Practical Applications of
Universal Design for Learning
Bryan G. Cook
Professor, University of Hawaii
Objectives
Participants will
1. understand the need to universally
design instruction
2. learn the guiding principles of
u...
Overview of Presentation
 Introduction to UDI
 UDI Approaches
 Syllabi
 Curriculum and Instruction
 Assessment
 Empi...
The Need for UDI
 Increasingly diverse college student
body
 40% age 25 or older
 31% racial/ethnic minorities
 34% at...
The Need for UDI
 Increased emphasis on student retention
 Shift in pedagogy from delivering instruction
to promoting le...
Origins of UDI
 Buildings designed for
the “average” person
 Require retrofitting to
accommodate others
 Retrofits expe...
Origins of UDI
 Universal design considers
“broadest possible range of
users from the beginning”
(Ron Mace, architect)
 ...
What is UDI?
 “The design of instructional materials
and activities that makes the
learning goals achievable by
individua...
Principles of UDI (or L or E)
(Scott, McGuire, & Shaw, 2001)
 Equitable use
 Flexibility in
use
 Simple and
intuitive
...
Another View of
UDI’s Guiding Principles
 Multiple/alternative means of:
 Representation
 Engagement
 Expression
Syllabi
Common Problems with
Syllabi
 Sometimes not handed out
 Important information often left out
 Not always followed
 dat...
Clarity
 Basic information
 objectives, prerequisites, contact info., textbooks
 Course schedule
 Disc. topics, exam d...
Adherence
 Syllabus only effective when it guides
course
 Stick to syllabus
 If changes are necessary, clearly inform
s...
Accessibility
 Disseminate electronically/ post online
 can be read aloud by a screen reader, magnified,
saved as an MP3...
Examples
 http://www.portals.emory.edu/emory_udi_s
for examples of UDI syllabi
Curriculum and Instruction
Need to Universalize C&I
 Predominant mode of instruction is
lecture
 Comprehending and taking notes
simultaneously diff...
Focused Curriculum
 Identify critical
concepts and
organize course
around them
 Less can be more
 Provide multiple
expo...
Multiple Means of Representation
 Use varied instructional methods
 E.g., lecture with a visual outline, group
activitie...
Multiple Means of
Engagement
 Provide practice opportunities (online,
in class) at different levels
 Provide examples th...
Tips for Maximizing
Student Learning
 Provide/ stimulate background
knowledge
 Highlight critical concepts
 Repeat crit...
Class Climate
 Welcome everyone
 Model and demand respect
 Be approachable and accessible
 learn students’ names
 see...
Video clip
 https://www.washington.edu/doit/Video/Wm
for a video-clip on applying UDI to post-
secondary classrooms
Assessment
Need to Universalize
Assessments
 Many assessments measure
reading and writing ability more
than content being tested
 S...
Multiple Means of Representation
 Represent problems in multiple
ways
 Unless testing is specific to a particular
modali...
Multiple Means of Expression
 Allow students different means to
express mastery of the content
 E.g., written paper, app...
Multiple Means of
Engagement
 When appropriate, provide choices in
focus of assessment
 E.g., differentiate assessment b...
Clarity
 Test what you teach
 Communicate what will be covered/ what is
expected
 Provide examples of model work
 Give...
Formative vs. Summative
 Use multiple, formative assessments
 Examine students’ progress along the way
 E.g., biweekly ...
Guided Notes
Need for Guided Notes
 Dominant instructional mode is lecture
 Demands extensive note-taking
 Students typically take p...
Guided Notes:
What is it and How to …
 GN = handouts that guide students
through a lecture
 Identify the most important ...
Guided Notes:
What is it and How to …
 Insert cues (*, ⇒) to indicate where and
how many facts/concepts to write.
 Other...
Guided Notes: Rationale
 Consistent with UDI principles
 Improves accuracy of notes
 Frees students from excessive
writ...
GNs: Research Highlights
 Lazarus (1993): College students w/
LD increased quiz scores after using
GNs
 Russell et al. (...
Pause Procedure
Need for Pause Procedure
 In typical lecture, students given little
opportunity to
 Reflect on content
 Discuss or proc...
The Pause Procedure:
What is it?
 Short (e.g., 2-minute), periodic breaks to
review notes and discuss content
 Pause at ...
Pause Procedure: Rationale
 Consistent with UDI
principles
 Increases accuracy of notes
 Provide students time to
refle...
Pause Procedure in Action …
 Take 2 minutes and think about how
you might use the pause procedure
PP: Research Highlights
 PP=higher free recall and test
scores (Ruhl et al., 1990) and more
complete notes (Ruhl & Surits...
Pause Procedure in Action
 Write down ideas for how you might
modify or add to the pause procedure
when you use it (2 min...
Graphic Organizers
Need for Graphic Organizers
 Discrepancy between texts and
students’ reading level
 Students complain not enough time
to...
Graphic Organizers:
What are They?
 A visual and graphic display
depicting relationships in course
content
 Advanced org...
Spider Map
Flowchart
Graphic Organizers: How to
…
 Can provide completed GOs to
students
 Learn by viewing
 Students can construct own GOs
...
Graphic Organizers: Rationale
 Consistent with UDI principles
 Explicitly and visually present
relationships between con...
GOs: Research Highlights
 No research located on GOs for college
students w/ disabilities.
 Positive effects on higher o...
Concluding Thoughts:
UDI and Accommodations
 Students with disabilities are
legally entitled to, and will often still
nee...
Discussion Questions
 For whom will UDI be effective?
 How can we as individuals implement
and maintain UDI related inst...
Links to UDI Resources
 www.cast.org/, center for applied special technology
site devoted to UDI
 www.washington.edu/doi...
More Links to UDI Resources
 http://accessproject.colostate.edu/udl/documents/index.cfm
, Colorado State’s Project Access...
References
 Austin, J. L., Lee, M. G., Thibeault, M. D., Carr, J. E., & Bailey, J. S. (2002).
Effects of guided notes on ...
References
 Robinson, D. H., & Kiewra, K.A. (1995). Visual argument: Graphic
organizers are superior to outlines in impro...
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PPT presentation by Bryan Cook from the University of Hawaii about ways for instructors to provide access to students with disabilities.

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  • Examples:
    Equitable use: All students use guided notes, not just those with disabilities/low achievers.
    Flexibility in use: use varied instructional procedures (lecture, hands-on activity, discussion group)
    Simple & intuitive: use grading rubric, follow syllabus
    Perceptible information: repeat key phrases, distribute class materials electronically
    Tolerance for error: anticipate variability in pace and skills; online tutorials, frequent feedback
    Low physical effort: allow work on computer instead of manual writing
    Size & space for approach and use: circular seating arrangement so everyone can see one another when speaking
    Community of learners: learn students’ names, organize e-mail lists and discussion boards
    Instructional climate: open/welcoming, respect, high expectations
  • Single-subject research study
  • Practicaludi

    1. 1. Practical Applications of Universal Design for Learning Bryan G. Cook Professor, University of Hawaii
    2. 2. Objectives Participants will 1. understand the need to universally design instruction 2. learn the guiding principles of universal design for instruction (UDI) 3. learn practical UDI procedures
    3. 3. Overview of Presentation  Introduction to UDI  UDI Approaches  Syllabi  Curriculum and Instruction  Assessment  Empirically Validated Instructional Techniques Consistent with UDI  Guided Notes  The Pause Procedure  Graphic Organizers  Conclusion
    4. 4. The Need for UDI  Increasingly diverse college student body  40% age 25 or older  31% racial/ethnic minorities  34% attending college part-time  20% increase in international students from 1998 to 2004  Students with disabilities  2.3% in 1978 to 9.8% in 1998
    5. 5. The Need for UDI  Increased emphasis on student retention  Shift in pedagogy from delivering instruction to promoting learning  College students report:  Unclear expectations  Textbooks inaccessible  Lectures that require extensive notetaking  Assessments that don’t reflect their learning  Difficulty attaining accommodations
    6. 6. Origins of UDI  Buildings designed for the “average” person  Require retrofitting to accommodate others  Retrofits expensive, call attention to user, solve one problem at a time
    7. 7. Origins of UDI  Universal design considers “broadest possible range of users from the beginning” (Ron Mace, architect)  E.g., Ramps, curb cuts, electric doors, TV captions, easy grip tools  Increases access for many unintended users
    8. 8. What is UDI?  “The design of instructional materials and activities that makes the learning goals achievable by individuals with wide differences in their abilities” (Council for Exceptional Children)  Essentially, proactive instruction to meet the needs of diverse learners
    9. 9. Principles of UDI (or L or E) (Scott, McGuire, & Shaw, 2001)  Equitable use  Flexibility in use  Simple and intuitive  Perceptible information  Tolerance for error  Low physical effort  Size and space for approach and use  A community of learners  Instructional climate
    10. 10. Another View of UDI’s Guiding Principles  Multiple/alternative means of:  Representation  Engagement  Expression
    11. 11. Syllabi
    12. 12. Common Problems with Syllabi  Sometimes not handed out  Important information often left out  Not always followed  dates, readings, assignments, grading criteria changed  Syllabi often confuse students
    13. 13. Clarity  Basic information  objectives, prerequisites, contact info., textbooks  Course schedule  Disc. topics, exam dates, assignments, readings  Grade calculation  Course policies  Tardies/absences, late assignments, test/ assignment make-ups, academic misconduct  Additional materials required  Avoid being “text-heavy”  More can be less
    14. 14. Adherence  Syllabus only effective when it guides course  Stick to syllabus  If changes are necessary, clearly inform students  Necessitates significant planning
    15. 15. Accessibility  Disseminate electronically/ post online  can be read aloud by a screen reader, magnified, saved as an MP3 audio file, transferred to a Braille file, translated into another language  Include a disability statement  http://www.hawaii.edu/kokua/faculty.htm#syllabus  Invite students with disabilities and other learning needs to meet with you privately
    16. 16. Examples  http://www.portals.emory.edu/emory_udi_s for examples of UDI syllabi
    17. 17. Curriculum and Instruction
    18. 18. Need to Universalize C&I  Predominant mode of instruction is lecture  Comprehending and taking notes simultaneously difficult for some  Students have trouble discerning important information  Content can get lost in instruction that is not clear
    19. 19. Focused Curriculum  Identify critical concepts and organize course around them  Less can be more  Provide multiple exposures to key concepts
    20. 20. Multiple Means of Representation  Use varied instructional methods  E.g., lecture with a visual outline, group activities, hands-on activities, web-based discussions boards, video clips  Provide class materials in different formats  Electronic versions can be translated into various formats  Record lectures and make available as podcasts
    21. 21. Multiple Means of Engagement  Provide practice opportunities (online, in class) at different levels  Provide examples that highlight diversity and different ways of thinking  Allow students choice in class activities
    22. 22. Tips for Maximizing Student Learning  Provide/ stimulate background knowledge  Highlight critical concepts  Repeat critical concepts, using multiple means  Avoid unnecessary jargon, complex terms  Provide lots of examples
    23. 23. Class Climate  Welcome everyone  Model and demand respect  Be approachable and accessible  learn students’ names  seek out and value students’ points of view  Motivate students  be positive and challenging  select relevant materials/assignments
    24. 24. Video clip  https://www.washington.edu/doit/Video/Wm for a video-clip on applying UDI to post- secondary classrooms
    25. 25. Assessment
    26. 26. Need to Universalize Assessments  Many assessments measure reading and writing ability more than content being tested  Students often unclear on what is being tested  Many students with disabilities don’t request testing accommodations
    27. 27. Multiple Means of Representation  Represent problems in multiple ways  Unless testing is specific to a particular modality  E.g., Math problem expressed as word problem and graphically  E.g., Read written problems/ prompts out loud
    28. 28. Multiple Means of Expression  Allow students different means to express mastery of the content  E.g., written paper, applied project, live presentation, narrated computer presentation, portfolio, multiple choice test  E.g., handwritten or on laptop  Or vary assessments
    29. 29. Multiple Means of Engagement  When appropriate, provide choices in focus of assessment  E.g., differentiate assessment based on specialty area  E.g., provide different essay or project topics from which students select  E.g., students select topic for reading/ writing assignment in foreign language class
    30. 30. Clarity  Test what you teach  Communicate what will be covered/ what is expected  Provide examples of model work  Give students scoring rubric as study guide  Provide plenty of “white space” on tests  Use vocabulary/ phrasing that is easy to understand  Minimize time constraints when appropriate
    31. 31. Formative vs. Summative  Use multiple, formative assessments  Examine students’ progress along the way  E.g., biweekly quizzes rather than one final exam  Provide frequent and meaningful feedback  Reteach/ review as indicated by assessments
    32. 32. Guided Notes
    33. 33. Need for Guided Notes  Dominant instructional mode is lecture  Demands extensive note-taking  Students typically take poor notes  Quality and completeness of notes strongly predict student outcomes
    34. 34. Guided Notes: What is it and How to …  GN = handouts that guide students through a lecture  Identify the most important course content  Less can be more  Delete key facts, concepts, and relationships from lecture outline  Remaining information structures and contextualizes notes
    35. 35. Guided Notes: What is it and How to …  Insert cues (*, ⇒) to indicate where and how many facts/concepts to write.  Other symbols for adding own examples/questions for review (!) or emphasizing “big ideas” ()  Leave plenty of space  Don’t require too much writing  Include additional resources such as URLs and references
    36. 36. Guided Notes: Rationale  Consistent with UDI principles  Improves accuracy of notes  Frees students from excessive writing  Actively involves students in constructing notes and following lecture
    37. 37. GNs: Research Highlights  Lazarus (1993): College students w/ LD increased quiz scores after using GNs  Russell et al. (1983): Positive effects of GNs when using case studies, not lecture  Austin et al. (2002): College students preferred using GNs
    38. 38. Pause Procedure
    39. 39. Need for Pause Procedure  In typical lecture, students given little opportunity to  Reflect on content  Discuss or process content  Even best students have limited attention spans
    40. 40. The Pause Procedure: What is it?  Short (e.g., 2-minute), periodic breaks to review notes and discuss content  Pause at natural breaks, app. every 15 ms.  Set timer for end of break  Pauses can  be independent review of notes and/or short writing assignment  be group (e.g., dyad) discussion of notes  include time for unresolved questions
    41. 41. Pause Procedure: Rationale  Consistent with UDI principles  Increases accuracy of notes  Provide students time to reflect, integrate, and ask questions  Provides students and instructor with breaks
    42. 42. Pause Procedure in Action …  Take 2 minutes and think about how you might use the pause procedure
    43. 43. PP: Research Highlights  PP=higher free recall and test scores (Ruhl et al., 1990) and more complete notes (Ruhl & Suritsky, 1995) for college students w/ LD.  Higher exam scores when using pauses (personal written or discussion) of students’ preference (Braun & Simpson, 2004).
    44. 44. Pause Procedure in Action  Write down ideas for how you might modify or add to the pause procedure when you use it (2 minutes)
    45. 45. Graphic Organizers
    46. 46. Need for Graphic Organizers  Discrepancy between texts and students’ reading level  Students complain not enough time to read and digest texts  Lectures often not effective  Students often study by memorizing facts, rather than understanding relationships
    47. 47. Graphic Organizers: What are They?  A visual and graphic display depicting relationships in course content  Advanced organizers, Venn diagrams, concept/spider/story maps, flowcharts, hierarchies  Not one-dimensional outlines
    48. 48. Spider Map
    49. 49. Flowchart
    50. 50. Graphic Organizers: How to …  Can provide completed GOs to students  Learn by viewing  Students can construct own GOs  Learn by doing  Students can finalize partially completed GOs
    51. 51. Graphic Organizers: Rationale  Consistent with UDI principles  Explicitly and visually present relationships between concepts  Facilitate “nonmemorization” study strategies.
    52. 52. GOs: Research Highlights  No research located on GOs for college students w/ disabilities.  Positive effects on higher order knowledge but not on facts (Robinson & Kiewra, 1995); on delayed but not immediate tests (Robinson et al., 1998).  Quiz scores higher using partially complete GOs (Robinson et al., 2006)  Lead to many students constructing own GOs
    53. 53. Concluding Thoughts: UDI and Accommodations  Students with disabilities are legally entitled to, and will often still need, reasonable accommodations.  Promising notion, but more research warranted  Maintain academic integrity of programs and courses  Fair treatment and evaluation across students
    54. 54. Discussion Questions  For whom will UDI be effective?  How can we as individuals implement and maintain UDI related instruction?  How can we foster a broader adoption of UDI?
    55. 55. Links to UDI Resources  www.cast.org/, center for applied special technology site devoted to UDI  www.washington.edu/doit/, U. of Washington’s Do-It program’s site, extensive resources for UDI  www.facultyware.uconn.edu/, U. of Connecticut’s site devoted to UDI for faculty  http://www.washington. edu/doit/Brochures/PDF/equal_access_uddl.pdf, brochure regarding UDI for distance learning  www.oln.org/ILT/ada/Fame/help_1.html, Ohio State’s site devoted to UDI for faculty and administrators  www.ferris.edu/htmls/colleges/university/disability/faculty
    56. 56. More Links to UDI Resources  http://accessproject.colostate.edu/udl/documents/index.cfm , Colorado State’s Project Access page  http://telr.osu.edu/dpg/fastfact/fastfactcolor/Universal.pdf , fast facts regarding UDI and good teaching  teachingeverystudent.blogspot .com/2007/01/free-technology-toolkit-for-udl-in-all_12.html, free technology-related resources  gwired.gwu.edu/dss/Newsletters/Fall05UDL/, guide for incorporating UDI  http://kysig.louisville.edu/whatis.htm, UDI description with specific examples
    57. 57. References  Austin, J. L., Lee, M. G., Thibeault, M. D., Carr, J. E., & Bailey, J. S. (2002). Effects of guided notes on university students' responding and recall of information. Journal of Behavioral Education, 11, 243-254.  Braun, R. L., & Simpson, W. R. (2004). The pause method in undergraduate auditing: An analysis of student assessments and relative effectiveness. Advances in Accounting Education Teaching and Curriculum Innovations, 6, 69-85.  Lazarus, B. D. (1993). Guided notes: Effects with secondary and post secondary students with mild disabilities. Education & Treatment of Children, 16, 272-289.  Robinson, D. H., Katayama, A. D., Beth, A., Odom, S., Hsieh, Y., & Vanderveen, A. (2006). Increasing text comprehension and graphic note taking using a partial graphic organizer. Journal of Educational Research, 100, 103-111.  Robinson, D. H., Katayama, A. D., Dubois, N. F, & Devaney, T. (1998). Interactive effects of graphic organizers and delayed review on concept acquisition. Journal of Experimental Education, 67, 17-31.
    58. 58. References  Robinson, D. H., & Kiewra, K.A. (1995). Visual argument: Graphic organizers are superior to outlines in improving learning from text. Journal of Educational Psychology, 87, 455-467.  Ruhl, K. L., Hughes, C. A., & Gajar, A. H. (1990). Efficacy of the pause procedure for enhancing learning disabled and nondisabled college students’ long- and short-term recall of facts presented through lecture. Learning Disability Quarterly, 13, 55-64.  Ruhl, K. L., & Suritsky, S. (1995). The pause procedure and/or an outline: Effect on immediate free recall and lecture notes taken by college students with learning disabilities. Learning Disability Quarterly, 18, 2-11.  Russell, I. J., Caris, T. N., Harris, G. D., & Hendricson, W. D. (1983). Effects of three types of lecture notes on medical student achievement. Journal of Medical Education, 58, 627-636.  Scott, S. S., McGuire, J. M., & Shaw, S. F. (2001). Principles of universal design for instruction. Storrs, CT: University of Connecticut, Center on Post- secondary Education and Disability.
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