Verbal communication is the process ofcommunication through sending andreceiving messages with the use of words.Word is a unit of language that carriesmeaning and consists of one or moremorphemes which are linked more or lesstightly together, and has a phoneticalvalue.
Nonverbal communication is the process ofcommunication through sending and receivingwordless messages.Visual communication is the conveyance ofideas and information in forms that can be reador looked upon.Oral communication is the conveyance of ideasand information in forms that can be listened toor spoken.
Theory of LanguageCharles Morris (an influential 20th-centurysemiotician), the study of language evolvedinto three primary branches:1. Semantics2. Syntactics3. Pragmatics
SemanticsSemantics is thestudy of therelationshipbetween wordsand theirreferents, or thethings designated.
“Words don’t mean; people mean.” Themeaning of a word is always determined by aperson.People are not free to use words however theywish. The society, culture, and tradition limitwhat meanings might be inferred from a term.Meanings are not fixed, however, and domigrate as groups, cultures, and traditionschange in how they use various words.
SyntacticsSyntactics is the study of relationshipsamong signs, which in language involves afocus on how speech sounds, words, andstructures are organized into largersegments of meaning.In classical linguistics, syntax refers togrammar.
PragmaticsPragmatics is the study of signs as used inactual situations. Pragmatics looks at evenlarger levels of meaning—not just themeaning of words and sentences, but theintentions and goals that lie behind amessage and the attributions given toothers’ intentions.
The first scientific study of nonverbalcommunication was seen in CharlesDarwin’s book The Expression of theEmotions in Man and Animals.He argued that all mammals showemotions reliably in their faces.
People make judgments about the nature andbehavior of persons based on their nonverbaland visual cues rather than on their verbalcommunication.We usually look first at their face to see if theirexpression reflects what they are saying. Thenwe listen to the tone of their voice to check ifthere are any indications of the emotionsinvolved, and finally, we listen to the spokenwords to get the actual meaning.
Ray Birdwhistell:The most human communication occursthrough gestures, postures, position, anddistance.He described a 65 to35% split betweenactions and words.
Albert Mehrabian―There are three mainelements of communication:1. The verbal refers to the words that are spoken, the message.2. The vocal refers to the intonation, projection, and resonance of the voice through which the message is conveyed.3. The visual depicts the nonverbal behaviors while speaking.
Mehrabian noted the impact ofcommunication across the three forms asverbal, 7% (words); vocal, 38% (tone ofvoice, inflection); and visual, 55%(nonverbal physical behaviors).The visual is the most controllable andperhaps the most unconscious element ofthe message from sender to receiver.
Edward T. Hall (1950 -1960) ―Proxemics:The studies of how human demonstrateterritoriality (human behavior regardingpersonal space).Owen Hargie and David Dickson identifiedfour such territories; Primary, Secondary,Public and Interaction territory.
Primary TerritoryPrimary territory refers to an area that isassociated with someone who hasexclusive use of it—for example, a housethat others cannot enter without theowner’s permission.
Secondary TerritorySecondary territory, if using the previousexample, means that there is no right tooccupancy, but people may still feel somedegree of ownership of a particular space.For example, someone may sit in the same seaton a train every day and feel aggrieved ifsomeone else sits there.
Public TerritoryPublic territory refers toan area that is availableto all, but only for a setperiod, such as a parkingspace or a seat in alibrary.
Interaction TerritoryInteraction territory is the space created byothers when they are interacting.For example, when a group is talking toeach other on a footpath, others will walkaround the group rather than disturb it.
Edward T. Hall defines three basic types ofspace:1. Fixed-feature space consists of unmovable things such as walls and rooms.2. Semifixed-feature space includes moveable objects such as furniture3. Informal space is the personal territory around the body that travels with a person and determines the interpersonal distance between people.
Haptics is the study of touching behavior innonverbal communication.Touches that can be defined ascommunication include handshakes,holding hands, kissing (cheek, lips, hand),back slapping, a pat on the shoulder, andbrushing an arm.
The meaning conveyed from touch is highlydependent upon the context of thesituation, the relationship betweencommunicators, and the manner of touch.
The study of the role of eyes in nonverbalcommunication is referred to as oculesics.Eye contact can indicate interest, attention, andinvolvement.Gaze comprises the actions of looking whiletalking, looking while listening, amount of gaze,and frequency of glances, patterns of fixation,pupil dilation, and blink rate.
Chronemics is the study of the concepts andprocesses of human temporality, or connectionswith time, as they are bound to humancommunication interactions.Our notions of time, how we use it, the timingof events, our emotional responses to time, andeven the length of our pauses contribute to thecommunicative effect of time.
William Gudykunst and Stella Ting-Toomeyidentified two dominant time patterns:1. Monochronic time schedule (M-time) refers to cultures and contexts in which time is seen as being very important.2. Polychronic time schedule (P-time) where personal involvement is more important than schedules.
Kinesics is the study of bodily activity innonverbal communication.Kinesics is also popularly known as bodylanguage. Kinesic behaviors include mutualgaze, smiling, facial warmth orpleasantness, childlike behaviors, directbody orientation, and the like.
Environmental factors such as furniture,architectural style, interior decorating, lightingconditions, colors, temperature, noise, andmusic affect the behavior of communicatorsduring interaction.The physical appearance of the human bodyelements such as physique, height, weight, hair,skin color, gender, odors, and clothing sendnonverbal messages during interaction.
Paralanguage (sometimes called vocalics) isthe study of nonverbal cues of the voice.Vocalics is concerned with the use of thevoice in communication. Vocalics consistsof several features such as resonance,articulation, lip control, and rhythmcontrol, intensity, tempo, pitch, fluencyand vocal patterns.