William Taft stated that this position represents the majesty and dignity of the American people.
What are executive orders? Rules that executive branch employees must follow. However, this rules cannot violate the Constitution or the laws passed by Congress
Currently there are some 3 million employees in the bureaucracy consuming over a trillion dollars a year in funding.
Harry Truman made the awesome decision to drop the atomic bomb on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945 forcing the Japanese to surrender. Lyndon Johnson ordered bombing missions against the North Vietnamese during the Vietnam War. He personally selected the targets Bush sent troops the the Panama Canal and the Middle East Reagan sent troops to Lebanon and Grenada and ordered American fighter planes to attack Libya for terrorist attacks against American citizens.
Kennedy, Johnson, and Nixon waged an undeclared war in Vietnam, where 57,000 Americans were killed and 300,000 wounded. Yet war was never declared
What are treaties? Formal agreements with other countries The president also can appoint ambassadors which are official representatives in foreign countries
Main legislation that is passed to Congress is the budget. Every the President creates a budget and sends it to Congress for approval. It is always a source for heated debate. The budget is a plan for how to raise money/appropriations for the Presidents proposed programs. The President also has the power to call special sessions of Congress if problems arise and Congress is not meeting. Today however the Congress meets for most of the year and the power is not really used.
During the state of the Union Address the president talks about problems at home and suggests programs called Domestic Plans to deal with these problems EXAMPLE: Increasing the police force to curb crime. The president writes to, telephones, and meets with various congressional leaders; makes public announcements to force the weight of public opinion onto Congress in favor of a legislative program
Pocket Veto: if the President refuses to sign the bill and Congress is in its 2 nd session and adjourns within 10 working days after the bill has been submitted to the President, the bill is killed permanently for that session of Congress. A veto is a clear cut indication of the President ’s dissatisfaction with congressional legislation. Congress rarely overrides a presidential veto There have been 2,494 vetoes and only 104 of those have been overridden.
President Gerald Ford pardoned former President Richard Nixon for his role in the Watergate affair before any charges were brought in court. This was criticized heavily. Pardons are usually granted in the last days of a President ’s reign. Example, Dennis Rich. This is an example of the checks and balance system that influences the Judiciary
Executive privilege is based on the separation of powers. It helps keep the other branches from interfering with the President ’s job. Sometimes the safety of the nation needs to be addressed with secrecy, if the President has to tell Congress the information is more likely to leak out.
The presidents many_hats-2
Warm-Up: True or False? 1) The President can declare war if Americas national security is threatened. 2) The President has the right to withhold certain information from Congress if he thinks it would endanger America. 3) The power of the vice-presidency has been increasing since the early 1990s. 4) No president has ever made it to the highest office without being elected to either the Presidency or the vice- presidency. 5) The president is one of the highest paid members of American society.
Qualifications Must be born as a US citizen Be at least 35 Kennedy was youngest elected (42) Have lived in US for at least 14 years
Length of Term May only be ELECTED twice Four year terms IF one gains presidency through succession (VP becomes pres after Pres dies) for more than two years, then can only serve ONE additional term. IF serving for LESS than two years, then can still be elected for two full terms Thus a total of 10 years is possible.
The Two Term Precedent Franklin D. Roosevelt (1933-1945) FDR was the only president to win more than two terms He led the US through the Depression and WW II George Washington set the precedent for the limit of two terms until the 22nd Amendment made law in 1951
Benefits $400,000 a year (Note: VP makes $230K, Congressmen make $165K and Supreme Court judges make $203K) Free room and board The White House Get your own airplane 747 “Air Force One” Get your own mountain hideaway Camp David in Maryland Nice Pension - $165K Expense account - $50K
The Roles The Constitution speaks briefly about the duties of the President His duties can be broken into 6 main roles: Chief of State Chief Executive Chief Diplomat Commander in Chief Chief Legislator Chief of Party
Chief of StatePresident is ceremonial head ofthe government.We don’t have a king, so he doesthe social job of one – with anAmerican TwistEXAMPLES: –Decorating War Heroes –Throwing Out The 1st Pitch –Dedication Ceremonies –Receiving VIPs at White House
The Chief of State Some believe it limits the President’s ability to do “real work.” Takes up too much of his time Some have called GWB and QE2 for a separate Chief of State to take over this role
The Chief Executive Role Acts as boss of the executive branch of the gov’t – 15 executive departments He is the CEO of the Government Makes sure govt is running efficiently Carries out, enforces, executes the law Constitutionally bound to enforce the acts of Congress, judgments of federal courts, and treaties signed by the United States.
The Chief Executive Has the bureaucracy to help him with these tasks Cabinet positions Federal Agencies Powers of the Chief Executive: Appointment and Removal
Chief Executive(Guardian of the Economy) Controls budget Monitors unemployment, Inflation, taxation, business, and general welfare of the nation. He does not control the economy, but he gets credit if it goes well.
Oversees Numerous Departments Offices, Agencies, Bureaus, etcExecutive Departments ://www.usa.gov/Agencies/FederDepartment of Agriculture (USDA) al/All_Agencies/Includes/AgencDepartment of Commerce (DOC) y_Index.pdfDepartment of Defense (DOD)Department of Education (ED)Department of Energy (DOE)Department of Health and Human Services (HHS)Department of Homeland Security (DHS)Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD)Department of Justice (DOJ)Department of Labor (DOL)Department of State (DOS)Department of the Interior (DOI)Department of the TreasuryDepartment of Transportation (DOT)Department of Veterans Affairs (VA)
Commander in Chief The armed services are under civilian rather than military control Secty of Defense Chrmn of the Joint Chiefs of Staff The supreme commander of the military forces of the United States Commander in Chief - Bush
Commander in Chief This gives Presidents a tremendous amount of power Powers based upon Washington as President Exercises more authority than in any other role. Where ever the President goes, so goes the Nuclear Code briefcase (the “football”). Theoretically, only the President has the power to order the launch nuclear weapons.
Commander In Chief Congress has the power to declare war, but the President can send troops. In many cases the situation is confrontational War Powers Act (1973) Spelled out conditions when the President can send troops President must report within 48 hours If Congress does not issue a declaration of war, troops must be withdrawn in 60 days. ○ Yeah, Right. Never been done
Chief Diplomat Conducts foreign policy, directs actions of ambassadors Under this Role the President has 3 main powers:1. Recognition Power2. Sign Treaties3. Executive Agreements Nuclear Test Ban Treat (JFK)
Recognition Power Recognition power is the power to recognize, or refusal to, foreign countries. Receives foreign diplomats; therefore the President recognizes their government. Hussein, Rabin & Clinton
Creation of Treaties Has the sole power to negotiate treaties The Senate must approve these treaties (2/3) The Senate can also make amendments to the treaties, possibly leading to the dismissal of the entire treaty Woodrow Wilson felt that changes to the Versailles Treaty were so extensive that it led to the US not becoming a part of the League of Nations Senate changes made the treaty ineffective
Executive Agreements What are executive agreements? Answer: international agreements made by the President w/o Senatorial ratification. However, the Senate and House may not appropriate funds to support the agreement P.S. When putting the American Flag alongside other nations’ flags – the US flag always goes on the right (as in this picture)
Advantages / Problems•Advantages of this power is speed and secrecy •Essential during a crisis•Agreements and treaties are binding on all futureadministrations.•. John F Kennedy and Nikita Kruschev during the Cuban Missile Crisis “You pull your missiles out and I will pull our missiles out.”
Chief Legislator Influences the making of laws The President can recommend laws to Congress. Helps create Congressional Agenda What is the big push this year? What was it last year? State of the Union Address
Chief Legislator President must give a State of the Union Address every year. Displays what legislation the President would like to see passed in the upcoming session of Congress Getting Legislation Passed Power of Persuasion Compromise Presidents who share the majority party in Congress have an easier time passing legislation
Chief Legislator The President has the power to veto legislation. Congress may override w/ a 2/3 majority ○ VERY hard to override a veto If you are curious -Top 3 “Vetoing” Presidents: 1. Franklin Roosevelt 635 vetoes 2. Grover Cleveland 414 vetoes 3. Henry Truman 250 vetoes How many has President Obama vetoed?
Chief of Par ty Not mentioned in Constitution Chooses national chairperson Disciplines party President Obama supporting fellow members who do not Democratic Candidate last October support him. Rewards those that support him (patronage)
Chief of Par ty Try to maintain a high level of public opinion ratings. This gives them even greater influence Can help others in party ○ Unpopular presidents can hurt others in party
Special Powers Presidents have a variety of powers and special privileges not available to other branches of the U.S. government. The 4 types are: 1.Emergency Powers 2.Executive Orders 3.Judicial Powers 4.Executive Privilege
Emergency Powers These are also known as inherent powers. Exercised by the President during a period of national crisis, particularly in foreign affairs EXAMPLE: 1952 – Truman tried to take over steel mills because he needed weapons for Korean War. Supreme Court said the President could not take away private property. Example: President sent soldiers to deliver mail during 1970s postal strike
Executive Orders Rules issued by the President that have the force of law. They can do 3 things: 1. Give force to legislative statutes 2. Enforce the Constitution or treaties with nation 3. Establish practices of administrative agencies This represents the Presidents legislative pwr. EXAMPLES: 1) to classify gvt. Information as secret, 2) ration consumer goods, and 3) restructure the White House bureaucracy (dept of Homeland Security was created by Executive Order)
Granting Reprieves and Pardons Pardon: granting of a release from the punishment of a crime. Legal forgiveness. A pardon can be granted before/after a conviction Amnesty – forgiveness of a crime to a group of law violators Reprieve: To postpone the execution of sentence imposed by a court of law; usually done to await new evidence/humanitarian. Commutation: reduction in severity of legal penalty
Executive Privilege The President’s right to refuse to appear before, or to withhold information from a court or Congressional investigation. Nixon and Watergate Tapes The Supreme Court held that executive privilege could not be used to prevent evidence from being heard in criminal proceedings.
Identify the President’s Role 1) President Clinton appointed Ruth Bader Ginsberg to the Supreme Court. 2) Jimmy Carter brought Egypt and Israel together to sign the Camp David Peace Accords in 1979. 3) President Clinton sent Hillary Clinton to represent the United States at the funeral of Diana, Princess of Wales. 4) President Kennedy ordered Americas nuclear forces on high alert during the Cuban Missile Crisis of 1962. 5) President Carter placed restrictions on the sale of gasoline during the 1979 energy crisis. 6) The president made his annual state-of-the union address to Congress to outline his agenda for the year.
Homework: Read about the Vice President’s role and the order of succession to the presidency on the Moodle Answer: What is the President’s most important role? (Your opinion) ○ TEAEAC response (Due Weds.)