IntellectualAn intellectual is a person who usesintelligence (thought and reason) andcritical or analytical reasoning in eithera professional or a personal capacity.Wikipedia.org: Intellectual
"Intellectual" can denote four types of persons:1. A person involved in ideas and theories.2. A person whose profession solely involves the production and dissemination of ideas.3. A person of notable cultural and artistic expertise.4. A person with the creativity to "think outside the box".
Creativity and IntelligenceSome researchers believe that creativity is theoutcome of the same cognitive processes asintelligence.The Threshold Hypothesis (Ellis Paul Torrance):There is a weaker relationship betweencreativity and intelligence for an IQ above 120than for an IQ below 120.
Conventional vs. Creative Intelligence• Conventional intelligence communicates through thoughts, concepts, opinions and ideas... Creative intelligence communicates through feelings, emotions, imaginings and intuitions.• Conventional intelligence analyzes and critiques... Creative intelligence plays and explores.
Conventional vs. Creative Intelligence• Conventional intelligence persuades through intellectual opinion and argument... Creative intelligence persuades through story, symbol, and song.• Conventional intelligence consumes art, writing and music as entertainment... Creative intelligence creates art, writing and music as expression
Conventional vs. Creative Intelligence• Conventional intelligence likes answers... Creative intelligence likes questions• Conventional intelligence persuades through intellectual opinion and argument... Creative intelligence persuades through story, symbol, and song.
Intellectual capital is the assetbase of a new, knowledge-basedeconomy that is producingsignificant levels of equity andwealth based on theformalization of ideas,innovation, and creativity.
The concept of intellectual capitalembraces the products and creationsof thinking and feeling, the arts andthe sciences, the professions, and theworld of business insofar as they aretreated as assets and leveraged forbusiness or enterprise purposes.
Ethics and Intellectual Capital Issues• The creation of intellectual capital assets―trademark or patent.• The monetization of intellectual capital assets―the “min-maxing” of intellectual assets or “hidden assets” or unreported intellectual assets.• The responsible management of intellectual capital assets―Unmanaged or poorly managed intellectual capital assets
Apple said:“It’s no coincidence that Samsung’slatest products look a lot like theiPhone and iPad, from the shape tothe UI and even packaging. This kindof blatant copying is wrong, and weneed to protect Apple’s IP whencompanies steal our ideas.”
Ideas and talent will become thecurrency of an era of intellectualcapital that will place a highpremium on the ability ofindividuals to imagine andcreate.
Intellectual property refers tothose rights or entitlementsthat attach to intangiblessuch as artistic expressionsand technological inventions.
Types of Intellectual Property1. Copyrights2. Patents3. Trademarks
Copyrights (Hak Cipta)• Hak cipta merupakan "hak untuk menyalin atau membatasi penggandaan suatu ciptaan".• Hak cipta adalah hak eksklusif Pencipta atau Pemegang Hak Cipta untuk mengatur penggunaan hasil penuangan gagasan atau informasi tertentu.
UU No. 12 Th. 2002Hak cipta adalah "hak eksklusif bagi penciptaatau penerima hak untuk mengumumkan ataumemperbanyak ciptaannya atau memberikanizin untuk itu dengan tidak mengurangipembatasan-pembatasan menurut peraturanperundang-undangan yang berlaku“.(pasal 1 butir 1)
Some Facts for Copyright• Copyrights are not granted automatically. For material to be protected, it must reflect some degree of originality.• Copyrights are not indefinite; typically expire after a predetermined period of time (typically, 50 years).
Some Facts for Copyright• Copyrighted material is often given fair use treatment when used for educational purposes.• Also considered are the proportion used, compared with the size of the whole, and the effect of the use on the potential market for the copyrighted material.
PatentsPatents are grants from thegovernment giving exclusive rights to``make, use, and sell a product for 20years.
Copyrights vs. Patents:Copyright protects theexpression of an idea, while apatent protects the ideaitself.
Trademarks• A trademark is a distinctive symbol or sign to which commercial value is attached because of the connection between the symbolic representation and organizations, products, or services.• The primary purpose of a trademark is to identify organizations, products, and services in the marketplace.
Unlike copyrights and patents,trademark rights do not expire withina predetermined time period.For rights to be enforced, however, thetrademark owner must continue touse the trademark.
Four reasons are generally offered tojustify the protection of intellectualproperty rights:1. Disclosure2. Innovation3. Product investment4. Design development
Some Ethics of Intellectual Property• Having permission• Following the rules• Avoiding plagiarism