empire of Brazil.To Enders. the contemporary Brazil has inherited from the "history of Brazil" theissue that the Brazilians had to get used to rely on themselves. The peoplecreated strategies to survive the general instability. This results in a very difficultlife, but also a great strength. She says impressed with the ability of changing inthe Brazilian society: the creativity, a smart and informal way in order to survive,because people are used to not be able to count on the State. According to thehistorian, the financial crises across the country developed an admirableindividual strength. "There are a lot of misery also, but people figure out how tosurvive. Rather than some people say, I think Brazil has a capacity of collectivemobilization and has a very strong civic engagement."The famous ―knack‖ of ―figuring out‖ (―jeitinho‖) finds its justification in the recentpolitical history of Brazil and it is present in all the sectors of contemporary life inthe country. The living with an unstable state and without having rootedtraditions of services meant that the society acquired a capacity for change andcreativity‘ to overcome the deficiencies of the state.Brazil RepublicIsaac N. Ford went to Brazil in the 1890‘s to see the general effects of thetransformation from monarchy to Republic. Beyond some aspects regardingsome old thoughts of races criteria by Ford, he also said about seeing that the―Brazilians were already living psychologically in the future of the industrialdevelopment proclaimed by the decrees of the provisional government, underthe charm of a mystical faith‖9. Also he said that according to what he saw,―Brazilians had no objection to the intrusion of the future upon the present justso long as the change was gradual and did not involve a complete repudiationof the past‖(FREYRE: 1989).On November 15, 1889, Brazil is no longer an empire from the symbolic act ofthe Proclamation of the Republic of Brazil. There is a new period in Brazilianhistory called ―Brazil Republic‖, which continues until today. After the 35
  37. 37. proclamation of the Republic, Brazil has had several names as "United States ofBrazil." But "Federative Republic of Brazil" is the current official name of thecountry: a presidential democracy, restructured in 1985 with the end of militarydictatorship of the Brazilian Army that was in vigor since 1964.USA: Eyes on BrazilIn addition to the political changes there was also an important cultural changein Brazil this time, because instead of emanating from France and England (thenations most influential during the monarchy), the new inspiration came almostentirely from the United States. And it was from this shift in influence thatpreceded a series of consequences of signal importance to Brazilian culture.There was a reform of Brazilian customs and institutions. Some technicalprogresses were also introduced in Brazil. Also, in this moment, were felt thefirst interest from the United States about the Amazon Forest. And then, therewas a considerable indignation against the United States caused by theadvantage that the USA could want to take of the Brazilian capacity to carrydevelopment to that area with the presence of America in the form of labor-saving machines. The USA were ―with their eyes‖ in the country also becauseBrazil was the only constitutional government in the hemisphere, which wasadvancing into the future ―in tranquility and material prosperity‖.Brazil was devoting attention to the education of the people, and this was agreat market to the new technologies that the USA was developing. A lot ofsectors were modernized in this time. The modernization found in Americanproducts and technology was a hope to the country to get out of the remainingelements of a feudal past and pernicious archaism of Latin origin10. It doesn‘tsurprise that the older structures of Rio de Janeiro can be compared with thearchitecture of ancient Rome. The very administration of the Brazilian provinceswas patterned on Roman forms; in the Empire of Pedro II the Romanism of thephysical architecture extended to the social structure as well. And what Brazilneeded more was to develop the country‘s natural resources. In this time, withthe ―hope‖ of modernization there was also a feeling of ―being used‖ along withthe one of ―exploitation‖ in history. Gilberto Freire says about the visit of Agassizin 1865 at Brasil: ―Once pointed in the direction of industrialization, it was understandable that Brazil had turned eagerly to the economic and political patterns of the United States, had become the champion of Pan-Americanism in Washington, and had allowed itself to enter into a commercial treaty ―most favorable to the United States‖, as Ford wrote in 1892.‖ (Freyre, 1986) 36
  38. 38. As is possible to conclude, throughout this summary of the most important timesbefore the modern and contemporary history of the country, Brazil has becomea country suspicious of outside interests, though not afraid of the future.Actually, it is a dual feeling, of fear and desire about the possible good thingsthat the future can bring.3.1 THE FUTURE BELONGS TO PEOPLEThe future for Brazil designate leaving one condition which means delay(marked by their past history) and enter a phase of improvement and progress.The own national flag announces the feeling for this ―progress‖ which isconstantly looked by the country since the opportunities began to emerge.However, often this ―progress‖, instead of being encouraged, is stopped by the"order", by the government. Many policy mistakes happened and then the"progress" of the country depended on "each" one effort. It‘s again, about theindividual strength that the approach can be settled to understand someaspects of Brazil. Some governmental researches have been made andcampaigns have used this issue coming with the contemporary result, someyears ago, in which "The best of Brazil is the Brazilian". And it is important tounderstand that Brazil is ―Brazil‖ because as said earlier, it "happened whenpeople began to see themselves as something different.‖ Neither Native Indianor African, nor European, but what belongs to this land now. It‘s a very humanistapproach to a nation, and can be acquired a sense of responsibility, equalityand pride.In recent years the appreciation of the Brazilian identity has been increasinglyrefined in the country through national campaigns undertaken by thegovernment. In addition to that one which "The best of Brazil is the Brazilian"there is also the campaign "I am Brazilian, and then I never give up." Accordingto government surveys11 the companies that adhered to this language felt thedifference and were satisfied with the results. This is about a campaign with theprimary goal of encouraging self-esteem of the people, and marks the style ofthe "Lula era" in the media. Also, the second campaign showed more successbetween the people because the first is not seeing as true when bad examplesof Brazilian behavior (violence for example) were seeing by the people.Anyway, when thinking about Brazil it is fundamental to think in the stigmatizedpeople, with sad marks by the history, as it was possible to observe; in theexploited colony by a country with outdated technology; in the inflow of externalinvestments that had always been much better for the investors from outsidethan to the country, in other words, that just took advantage of the growthphases of the State; in the animosity because people are descendants of amixing between very different cultures and ethnicities and mainly, don‘t have 37
  39. 39. "real" roots of one single culture, the Brazilian, but has a culture formed byothers that once saw in these lands the opportunity for a new and better life, outof Europe. This last one, as very well pointed by the researcher João Cavalcantiduring the ―Ted x São Paulo‖ of 2009, it‘s considered by him the ―richness of ourpoverty‖. In fact, Brazilians have their roots diluted what is the opposite of manycountries in the world. In these countries, people have their roots as greatmilestones of density which staunch their creativity and the innovation capacity.This ―to have no roots‖ means, to look back and don‘t have this historicaldensity asking to go to a certain direction, and it is fundamental and alsosomething that improves the natural curiosity of the Brazilian people. The mashup and remix, the collision of cultures are the great differential of the countrynowadays, the blessing over the pain.To better understand "who is Brazil," as "the best in the country is its people,"this mixed up people, one of the strength of the country, it is necessary to payattention to the important process of the population‘s configuration, theconfiguration of diversity: the colonizers, the slaves, and the worldwideimmigrants.Immigration: the brazilians "Brazil has no color. There is a whole mosaic of possible combinations. Talking about race – in the singular or plural – is anti-scientific, socially and ideologically dangerous." (Carlos Lessa, 2006)To understand the cultural aspects that will be discussed later on, it is importantto note that when it comes to roots in Brazil, is to speak of a very delicatematter. No specific culture or ethnicity may be taken as the main ethnic group inthe country, there is no main color in Brazil. What happens is a great mix thathas its stronger substantiality in different regions.Today, in a color scheme found in a research made by the government12,51.4% of the population declare themselves as ―white‖, ―blacks‖ say they are5.9% and 42% say they are ―browns‖, making use of a wide spectrum ofdenominations. The Brazilian writer Oswald de Andrade and many otherdefined Brazil as ―the country of the mixture‖. In other words, Brazil is a bit ofeverything that was established in these lands.In 1808 there was the opening of the ports for the immigration of "friendlynations". The independence in 1822 also cemented this migratory flow to thecountry. According to the Memorial of the immigrant13 between 1870 and 1930came more than 5 million immigrants who went to work in agriculture in thesouth or in the coffee farms in São Paulo (southeast). São Paulo is currently 38
  40. 40. considered14 the city with the largest populations of ethnic Italian, Japanese andLebanese out of their respective countriesThe Italian community is one of the strongest, making their presence feltthroughout the city. Of the more than ten million inhabitants of Sao Paulo, 60%(six million people) have some Italian ancestry. As a result, São Paulo is thesecond largest city in the world in consume of pizza.The colonist sent to the South were mainly Germans (starting in 1824, mainlyfrom Rhineland-Palatinate, Pomerania, Hamburg, Westphalia, etc) and Italians(starting in 1875, especially from the Veneto and Lombardy). There wereestablished several colonies of immigrants who, even today, preserve the habitsof their ancestral country.A genetic study15 demonstrated that the European ancestry is what accounts forthe largest share of the estate of the population, followed by African andAmerindian. The opening of the ports was the culmination of this mixture thathas defined the culture and transformed all the people in the "Brazilian".3.2 “WHAT DOESN‟T KILL ME MAKE ME STRONGER”Today the country has 190 million inhabitants. And interestingly, as was saidfrom mouth to mouth, this is a country that does not begin to "work" (whatmeans that new projects are not developed) after the Carnival – a paganfestival built on territory under the authority of the Catholic Church.Brazil imported more African slaves than any other American state, and it wasthe last state to emancipate them. Its culture, which has been molded andremolded by Indian, Portuguese, African, German, Italian, Japanese and manyother influences, is among the most exuberant and creative in the world.The territory always treated as a "backyard" of its kingdom, had to seek for itself―a place in the sun‖. The world‘s economies were growing fast in the earlytwentieth century and began to dispute its hegemony in the global context. Thecolonial condition of conformation in Brazil allowed the growth of those whowere starting a movement of production because for those who were beingdeveloped, it was necessary the undeveloped as a market.World War I breaks out. And then, the great crisis of the 1930s takes Brazilduring the peak of the coffee cycle. The overproduction was acquired by thegovernment, which allowed, somehow, keeping the income of coffee-producingregion, minimizing the effects of global crisis.The Second Great War destroyed the economic scenario in Europe, and part ofthe savings of the economies involved in the conflict came to the Brazilian 39
  41. 41. industry and agriculture. This ended up facilitating private equity investmentsthat begin to occur in the late 1940 and early 1950. Also the entrepreneurialspirit of Germans, Italians, Japanese, and Spanish began to change modes andprocesses of production. At this time the scenario of the Brazilian economybegins to undergo deep changes.Always looking to copy the American model and - the familiar – way of thinkingand being from the European, Brazil passed along the decades from 1960 to1990, with crises, stagflation and an uncertain future for the Brazilian society.The politics went through dictatorship, and the political principles begin toundergo changes in search of a prototype that could be better for thepopulation.Closed economy, discontinued, with rudimentary production techniques. But inthe midst of what was happening in other worlds, Brazil also had to follow thecompass of the world economy. So, after years of dictatorship, from 1964 to1985, in 1990 Brazil opened itself to the world, and saw how much it wasdelayed relative to other economies.Since this moment, Brazil has lived a day-to-day competitive, having to rescuethe rhythm of history that was lost in the centuries that have passed. And oftenit is as if there‘s no time to stop the production to think, since the rhythm can‘tstop to recover the delay (and this will be seen again when analyzed theFashion System in Brazil). But as if ―by magic‖, despite all these setbacks alonghundreds of years, something better was being built and solidified.According to the economist Otto Nogami16, Brazil is not a characteristicallymoney saving society, therefore is usual not to have resources for investment.But its population of 190 million people attracts foreign capital to work actively inthe productive sector of the country.And within this context, Brazil has one of the best regulated financial markets ofthe world. This market does not allow financial transactions as they wereperformed in advanced industrial economies like the United States or in Europe.And how could this happen? Throughout history it has been reported, theBrazilian way of being transformed into an individual cautious about the reactionof its ―other‖, established mechanisms of self-protection or corporatistprotection, which, by irony of fate, protected its economy against contaminationof the so-called "sub-prime". (NOGAMI, 2009)The situation is quite different from a China or an India, for example. There, alleconomic activity depends on the advanced industrial economies like the UnitedStates and Europe. If these economies reduce consumption, these countriesneed to reduce production, which generates unemployment and consequentlyless income for consumption, less consumption less employment, and thus arecessionary spiral. 40
  42. 42. It is a very different situation of what Brazil has accumulated over the past fivecenturies. The country experiences alternating growth and recession, whichalways made the country look for alternatives, whether knowingly or not, is inthe Brazilian DNA, the natural need to look for solutions.Brazil, the “land of future” ―Tony Blair, visiting Brazil, the British politician defends the thesis that the country [Brazil] represents a new global reality. ‗The balance of power is shifting. From now on, the power must be shared and the developed countries will need to be more humble. Brazil is one of the best symbols of this new reality. It represents the spirit of the century XXI. It‘s not by chance it was elected the headquarters of Olympics and World Cup,‘ said Blair, on the morning of Tuesday (26/10) in the event held in São Paulo, LIDE.‖17Many people and companies have recognized Brazils potential, and it has beenrepeatedly called the "Land of the Future," but Brazil still struggles with its past.Nevertheless, in many ways the future is already here. It has the world‘s eighthlargest economy, larger than Russia, India, and Canada, and, in addition to thestereotypical tropical exports of developing nations, like coffee or minerals, it isalso among the world‘s major producers of soy beans, commercial jet aircraft,automobiles, and television entertainment.Despite having a lot of things to ―organize‖ in the country, the great abundanceis not only about richness that goes to the ―rich‖ people, but what happens nowin Brazil that makes its economy so interesting is the ascension of the class C,the medium class. They are 95 million people, half of the country, and they getfrom 3 to 10 minimum salaries. This is a very important thing that is changingthe scenario of industry in Brazil, because it‘s a phenomenon that took a time tobe seen by the entrepreneurs. Now the industries are studying theseconsumers and are getting attempts to the fact that they want specific products.They are not susceptible to pay more just because they are getting moremoney, but they want more quality, to buy more things, and to pay the same forthe things they used to buy, affirm the journalist Ana Paula Padrão18.Brazil passed through a big social revolution and after two decades of severeeconomic difficulties and much struggle to reform a nation marked by greateconomic inequality, the country began to do justice to the term "middle classsociety." The increase in wages and incomes has led tens of thousands ofpeople in urban slums or rural poverty to acquire their own homes and a life ofcomfort without precedent. 41
  43. 43. According to the well-recognized Brazilian magazine ―Época Negócios‖19, theeconomic security has reached unprecedented levels and demographics startedto function as a tail wind for the country. Although there is social injustice, mostpeople lead material lives perceived as decent and similar. This magazine didthe research with Synovate, a research consultancy company from São Paulo,about the aims of the Brazilians in this new economic moment.About this economic moment, the research informs that Brazil increased itsconsumption pattern and inaugurates a new virtuous cycle comparable to theU.S. after the war. Part of this phenomenon, besides the political actions, isrecurrent of an entire industrialization based on import substitution, initially ofconsumer goods and after the entire production chain. The self-esteem of thepeople is good as never before what makes this moment special to produce andto correct things. That‘s a very good time to re-think production; products,costumers, communication, and to present innovation and different systems.In the meantime, about the aims, the research provide an interestinginformation about what make the Brazilians optimist in this important stage:from top to bottom is ―family‖, the ―own future‖, ―professional growth‖,―improvement in life over the last decade‖, ―social growth in the future‖ andbecause their ―lives are better than the lives their parents had‖. This optimisticfeeling is part of 53% of the population, followed by 38% of skeptical and 9% ofunbelievers. Brazil ranks first in the ranking of confidence in the future, aboutthe future happiness according to the international ranking of happiness. IfBrazil is the ―future‖ or not this is something that belongs to the time. What isfact is that much is being done and waiting for that future.But, people don‟t know Brazil "Here, what makes brazil, Brazil is no longer the shame of the political regime or the rampant and "shameless‖ inflation, but the delicious food, the catchy music, the ―saudade‖ that humanizes time and death, and friends that allow resist everything ... "(Damatta, 1986)Brazil is politically divided into 26 states and the Federal District, where theexecutive, legislative and judicial national offices are located. The country has5,564 municipalities, 40 of them have populations exceeding 500.000inhabitants. 42
  44. 44. The landscape is quite diverse, with semi-arid regions, mountainous, lowlandtropical and subtropical regions, where the climate ranges from semiaridnortheastern hinterland, passing through the equatorial tropical to thesubtropical areas of the SouthEighth largest economy of the world, Brazil has between 15 and 20% of thebiodiversity of the planet, distributed in 3.6 million square kilometers of severalkind of nature: Amazon forest, remnants of Mata Atlantica,, the Cerrado,Caatinga, the Pampas and Pantanal - one of the largest wetlands in the world,considered by UNESCO as a biosphere reserve. Besides the more than 7,000km of beaches mainly of warm waters, are located in Brazil superlatives ofworld geography. The country has also the worlds largest reserve of freshwater, represented, among others, the Amazon basin and the aquifers Guaraniand Amazon.It is a very big country, with 8.547.403,5 km², the 5º in the world in size andpopulation (the extremes are from north to west 4.394 km and from lest to west4.319 km) with bad distribution of the population, overloading some regions,while some regions are left to large farms and little industrialization.In fact there is growth and wealth in each region, from north to south. Accordingto Exame magazine, the Brazilian southeast, region of Rio Janeiro and SaoPaulo, among other states, has a diversified economy that attracts the best―brains‖ in the country.The North, where is the state of Amazonas is growing the construction area andthere are a lot of investment in services and technology sectors.The northeastern region, the cradle of the nation, place of discovery, with itsnine states, is growing faster than other regions of the country thanks to theexplosion in consumption and construction. It is an area with large socialdifferences marked much stronger by the colonization than other areas. Butgrowth opportunities are enormous and a lot of companies are betting on thepower of consumption in the C and D classes of the Northeast.The Center-West region around the capital, Brasilia, is traditionally an area ofagri-business. In recent years, however, shows great growth in the chemicalindustry, food, pharmaceutical, construction and IT services.And the region South with its agricultural plains as essence, is the region with arelatively equal development in primary, secondary and tertiary sectors, and hasthe highest literacy rates and life expectancy recorded in Brazil. Today theregion is record on jobs, especially in software development, and the activitiesof import and export.The fashion districts are mainly in the South, Southeast and Northeast as will beseen during this research. 43
  45. 45. Image 1: 1- Center-West, 2- Northeast, 3- North 4- Southeast, 5- SouthApart from the different nations which made the country, the centralization ofdifferent people in each region has specific area. The climatic conditions ofeach area also favored this cultural "distance".Many people outside of Brazil do not know well the country, but many Braziliansdo not know also due to its huge size. What comes to the world about Brazil is alook at Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo. But Brazil is much bigger than this andeven better in different ways. There is enormous energy in places like Curitiba,Porto Alegre, Salvador and Brasilia. Much of the country is yet to be discoveredby foreigners.3.3 BRAZILIANS AND THE BRAZILEIRISM: DNA "Despite being made from the fusion of such different sources, its remarkable that Brazilians are, today, one of the most homogeneous peoples, both linguistically and culturally and also one of the most socially integrated on Earth. We speak a same language, with no dialects. We dont shelter any vindication of autonomy, nor are we fond of any past. We are actually open to the future. (...) In the very truth of things, what we are is the ―new Rome‖. A late and tropical Rome. Brazil already is the largest among all neo-Latin nations due to its populations magnitude, and it also gains terrain for its artistic and cultural creativity. It needs to be it now in the technology field of future civilization, to establish itself as an economic power of self-sustained progress. We are 44
  46. 46. building ourselves in struggle to blossom tomorrow as a new civilization, half-breed and tropical, proud of itself. More joyful, because it has suffered more. Better, because it gathers more mankinds. More generous, because its open to living together with all races and with all cultures and because its settled on the fairest and brightest province on Earth.‖ (Darcy Ribeiro, "The Brazilian People" - Writer, anthropologist and politician.)To write about the Brazilian DNA is a subject so complex and interesting that itdeserves only a single research devoted to this subject. The Observatory ofConsumption and Behaviour from SENAI CETIQT conducted a very interestingresearch on this case and some of the features that will be highlighted here area result of this study. Also it will be salient other characteristics found that aim toenrich the knowledge and understanding of Brazil and its people. Thus, this isnot a general analysis but a focused one, in order to have knowledge of whatmight be added to the understanding of national characteristics.The house, the street and the other world are areas of experience, are threecodes of values, which alternate in the symbolic order of Brazilian culture. Infact, symbolically operate with three dimensions of existence which alternate invarious arenas of social practices. The experience of the Brazilian triangle ritualwith its carnivals, processions and parades, and with their heroes, reflectsdirectly on the basic concepts with which we explain and live our lives. Thesymbolic structure of Brazilian culture pervades social relations, interactionsbetween actors, daily practices, institutional concepts, representations of thecountry and especially our own emotions. The Brazilian culture is like a musicalscore and on it we read our identity. In multiple contexts of our society we knowby heart the tone in which we must play - the codes of the house, the street andof the other world. For more different from each other that we can be, for mostcultural regions that Brazil may have, still, the musical score in many ways isthe same, the symphony is the same Brazilian symphony - singular andcomplex culture. Therefore, as Tom Jobim sayd, "Brazil is not for beginners."20Some intellectuals and writers emphasize the duality of Brazil, as EverardoRocha and Gilberto Freyre. According to Rocha there is a presence of ethicalduplicitous and ambiguous elements in the Brazilian imaginary, somethingclearly identified by the contemporary Anthropology: the idea of the routineexperience of mixtures, divisions and ambiguity of values used to think aboutourselves. Meanwhile Freyre analyses this duality related to the culturalbackground of the country, among Europeans, Native Indians and Slaves. Hebelieves that in general the formation of Brazil has been a process of balancingopposites. This balance attests that cultural richness of the mixture under the 45