Kuliah Proses Komunikasi Oleh Coky Fauzi Alfi cokyfauzialfi.wordpress.comVISUAL RHETORIC
Topics• Define: Visual Rhetoric• Characteristics of Visual Rhetoric• Rhetorical Figures• The Model of Visual Rhetoric• The Genre of Photojournalism
Classical rhetoric as applied to argumentswas concerned with the means of giving thegreatest possible persuasive power to thewritten or spoken word.Pictures can also, like words be used to posearguments, raise questions, create fictions,present metaphors, or even mount a critiqueand are not intended as faithful copies ofreality.
Define: Visual Rhetoric
Sonja K. Foss generally definedvisual rhetoric as the study of theuse of visual symbols to influenceand manage meanings.
Rhetoric is the art of persuasion and givespossibilities to the designer to constructappropriate messages.The purpose of rhetoric is the efficient useof language in order to shape attitudes inothers and influence their behavior.It operates on the basis of logical and estheticmodes to affect interaction in both a rationaland an emotional way.
Characteristics of VisualRhetoric
Not every visual object is visual rhetoric.What turns a visual object into acommunicative artifact—a symbol thatcommunicates and can be studied asrhetoric—is the presence of threecharacteristics.
3 Characteristics of Visual Rhetoric• Symbolic Action To qualify as visual rhetoric, an image must go beyond serving as a sign, however, and be symbolic, with that image only indirectly connected to its referent.• Human Intervention Visual rhetoric requires human action in the process of creation and in the process of interpretation.• Presence of an Audience Visual elements are arranged and modified by a rhetor not simply for self-expression but also for communication with an audience.
The fundamental operations of rhetorical figures and their relationship
Relation1. Identity: is created when the significance between two elements is identical2. Similarity: there is at least one significant relation in form or content between two elements3. Difference: the relation between two elements differ totally, one element is totally different than the other4. Opposition: at least one relation between two elements in form or content are opposed5. False homology: two elements are compared, however there is no resemblance in reality between the elements, like a paradox
Rhetorical Operation• Addition: One or more elements are added to the proposition (repetition is seen as addition of identical elements)• Suppression: One or more elements of the proposition are suppressed, and two derived operations: 1. Substitution is analyzed as a suppression followed by an addition: an element is suppressed in order to be replaced by another 2. Exchange includes two reciprocal substitutions: two elements of the proposition are permutated
Metonymy: A meaning indicated verbally is set in relation to anothermeaning, based on a thematic connection.
Synechdoche: A substitution for a part of something which stands for awhole.
Amplification: The expansion of a topic through the assemblage ofrelevant particulars
Metaphor: An implied comparison between two things of unlike nature
Personification A comparison where by human qualities are assigned toinanimate objects
Hyperbole: The exaggeration of an object beyond its natural and properdimensions
The Model of Visual Rhetoric
Meaning Operation Complexity Connection Similiarity Opposition ❶Visual Structure Juxtaposition Fusion ❷ more Replacement ❸ Richiness more
• Juxta-position: two unities of significance (two images or signs) stand next to each other• Fusion: two elements of significance are combined• Replacement: one element is exchanged for another
The Genre of Photojournalism
The genre of photojournalism offers aparticular case for the merits of thenarrative theories and criticism invisual rhetorical analysis.
Raising the Flag on Iwo Jima - Joe Rosenthal (February 23, 1945)
The Oklahoma City bombing, a fireman rescuing a child - Charles Porter (1995)
The My Lai Massacre (the Vietnam War mass murder-March 16, 1968)