SPANISH ARCHITECTURE 4000BC - PRESENT Alina Syed WHERE IS IT LOCATED? Spanish Architecture can be found just about anywhere in Spain, with the earliest buildings located in Altamira and Cogul, and the modern ones in Barcelona and Madrid. TIME PERIODS Starting at 218 BC was the Roman Period. During this period, many bridges and theatres were built as well as a variety of religious architecture. Most settlements of this time were of Iberian, Phoenician and Greek settlers. th th During the 10 and 11 centuries wasAbout Spanish Architecture… the Romanesque period, consisting of very primitive styles such as thick wallsWithin Spanish architecture, they reflect community values and pursuits. They and lack of sculpture. This period was influenced by Cluny, which is ainform us of the movement of people, who take their architectural traditions Benedictine monastery located inwith them in form, (for example, temples). They also convey the impact of France. As for the Gothic Period which took place in the 12th century andpolitical events, as seen with castles and palaces. Not only that, but Spanish resulted of European influence, the Cathedral of Avila can be consideredarchitecture also reflected internal ideological divisions of regional rivalry (i.e. one of the most famous Spanish Gothiccastles might be built by a ruler to reinforce his control within his own territory). Architecture of the time. The Renaissance period followed the Gothic th Period in the 15 century and wasSpanish architecture from 4000BC to the present consists of many different grafted to Gothic forms. It was led byperiods that are each unique due to their different forms and elements. These Juan Bautista de Toledo as well as Juan de Herrera who made the royalperiods include the Roman period, the Romanesque period, the Gothic period, monastery of El Escorial.the Renaissance, the Baroque period, Spanish colonial architecture, theneoclassical style, as well as the 19th, 20th, and 21st centuries. More in depthinformation about these periods can be found to the right.
PERIODS CONTINUED… Following the Renaissance period was the very successful Baroque period that th occurred in the late 16 century. The Spanish Colonial architecture was a combination of Native American and Moorish decorative influences. The Neoclassical style on the other hand adapted old ideas to create buildings such as the astronomical observatory. WHAT MAKES SPANISH ARCHITECTURE DISTINCTIVE: Spanish architecture is very unique in its own way. In the earlier ages Spanish architecture was recognized as a various amount of castles with their own distinctive use of bricks whereas in modern times, architects such as Gaudi do INFLUENCES ON SPANISH ARCHITECTURE: not make their buildings symmetrical but they areDue to its historical and geographical more experimental anddiversity, Spanish architecture has bubbly, as well as colourful.drawn from a host of influences. Spanish modern architecture is very playful and not hard toMost of these influences derive from tell apart from that of otherRome, as the Romans left behind areas. The picture to the leftsome of their most outstanding is but one example of Gaudi’s buildings.monuments in Hispania. Manyinfluences are also from variouscultural areas such as the culturalEuropean and Arabic styles thatinfluenced the Spanish to create the KEY TERMSMudejar style. In modern Spanish Festoon: Ornamental garland usually suspending from both ends, (I.e.architecture today, for example Edificio Metropolis, Madrid).those by the works of Antoni Gaudi, Keystone: The central wedge-shaped stone at the crown of an archhe is influenced mainly by that locks all parts together, (I.e. Arc de Triomf, Barcelona).Moresque, oriental and gothic Mudejar: Style of Spanish architecture employed by Muslims after thearchitecture – all of them traditional Christian reconquest, characterized by a fusion of Islamic with GothicCatalonian styles. and Romanesque elements. For example, the Arc de Triomf located in Barcelona. Arcade: A series of arches supported by columns or piers, either attached to a wall or free-standing, (I.e. Plaza Mayor, Madrid).
INDIAN ARCHITECTURE (9000 B.C. - present) Back in 9000 B.C., Indian architecturebegan with some early cave paintings.Throughout the years, their architecture hascontinually changed. Due to the fact that Indianarchitecture has been around since the ancientcivilizations period, it has developed through theuse of many previous influences and has createdits own, unique style that is sophisticated andwidely recognized. Perhaps the most recognizedstructure in Indian architecture is the Taj Mahal Taj Mahal, Agra. Recognized for its signature domelocated in Agra (right). and water reflection. !! ! ! ! ! ! ! DISTINCTIVE STYLE • extremely intricate and detailed designs • many geometrical shapes • lots of sculptures of gods • lots of pillars, arches and panels • religious beliefs incorporated into buildings It is said that Indian architecture lacks consistency because of the diversity of religious beliefs in India. The Nageshwara Temple (left) demonstrates the intricate detail and religion associated with IndianNageshwara Temple, Kumbakonam. Representation of theintricate detail and religion in Indian architecture. architecture.! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! KEY TERMSgeometrical - formed by lines, points and curvesfusion - joining two or more things to create a single entitysculpture - two or three dimensional art form created by carving stone, wood, etc.
INFLUENCES• when Islam invaded India, Islamic architecture fused with Indian architecture• Greek architecture inspired the rock-cut art, which was the basis of early temples such as the Ellora Caves (right)• as the development of technology and science increases, the influence of religion decreases (influenced a change in style) Ellora Caves, showing the Greek influence of rock-cut art. THEN AND NOW DILWARA TEMPLES As mentioned before, most modern Indian My tile is based off of one of the columns in structures lack the use of religious beliefs, the Dilwara Temples. The tile emphasizes substituting them for the use of technology. the detail included in the columns by The modern architecture still maintains the showing a close-up representation as well as a wider shot of one of the columns. It will use of geometric shapes and symbolism, emphasize the substantial use of gods and continuing to define the style. various religious figures. It will be an accurate representation of common Naga Towers, soon to come. Contains the elements used in Indian cultural symbol of the Naga (snake). architecture. The present style of Indian architecture is very different from old structures.BIBLIOGRAPHYhttp://www.culturalindia.net/indian-history/timeline.htmlhttp://www.kamit.jp/01_introdctn/intr_eng.htmhttp://indianskyscraperblog.wordpress.com/Masterpieces of Traditional Indian Architecture by Satish Groverhttp://www.crystalinks.com/indiarchitecture.html
N I EL BIOGRAPHY:D A Born in May 12, 1946 in Poland, D Daniel Libeskind is now currently lives in the United States and is a IN successful artist, architect, and set SK designer. Geographic locations of the studies leading up to his career BE include Israel, New York City, and England. He has completed manyLI projects including the Crystals at City Center (Las Vegas, Nevada, USA), Jewish Museum Berlin (Berlin, Germany), Military History Museum (Dresden, Germany), and the Michael Lee-Chin Crystal at the Royal Ontario Museum (Toronto, Ontario, Canada). Crystals at City Center in Las Vegas, Nevada, USA (2005-2009) Military History Museum (2001-2011) COUNTRIES WHERE HIS WORK IS FOUND: TERMS TO DESCRIBE • Canada DANIELʼS WORK: • Germany • USABold - showing an ability to take risksComplex - consisting of many different • Englandand connected parts (not easy to • Spainanalyze or understand)Abstract - existing in thought or as an • Switzerlandidea but not having a physical or • Irelandconcrete existence • South KoreaGeometric - characterized by ordecorated with regular lines and • Denmarkshapes Jewish Museum Berlin in • IsraelProportional - corresponding in size Berlin, Germany (1989-1999)or amount to something else •Italy
DISTINCTIONS: Danielʼs projects are quite distinctive. Almost all of his buildings include geometric shapes and linear elements that seem abstract. Many also include linear cutouts for windows and using metal, steel, and glass elements. Some of his designs are INSPIRATION extensions on existing structures that, when he is While attending a wedding at the ﬁnished working his “magic”, seem to blend “old” with “new” and make the new creations appear as Royal Ontario Museum, Danielʼs love if they are emerging out of the older ones. for the gem and mineral collection inspired him to sketch the initial concepts of the crystal onto paper napkins.Michael Lee-Chin Crystal Royal Ontario Museum Architect: Daniel Libeskind Project Began: 2002 Project Finished: 2007 BIBLIOGRAPHY: • http://www.rom.on.ca/about/crystal/ • http://daniel-libeskind.com/daniel • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Libeskind
Art Nouveau 1890 -1914Art Nouveau style can be found all over the world, butis most abundant in the European Countries where itoriginated. Riga, Latvia is one of the largest centres of Art Nouveau architecture. Although it originated in Europe, during the early 1900’s, New York became one of the world’s greatest economic and cultural centers where architects developed their own versions of the new art. The great fire of 1871 destroyed most of Chicago, the city was rebuilt with the Art Nouveau flare. Example ofarchitecture found in Riga, Latvia Art Nouveau Building in Riga, Latvia Art Nouveau, French for “New Art” has very distinctive styles that were against the formal and classical approaches to design. This new expression of architecture became known as “The Whiplash” which is described as a sudden violent curve generated by the crack of the whip. This characteristic is found in nature and was applied to architecture in the form of artistic decoration consisting of energetic rhythmic lines, patterns, running scrolls, interlacing foliage and flame and shell textures. No specific artists personified the nouveau style which has different names in different countries such as le style metro in France, jugendstil in Germany, secession in Austria, la style de liberty in Italy and modernista Example ofarchitecture found in in Spain. Art Nouveau presented a refreshing and modern solution that broke the Paris, France stronghold of traditions.
Key Terms Important to Art Nouveau: Acanthus leaf: Carving that is frequently found in art nouveau furniture and buildings architecture that resembles this motif Arch: a curved structure spanning an opening Asymmetrical: non identical when reflected upon a central line; lacking chemistry Baluster: railing supports spaced closely together; in art nouveau include many whiplash styles Bellcast: a curved shape with a lower pitch at the base of the roof slope Bow Window: dynamic composition of widows arranged at different heights and bowing from the centre Columns: rigid and slender pillar used as decorative in the art nouveau time period French symbolist movement: movement in literature (1880-1900) leading to a rejection of realism and sensuous. It was an important influence in the Art Nouveau movement and led artists to symbolic and philosophic attitudes. Stained Glass: glass with colours, enamels, paint, or stains that was used to portray freedom of the art nouveau period Whiplash lines: applied to the unique curves and designs found in paintings and structures as well as balusters Victor Horta Hotel InteriorInfluences on Art Nouveau:The Art Nouveau movement broke away from the ClassicalPeriod of symmetry and proportion. It was not only viewed asa style of art but also the redefining of the natural featuresportrayed throughout the artwork and architecture. During thelate 1800’s there was a French symbolist movement inliterature that also rejected realism. This also helped the ideaof new art break through into more widespread parts of theworld. Art Nouveau was also influenced by an industrial agewhen cities all over Europe and North America began to growand become more capable of mass reproduction. This causedthe artists of Europe such as Alphonse Mucha, Victor Horta,and Hector Guimardi to want to be more unique and freeflowing. Soon Art Nouveau started to show up in variousmagazine ads, posters, as well as art galleries. Architects thendeveloped their unique styles for the interior and exteriors ofstructures.http://www.huntfor.com/arthistory/c19th/artnouveau.htmhttp://www.nga.gov/feature/nouveau/exhibit_intro.htmhttp://architecture.about.com/od/artnouveau/g/artnouveau.htmhttp://www.riga-life.com/riga/art-nouveauErec Kingston Victor Horta Hotel Exterior
The style was greatlyinfluenced by Mesoamerican architecture. Recognizable aspects of the style include pyramids and temples. In fact, some of the very earliest pyramid designs were those of the Mayans. This style of architecture can also be identified by the intricate detail in a variety of materials such as mud and stone. Buildings ranged widely in height, however itis important to note that any steps made were very wide as well as steep.There are specific cities thatrepresent aspects of Mayanarchitecture very well. Forexample, Uxmal, Yucutanwas typical of thisarchitecture from around600-900 AD. Some of thebuildings include the Templeof the Magician and theNunnery Quadrangle. Anadditional city is Tikal,Guatemala. In terms ofarchitectural sites, this city isone of the largest inrepresenting pre-ColombianMayan civilization.
The Mayan Calendar is what Glyphs comes to mind when thinking of Mayan culture. Not only was the idea very impactful, but so was the design work embedded in the actual structure. The calendar was a very sophisticated aspect of the Mayan culture. The design work in itself is very sophisticated as well. Intricacies in the stone are also simplified by the repetition brought along due to the many cycles upon which the calendar is structured.The Story of Architecture by Johnathon Glanceyhttp://library.thinkquest.org/10098/mayan.htmhttp://www.mayadiscovery.com/ing/archaeology/architecture.htmhttp://www.authenticmaya.com/arquitectura_maya.htm
A R C H I T E C T U R A L H A N D O U TChinese ArchitectureArchitectural StylesImperial- this style was only used forthe Emperor Of China, things likeyellow tiles, wooden columns, andthe use of the #9. 9 arches, 9 gates.etc.Religious- this style, which includesthe Buddhist style was largelyinspired by imperial structure. Thesebuildings included lots of pagodas(ones with 4 or 8 sides). Also, themain entrances were always built atthe side of the building.Commoner- this is the most common Mainstyle, used by a large part of China’spopulation. The center would usually Informationhave a shrine for ancestors and the Country Originated From- Chinatwo sides of the building are roomsfor ancestors. The “wings” of the Timelines – Tang Dynasty- 618-906building were meant for youngermembers of the family. -Ming Dynasty- 1368-1644 The Pagoda Commoner Structures The pagoda is a type of structure that originated in the 11 century from Buddism. This type of Buddist structure first came from India, but soon traveled to other parts of Asia. During the Tang Dynasty period, these structures were built fairly simple, but over time have developed into detailed, more complex buildings. Imperial Structure
Distinctive Features Balance, symmetry, structure, construction and detail are all things that make this style of architecture a stand out to others around the globe. Horizontal Highlights There is a lot of emphasis on the horizontal axis in Chinese architecture. A lot of the buildings are tall, with high platforms and a low, smaller roof, often the corners have been built in a “swept up” motion. Usually, Chinese architecture emphasizes the width of the buildings- mostly to highlight the embracing-nature of imperial china. Materials Used In the past, Chinese architecture used a lot of wood in construction. By the start of the Tang Dynasty, this trend was replaced with stone and brick. These materials were in popular use at the time of the Ming Dynasty, Which the famous Great Wall Of China is built from.StructureThe use of structural timbers is used for framing thebuildings as well as holding up the small roofs. There arethree different types of roofs used. Straight Incline, which iswith a single incline section, Multi- Incline, with two ormore, and Sweeping- which is a roof with sweepingcurvatures with taller corners. Use of door panels andcurtain walls are also popular in this type of architecture.The Forbidden CityThe Forbidden City has become a wide attractionaround the world. It represents a large group ofimperial buildings, and is found in China’s capital,Beijing. The work is incredibly detailed and includesthings like terraces, buildings made from marble,colored tiles, and lacquer finished woodwork. Pagoda 2
Bibliography http://www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A0811909.htmlhttp://www.chinatraveldepot.com/C187-Chinese-Architecturehttp://polaris.gseis.ucla.edu/yanglu/ECC_CULTURE_ARCHITECTURE_TIMELINE.HTMBook- Wonders Of The World- MetroBooksTile Description PhotosThe photos I used to base my tile design off of were the middle one on the 3rd page, and the second oneon the left side of the 2nd page. I used both the structure and detail to draw up my design. I liked themain basis the first picture gave me as to how the roof and building should look from the front, as wellas the detailed photo where I noticed a lot of specifics that I also included. Note- I also looked at a lot ofdifferent photos in books as well for ideas. 3
M e s o p o ta m i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e Materials used throughout the Mesopotamian empire: - clay was the main material used due to its abundance and its ability to be shaped and dried easily - stone and wood that could be used to build structures was mostly unavailable - bricks made of clay were identically molded and baked in the sun, soon becoming mass-produced as they became the principle building material used in construction - Lebanon exported wood that was imported by the Mesopotamians for roofing, ornaments, and tools - facades on buildings and gates were decorated with glazed bricks of a multitude of colours (white, blue, gold, silver, yellow), often showing mythological creatures such as griffon - a type of tar or bitumen was developed for waterproofing buildings during the flooding season Construction Facts - stone is structurally more sound than mud, forcing the Mesopotamians to use buttresses to reinforce their thick walls in order to compensate for such a factor - vaulting was a popular construction method during the time - domes and vaults covered rooms, acting as roofs - long narrow rooms or hallways were covered with tunnel vaults - the use of columns was not idealistic as mud crumbled under intense pressure, thus it was only used by the later cultures - by putting together arches, domes were created (Ishtar Gate is an example of an arch from the ancient world)Methods used to increase structural support- buttresses and flat buttress strips : Rectangular piece connected or leaned against a wall- recess : An enclosure that has been pushed back- clay nails- pilasters : A half column attached to a wall- arches : Curved structure that supports loads by dispersing the pressure- voussoir : A stone shaped like a wedge that is used in arches- dome : A hollow architectural structure that is shapes like a hemisphere- stone plinths : A square or rectangular stone base on which columns are placed upon- frescoes : A large painting made on a plaster surface Page 3
Throughout the Mesopotamian civilization there were three major types of M buildings: M e s o p o ta m i a n A r c h i t e c t u r e Houses T h e g r e a t M e s o p o t a m i a n c i v i l i z a t i o n ( n o w m o d e r n I r a q ) fi r s t a p p e a r e d a t - the number of stories determined the occupant’s around approximately 4500 BC. During their 5000 year existence, many social status. The poor were housed in single story great architectural developments came to rise. homes while the rich had two stories Due to it’s cultural diversity in which many separate city states were - the center of the home was the courtyard which provided light, air, and protection c r e a t e d o v e r t h e y e a r s , d i ff e r e n t e m p i r e s r o s e a n d f e l l , e a c h l e a v i n g - constructed from bricks held together with plaster behind separate but equally important architectural legacies. - entrance was closed off with either nothing or a wooden door The following table includes the most important cultures that influenced - cooling through convection currents was created by having the rooms face towards Mesopotamian architecture: the center courtyard Culture Years of prosper (BC) Temples Sumerian 4500—2000 - for increased stability, buttresses and recesses were used for added support - building plan was either t-shaped or rectangular to represent four flowing rivers Akkadian 2350—2200 - temples were built on low terraces with an observatory situated a top the entire structure Babylonian 2000—1600 Assyrian 1350—612 Palaces - relief carvings of royal, symbolic, and religious figures on Neo-Babylonian 612—539 walls - walls of layered plaster had paintings of friezes on them The Mesopotamian architecture was shaped by sever- Urban planning: - facings made of bricks each had polychrome glazes al factors: all Mesopotamian cities were parted into four types of spaces: - gates were guarded by large sculptures such as griffons or 1. Geographical location and climate residential, commercial, mixed, and civic dragons who were carved from stone 2. Invention and development of courtyards city designs were detailed as they included intricate plans for ca- 3. Seasonal floods which forced them to raise build- nals, trade routes, walls, irrigation systems, streets, buildings, Ziggurat Style Temples markets, and gardens ings on platforms or mounds of clay, dirt, or stone - most important religious building - receding layered platforms of two to seven 4. Religion and symbolic meanings - shared similar stylistic characteristics to step pyramids which came into popularity 5. Social hierarchy during the Early Dynastic period - all levels were proportional to each other Due to the diversity of cultures in the Mesopotamian - the foundation was created with sunbaked bricks while the exterior was covered civilization, all five of these aspects were integrated with ones that had been fired into a common style and can be observed in each Mesopotamians were also famous for developing landscape architec- - multiple astrological beings were represented on facings that had been glazed over culture’s forms. ture. This usually involved heavy open spaced planning. Orchards - walkways, stairways and ramps connected each stage and gardens blossomed due to the abundance of water diverted from the Tigris and Euphrates. The space was typically an enclosed quad- rangle that had multiple fountains placed Bibliography: throughout the garden. The Mesopotamians used http://ocw.kfupm.edu.sa/ocw_courses/phase2/ARC110/LEecture%20Notes/Lecure_Slides_Module_3_ANE.pdf space to its fullest, creating beautiful greenery http://www.centrorisorse.org/mesopotamia-architecture.html whose reputation is still reveled about today, such http://universalium.academic.ru/257425/art_and_architecture%2C_Mesopotamian as in the Hanging Gardens of Babylon. http://www.ancientmesopotamians.com/ancient-mesopotamian-buildings.htmlPage 2 Page 1
Romanesque Architecture What makes the Romanesque style distinctive is rounded arches, tall towers, small and few details as well as decorative style similar to roman buildings. When churches were built, they were typically full of painted, colourful biblical images to teach people who were unable to read the bible.What influenced Romanesque Architecture was the architecture during the rule of the Roman empire.This is where the name Romanesque originated from. The Romanesque style was partiallyinfluenced by Byzantine art, which carried westward along main trade routes making to places such asVenice, Ravenna, and Marseilles. Some of the first buildings to appear in the Romanesque style are Santa Maria Charlemagnes Palatine St. Michaels Hildesheim St. Michaels Hildesheim Chapel (interior) (exterior) th th Romanesque architecture became the main style in Europe in the 11 and 12 centuries, yet started as early as the 6th. It was seen in England, France, and GermanyWhat I chose to depict in my tile was large, rounded arches, with small and few details. It also includesstone brick work. These accurately reflects the architecture of the time.
Large rounded arches Few windowsLater on, slightly more windows were being used,but they remained small in sizeLarge Rounded ArchesBibliography:http://www.oldandsold.com/articles23/architecture-53.shtmlhttp://http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romanesque_architecture
Neuschwanstein Castle is a 19th century Romanesque palace. The palacerests on a hill above the village of Hohenschwangau near Füssen insouthwest Bavaria, Germany. The palace was built by Ludwig II ofBavaria to act as his own personal retreat and to serve as homage toRichard Wagner. Construction on the castle started in 1869 but was notcompleted until after Ludwig’s death. Construction of Castle Neuschwanstein in 1869 During the 19th century many castles were being constructed or reconstructed, with multiple changes to make them more picturesque. The building of Castle Neuschwanstein was based on two journeys that Ludwig took in 1867: Ludwig travelled across Germany where he sawreconstruction happening to Wartburg near Eisenach, and to the Château de Pierrefonds, which were being transformed into castles made for history. The king saw both buildings as representatives of a romantic interpretation of the Middle Ages a topic in which he found fascinating as well as the mythology in the operas that he enjoyed by Richard Wagner that left great impressions on the king. His favorite opera was the swan prince in which it is said he based his life upon and his castle NeuschwansteinChâteau de Pierrefonds Wartburg .
Besides taking ideas from fairytales and operas, Neuschwanstein palace had many other influences in creating its memorable architecture. The palace is looked at as typical for the 19th century with its architecture. The castle takes on many different types of architectural styles in its design one of the most common and reoccurring themes is Romanesque with the semicircular arches, Gothic with its upward-pointing lines, slim towers, delicate embellishments and Byzantine architecture and art with the inside of the castles in its throne hall. The style of Castle Neuschwanstein was to originally be neo-Gothic but was built in mostly Romanesque style towards its completion. Style of Architecture that influenced Castle NeuschwansteinFaçade of Reims Carmo Church Notre Dame de ParisCathedral, France (Lisbon,Portugal)
Gothic ArchitectureCommon Characteristics Cathedral of St. E/enne – The Gothicof Gothic Architecture: Bourges, France, Late 12th period lasted• Pointed Arches century from the mid• Ornate detail 12th century to the late• Stained glass (often biblical) 16th century.• Tracery-windows• Colombes• Tall tiers Arched Doorway • Grey colour• Tall, arched ceilings• Blue, grey, turquoise, black roofs• Intricate carvings (often biblical)• Ribbed Vaulting• Gargoyles• Found in cathedrals First appearing in Medieval Stained glass windows in France (mid 12th century), Gothic architectureSaint Chapelle Cathedral, was heavily inﬂuenced by RomanesqueParis, France, 1246 architecture, and was apart of what inﬂuenced Renaissance architecture. Most commonly known for its beautifully crafted glass windows, pointed arches, and ribbed vaulting, Gothic architecture is most dominantly associated with places of worship such as Map of Gothic Architecture cathedrals and churches in France.Gothic architecture ismost commonly foundin France, but can befound in othercountries in Europesuch as Spain,England, Italy, andGermany. Ribbed Vaulting
Famous Architects and Buildings Reims Cathedral- Bernard de Soissons Built in 1211, Reims, France Cathedral of Notre Dame- Maurice de Sully, 1163, Paris, France Inspirations Stained glass windows in Notre Westminster Abbey- Dame Cathedral,-Paris, France, 1194 Henry III, 1245, London, England For my tile, I chose to combine three of the most distinct featuresSalisbury Cathedral- of Gothic architecture,Architect unknown, arches, tracery, andSalisbury, England, 1220 stained glass.Bibliography• Craven, Jackie. Gothic Revival Architecture ‐ Lyndhurst in Tarrytown New York. Architecture and House Styles and Building Design. N.p., n.d. Web. 7 Mar. 2012. hUp://architecture.about.com/od/ earlychris/anmedieval/ss/gothic_10.htm. • Gothic Architects. Grand Lodge of Bri9sh Columbia and Yukon. N.p., n.d. Web. 20 Feb. 2012. hUp:// freemasonry.bcy.ca/architecture/architects.html.
Persepolis 515 B.C Located in the Fars Province of modern Iran Persepolis was built during the reign of Darius I, who made it the capital of Persia. It was the wealthiest city and full of treasures. The earliest remains of Persepolis date back to around 515 B.C. In 330, Persepolis was partly destroyed by Alexander Sacks, who was King of Macedonia. It remained ruins for nearly 2000 years. There are still remains of Persepolis left that attract tourists. To the ancient Persians, the city was known as Parsa, which means The City of Persians. The Greeks called it Persepolis. Today it is known as Takht-‐e-‐Jamshid or Throne of Jamshid in Iran. Key terms associated with the style of architecture are ancient, Greek, Egyptian, sculptures and rocks.
Ancient art influenced the architecture. It was also greatly influenced by Greek art. What makes the style of architecture distinctive is the detailed rock relief. Ancient art Greek art Bibliography: 1. Ancient Persian Art: History, Photographs: Early Iranian Architecture, Painting, Sculpture: Susa, Persepolis. Encyclopedia of Art, http://www.visual-‐ arts-‐cork.com/ancient-‐art/persian.htm. 2. Persepolis, Iran. Ancient-‐Wisdom, http://www.ancient-‐ wisdom.co.uk/iranpersepolis.htm.
Russian Muscovite architecture is mostly from the 1500’s and 1600’s when powerful tsars ruled Russia. Buildings are typically colourful and whimsical.It feels like Christmas, asthe notable works of this St. Basil’s: style are mostly ornate Explained Orthodox Christianchurches and cathedrals. Perhaps the most famousSome buildings even look creation of Muscovite like gingerbread houses architecture, St. Basil’swith snow-covered roofs. Cathedral in Moscow’s Red Square was built between Where? 1555 and 1560. It was commissioned by Tsar Ivan Moscow is the IV (“the Terrible”) to capital city of commemorate the victory the Russian over the Mongol armies and the freeing of Russia from Federation Tartar rule. It was designed by architects Barma and Posnik. St. Basil’s established the traditional tent-and-tower churches as a symbol of national Influences unification and combined Muscovite architecture the styles of the north and south in its design. features inspiration from: The large central chapel • Islamic Onion domes is surrounded by 8 smaller • Romanesque arcades (row of ones, and each is topped arches) with an onion dome, which • Gothic pointed arches and were added to the originally spires (conical tower topper) white cathedral in the late • Italian Renaissance rusticated 17th century. stonework St. Basil the Blessed is • Polish and Ukrainian Baroque buried in an additional small chapelsMuscovite Window Designs chapel.
Pahkah! “Goodbye” Early Muscovite Period (1230 – 1530) • Mongols looted the country, causing a major decrease in wealth. Large stone buildings were not in the budget, however some towns managed to preserve their Medieval churches. Early: Cathedral of the • By the late 1300’s, Muscovite masons managed to regain Assumption, Zvenigorod the skill of their ancestors and solve problems whose answers had been lost during the Mongol attacks of the 13th century. Middle Muscovite Period (1530 – 1630) • The key architectural innovation of the 1500’s was the tented roof. This brick structure meant that snow couldn’t pile on top. It can be seen in the design of St. Basil’s. The first tented church was built to celebrate the birth of Ivan the Terrible in 1531, seen at left. Late Muscovite Period (1630 – 1712) • After a period of turmoil and famine known as the Time of Troubles, Russia was once again poor. Luckily, rich merchants decided to pitch in and fund the construction Middle: Ascension of more cathedrals. Church, Kolomenskoye • In the mid-1600’s, the Patriarch of the Orthodox Church decided that tented designs were untraditional, and so cathedrals turned into smaller, but heavily decorated chapels. This period was influenced by Baroque styles. Key Features of Muscovite Architecture Late: Church of St. John the Baptist, YaroslavlBibliographyArchitecture Explainedhttp://www.enotes.com/topic/Russian_architecture Tented Roof Blind Arcade Onion Dome
ANTONI GAUDI (1852-1926) Barcelona, Spain About Antoni Gaudi: -Had a bad temper- said that it was the one thing in his life that he could not control. -Became most famous in 1910 when asked to build a hotel in NY- many Americans took note. -Died June 7, 1926 at 74, When he was runWhat makes this style distinct: over by a tram. Antoni Gaudi has a very distinct style of art, and -Dressed carelessly soarchitecture. All of his artwork relate back to a natural, organic when he was killed,look. He was inspired by the organic shapes of nature, so this nobody recognizedshows up many times. Along with the natural look, he also him.combines medieval looks and gothic use of glass, and oriental When he died, half ofstyles too. The time that he was creating his work, was also the Barcelona dressed intime of Art Nouveau. This worked well with Gaudi, because he black to give finalused very little straight lines, and really liked the curved homage.natural lines of the Art Nouveau. All of his art, and architecturehas a way of looking like it is part of nature, and part of amodern city at the same time.
ANTONI GAUDI Influences: -Medieval books -Gothic Art -Organic shapes of nature -Oriental Structures -No Straight lines of Art Nouveau -Viollet-le-Duc’s book on medieval French architecture -William Morris Elements Used: -Bone-like look of the column -Bubbly Glass -Rounded Stone edges- very natural looking -Mosaic (used in many of his works) -Rounded Windows -Contrast in smooth flat windows, and round bubbly ones, and natural round ones at the bottom -Use of texture (mosaic, smooth stone, smooth glass, rounded glass shown without use of colour) Bibliography http://1.bp.blogspot.com/- hywR3CvpziQ/TlREWXchgEI/AAAAAAAAFc4/svbOswhKiug/s1600/williammorris460.jpg http://4.bp.blogspot.com/- SolxzTAu2NE/Tdk1VmKLIWI/AAAAAAAACAs/fsErtjeSY6o/s1600/artrevival2.jpg http://www.digitalphoto.pl/foto_galeria/5042_2009-2028_b.jpg http://27.media.tumblr.com/tumblr_ljv1e7suoN1qccrklo1_500.jpg http://www.travelblat.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/09/Antoni-Gaudi.jpg http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/7/72/Antoni_Gaudi_1878.jpg /220px-Antoni_Gaudi_1878.jpg http://www.gaudiclub.com/ingles/I_VIDA/i_menu.html
Volume 1, Issue 1 Newsletter Date The Italian Renaissance D E F I N I T I O N SRebirth - the action of reappearing or starting to flour- Filippo Brunelleschi (1377 - 1446)ish or increase after a decline. (e.g. The introduction / re-utilization of elements from the ancient times) - Designed the dome (cupola) of the Cathedral of FlorenceHigh Renaissance - a very short time period in Rome He was a goldsmith, sculptor, mathematician, clock builder,and Venice. The primary center was Rome. Work of the and architect.artists during the high renaissance were more expres-sive than that of the previous renaissance artists and are - Travelled to Rome to study the ruinssome of the best known in the world. of Ancient Roman buildings. He addedMannerism - a style and period of European art (16th some of the things that he observedcentury) notable for its deliberate reaction against the from these buildings to his work.balance of high renaissance art. Characterized by sub- - 1418 there was a competition to de-ject expression, distortions of the figure peculiar place-ment of figures in the composition, exaggerated per- sign the dome of the cathedral - hespective view and a crisp and harsh treatment of light won.and shadow. - His work tend towards cool and staticTondo - a round painting. perfection - a drastic change for the time and from the pop-Foreshortening - a method of drawing or painting anobject or person that is not parallel to the picture planeso that it seems to recede in space; giving the illusion of3 dimensions. Pats get smaller as they recede in space.Cupola – a round convex roof on a circular base Lorenzo Ghiberti (1381 - 1455) - Battled with Brunelleschi to win the contest to create the North doors of the Baptistery of Flor- ence, he won. - The 2 doors took more than 20 years to complete. The 28 panels illustrate stories from the New Testament The doors were so well liked that he was commissioned to do the final set of doors for the Baptistery which were located on the East side. - The 2nd set of doors were very different from the first, and are called “The Gates of Paradise”. He divided the 2nd set of doors into 10 large panels, he used pictorial space and one-point perspective to create convincing depths. - The first doors contained remnants of gothic sculpture, 2nd set are works of renaissance
P a g e 2 N e w s l et t e r T it l e Donatello (1386 - 1466)- Considered one of the greatest sculptors of his time and that ever lived.- Donatello’s bronze David was the first life sizefree standing nude since ancient times.- Commissioned in 1443 to create a huge statue of a Venetian general nicknamed “Gattamelata”.- The statue is bronze, huge and is mounted on a high pedestal.- During Donatello’s 11 year stay in Padua he revolutionized Venetian art as he brought the Florentine interest in perspective, form, anato- my and the classic Masaccio (1401 - 1428) - Revolutionized the art of painting. - Combined visual perspective and texture. - Tribute Money New Testament illustration, de- picts 3 succeeding events at the same time. - He used light in ways that had never be- fore been used. He used a single light source coming from one direction, there- fore highlighting on one side of the object and creating a shadow on the other. Fra Angelico (1400 - 1455) - The Florentine master of landscape painting (seen in Adoration of the Magi) - Works: The Annunciation, Adoration of the Magi - Adoration of the Magi - a tondo painted in tempera on wood. Introduction of nearly naked figures of boys hints at the future Florentine fascination with figure painting. Landscape elements including flowers, trees, mountains, and ski indicate the Renaissance interest in nature.
V o l u m e 1 , I ss u e 1 P a g e 3 Paolo Uccello (1397 - 1475) - Fascination with perspective/ the scientific aspect of painting. - In Battle of San Romano, Uccello used foreshortening to create the feel- ing of the body pointing towards the viewer. Piero della Francesca (1420 - 1492)- The Legend of the True Cross -Figure are cool/ calm. -Can see Francesca’s interest in light and how he used it to create solid geometric forms. -Accurate perspective both linear and arial. Sandro Botticelli (1445 - 1510) Birth of Venus Scene based on traditional mythology. Often mythological scenes were meant to symbolize Christian ideas/ideals Considered the master of delicate lines. Figures seen outlined with an extremely fine line. Other works: The Adoration of the Magi Botticelli placed what is believed to be a self portrait on one of the guests faces, and some of the other guests have the portraits of other Italian contemporaries. ( This was a very common oc- currence at this time) Characters are often looking at the viewer.Giovani Bellini (1431 - 1516)- Master painter in Venice during the late 15th century.- With the arrival of the oil painting technique in Italy, Bellini developed a richness or color and depth of value unequaled in Italy at the time.- Works: The Doge Leonardo Loredan
WE’RE ON THE WEB! EXAMPLE.COMOrganization This would be a good place to insert a short paragraph about your organization. It might include the purpose of the organization, itsB U S I N E S S N A M E mission, founding date, and a brief history. You could also include a brief list of the typesPrimary Business Address of products, services, or programs your or-Address Line 2Address Line 3 ganization offers, the geographic area cov-Address Line 4 ered (for example, western U.S. or EuropeanPhone: 555-555-5555Fax: 555-555-5555 markets), and a profile of the types of cus-E-mail: email@example.com tomers or members served. It would also be useful to include a contact name for readers who want more information about the organization.Business Tagline or Motto B a c k P a g e S t o r y H e a d l i n e This story can fit 175-225 words. ployees. If your newsletter is folded and mailed, If you have any prices of standard this story will appear on the back. So, products or services, you can include a it’s a good idea to make it easy to read listing of those here. You may want to at a glance. refer your readers to any other forms of communication that you’ve created A question and answer session is a for your organization. good way to quickly capture the atten- tion of readers. You can either compile You can also use this space to remind questions that you’ve received since readers to mark their calendars for a the last edition or you can summarize regular event, such as a breakfast some generic questions that are fre- meeting for vendors every third Tues- quently asked about your organization. day of the month, or a biannual charity auction. A listing of names and titles of manag- ers in your organization is a good way If space is available, this is a good to give your newsletter a personal place to insert a clip art image or some Caption describing picture or graphic. touch. If your organization is small, you other graphic. may want to list the names of all em-
Acropolis of Athens: The Parthenon The term “acropolis” is defined as the edge or point of a city, usually high up. They can be used as a place for shelter, warship of defence against enemies. Many can be found around Greece, one of the most historical being The Acropolis of Athens, home of the Parthenon. The Parthenon (447-436 BC) Architects The Parthenon was commissioned by Pericles, a political leader, after Greek victories over the Persians Phidias, a sculptor, was given the task of rebuilding the ancient temples overlooking the city of Athens Architects Ictinus and Callicrates were called upon to perfect the Parthenon temple, which in turn took 11 years the buildMajor Influences Doric ‘order’; first used 150 years prior for the design of Heraion, an acropolis of sacred and civic buildings gathered around the Temple of Hera Athena, Goddess of Wisdom; she won a competition to become patron and named the city, Athens, after herself. She became the guardian of Athens and in her honour, the Parthenon was devoted to her
What Makes the Parthenon so Distinctive? The Parthenon differs from other Greek temples as its exterior was extended under Pericles’ leadership. While most had a width of 6 columns, the colonnade was extended to 8, and the length was extended accordingly to 17. The interior was divided into two chambers, the larger containing a statue of Athena. To ensure perfection, Ictinus and Callicrates used entasis to considerably distort the columns on the exterior. This required mathematical skill among the architects as well as enormous expertise on the builders. Despite its appearance, there are no true straight lines to be found on the Parthenon. Athena’s StatuePlan of the Parthenon The Parthenon is composed of an unusual blend of Doric and Ionic order, which contain metopes and frieze. The metopes represent various struggles faced between order and justice, and criminal anarchy. Each side depicts a different battle, for instance, on the south side appears the battle between the Lapiths and the Centaurs. the frieze, however, depicts a single subject. On three sides it can be seen a march of horsemen, musicians and sacrificial animals.
KEY TERMS!!! Acropolis – Edge of or point of city; upper city Column – vertical, rough pillar Entasis – a technique used for distortion causes the eye to see straight lines where they may appear to curve of sag Triglyphs – structural member of Doric frieze, triglyphs separate two consecutive metopes Metope – any square spaces between triglyphs and the Doric frieze; can either be plain or decorated Frieze – a horizontal strip of sculpted or painted decoration Colonnade – a row of columns supporting a roof Fun Story Time – The Naming of Athens Along time ago, there was a man name Cecrops, who was half man and half snake. He was the very first founder and king of Athens. Once Athens started to ‘pick up’, Athena and Poseidon both wanted to be patron. On a verge of attacking each other, Athena had an idea of who could win the city. The person who gave the city the best gift would win. They headed to the Acropolis, gifts in tow. Poseidon was first, andstabbed the earth with his trident and out shot a spring which began pouring water. However, while a wonderful sight, the water was salty, and instantly became less impressive. Athena, however, merely knelt down and planted something beneath the ground. A simple olive tree it may have been but it was a very rich gift. It gave the people food, oil, and wood. Cecrops deemed Athena the winner and she declared the city after herself, Athens.
ROMAN ARCHITECTUREfirst century BC to seventh century ADroman architecture is found primarily in Italy.Their art style was influenced by the Greeks andthe Etruscans and structural remnants of theroman empire can be found all over the world.Not only as ruins, roman architecture hasinfluenced design in the renaissance and inmodern times. elements of the style vault: vaults are arched ceilings or coverings. The can be made of brick concrete or other stone and have a variety of uses. shown in adjacent images they can be decorative and serving no purpose, there are tall vaulted ceilings in some buildings. as well as vaulted awnings called velariums.dome: domed roofs are adistinctive feature in romanarchitecture. They come in anumber of shapes and sizes and areusually found on the largerstructures. This feature wasrecreated in the renaissance.
arch: arches are large curving structures used to span openings and long distances. However some are implemented as decoration. Colum: columns are perhaps the most recognizable feature in roman architecture. They have three parts the base, the shaft, and the detailed capital There are two types of columns. Freestanding columns bear weight, they are used to support buildings. Engaged columns are purely decorative. They are attached to structures and don’t bear weight.There are also threeartistic styles in theevolution of columns.shown on the right theDoric, ionic, andCorinthian columns havevarying levels of detail.
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