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  • 1. Chapter 2 Computer HardwareComputer Concepts 2012
  • 2. 2 Chapter Contents ï Section A: Personal Computer Basics ï Section B: Microprocessors and Memory ï Section C: Storage Devices ï Section D: Input and Output Devices ï Section E: Hardware SecurityChapter 2: Computer Hardware 2
  • 3. 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False ï 020100 A netbook is a scaled-down version of a standard notebook computer. ï 020200 Small business computers have better sound and graphics capabilities than home or game computers. ï 020300 PCs, Macs, and Linux are three computer platforms. ï 020400 Today’s Macs can be configured to run Windows. ï 020500 Pentium, Core, Atom, and Athlon are types of microprocessors.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 3
  • 4. 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False ï 020600 Today’s computers typically process 8 bits at a time. ï 020700 Serial processing is when a processor begins executing one instruction before it completes the previous instruction. ï 020800 In RAM microscopic electronic parts called capacitors hold the bits that represent data. ï 020900 ROM is a type of memory that holds the computer’s startup routine.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 4
  • 5. 2 FastPoll True/False Questions Answer A for True and B for False ï 021000 Hard disk drives, optical drives, and solid state drives are random access devices. ï 021100 CD-RWs allow you to record data, but data cannot be changed once it is recorded. ï 021200 VGA, SVGA, and WUXGA are examples of screen resolutions. ï 021300 A surge strip allows you to use your desktop computer during a power outage.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 5
  • 6. 2 SECTION A Personal Computer Basics ï Personal Computer Systems ï Desktop and Portable Computers ï Home, Game, and Small Business Systems ï Buying Computer System ComponentsChapter 2: Computer Hardware 6
  • 7. 2 Question ï 022100 In the interest of being ecological, many consumers consider upgrading their computers instead of disposing of them and buying a new one. Which one of the following upgrades is best left to professional technicians? –  A. Replacing the microprocessor with a newer model –  B. Adding an external hard drive for backup –  C. Swapping out a graphics card for a more powerful one –  D. Adding RAMChapter 2: Computer Hardware 7
  • 8. 2 Personal Computer SystemsChapter 2: Computer Hardware 8
  • 9. 2 Desktop and Portable Computers ï The term form factor refers to the size and dimensions of a component, such as a system board or system unit ï A desktop computer fits on a desk and runs on power from an electrical wall outletChapter 2: Computer Hardware 9
  • 10. 2 Desktop and Portable Computers ï A portable computer is a small, lightweight personal computer ï A notebook computer (also referred to as a laptop), is a small, lightweight portable computer that opens like a clamshell to reveal a screen and keyboard ï A netbook offers even more portability than a standard computer ï A tablet computer is a portable computing device featuring a touch-sensitive screen that can be used as a writing or drawing pad –  Slate tabletChapter 2: Computer Hardware 10
  • 11. 2 Desktop and Portable ComputersChapter 2: Computer Hardware 11
  • 12. 2 Home, Game, and Small Business Systems ï A home computer system offers a computer configuration designed to accommodate consumers who use computers for personal tasks ï Some of the most cutting-edge computers are designed for gaming ï Computers marketed for small business applications tend to be middle-of-the-line models pared down to essentialsChapter 2: Computer Hardware 12
  • 13. 2 Buying Computer System Components ï Browse through computer magazines and online computer stores to get a general idea of features and prices ï Decide on a budget and stick to it ï Make a list of the ways you plan to use your computer ï Select a platform ï Decide on a form factor ï Select peripherals, software, and accessoriesChapter 2: Computer Hardware 13
  • 14. 2 Buying Computer System Components ï Instead of buying a new computer, you might consider upgradingChapter 2: Computer Hardware 14
  • 15. 2 SECTION B Microprocessors and Memory ï Microprocessor Basics ï Today’s Microprocessors ï Random Access Memory ï Read-only Memory ï EEPROMChapter 2: Computer Hardware 15
  • 16. 2 Question ï 022200 Some computers are suitable for e-mail, word processing, and similar low-key operations, whereas other computers have the power to keep up while you play complex action games, edit high-resolution videos, and prepare multi-track sound recordings. Which of the following computers is the most powerful? –  A. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 4 GB RAM –  B. AMD Phenom Quad core processor; 3 GB RAM –  C. Intel Core 2 Quad processor; 2 GB RAM –  D. Intel Atom processor; 4 GB RAMChapter 2: Computer Hardware 16
  • 17. 2 Microprocessor Basics ï A microprocessor is an integrated circuit designed to process instructions –  Usually the most expensive component of a computerChapter 2: Computer Hardware 17
  • 18. 2 Microprocessor Basics ï Microprocessor clock –  Megahertz –  Gigahertz ï Multicore processor ï Front side bus ï Cache –  Level 1 cache (L1) –  Level 2 cache (L2) –  Level 3 cache (L3) ï Word sizeChapter 2: Computer Hardware 18
  • 19. 2 Microprocessor Basics ï CISC vs. RISC technology ï Serial processing –  Pipelining ï Parallel processing ï BenchmarksChapter 2: Computer Hardware 19
  • 20. 2 Today’s MicroprocessorsChapter 2: Computer Hardware 20
  • 21. 2 Random Access Memory ï RAM (random access memory) is a temporary holding area for data, application program instructions, and the operating systemChapter 2: Computer Hardware 21
  • 22. 2 Random Access Memory ï Microscopic capacitors hold the bits that represent data ï Most RAM is volatile –  Requires electrical power to hold dataChapter 2: Computer Hardware 22
  • 23. 2 Random Access Memory ï RAM capacity is expressed in megabytes or gigabytes ï Personal computers typically feature between 2 GB and 8 GB of RAM ï If a program exceeds its allocated space, the operating system uses an area of the hard disk, called virtual memory, to store parts of programs or data files until they are neededChapter 2: Computer Hardware 23
  • 24. 2 Random Access Memory ï SDRAM is fast and relatively inexpensive –  DDR, DDR2, or DDR3 ï RAM speed is often expressed in nanoseconds or megahertz –  Lower nanosecond ratings are betterChapter 2: Computer Hardware 24
  • 25. 2 Read-Only Memory ï ROM is a type of memory circuitry that holds the computer’s startup routine –  Permanent and non-volatile ï The ROM BIOS tells the computer how to access the hard disk, find the operating system, and load it into RAMChapter 2: Computer Hardware 25
  • 26. 2 EEPROM ï Electrically Erasable Programmable Read-Only Memory ï Replaces CMOS technology ï Requires no power to hold dataChapter 2: Computer Hardware 26
  • 27. 2 SECTION C Storage Devices ï Storage Basics ï Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology ï CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology ï Solid State Storage ï Storage Wrap-upChapter 2: Computer Hardware 27
  • 28. 2 Question ï 022300 Storage devices have varying levels of versatility, durability, speed, and capacity. For a student who owns a computer, but sometimes needs to use computers in the school lab, which storage device is most versatile? –  A. Hard disk drive –  B. CD-R –  C. Solid state drive –  D. USB flash driveChapter 2: Computer Hardware 28
  • 29. 2 Storage Basics ï  A storage medium contains data ï  A storage device records and retrieves data from a storage medium –  Data gets copied from a storage device into RAM, where it waits to be processed –  Processed data is held temporarily in RAM before it is copied to a storage medium ï  Vertical vs. horizontal storageChapter 2: Computer Hardware 29
  • 30. 2 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology ï Magnetic storage stores data by magnetizing microscopic particles on the disk or tape surfaceChapter 2: Computer Hardware 30
  • 31. 2 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology Hard disk platters and read-write heads are sealed inside the drive case or cartridge to screen out dust and other contaminants.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 31
  • 32. 2 Magnetic Disk and Tape Technology ï A hard disk controller positions the disk, locates data, and interfaces with the components of the system board –  SATA –  Ultra ATA –  EIDE –  SCSI ï Not as durable as many other storage technologies –  Head crashChapter 2: Computer Hardware 32
  • 33. 2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology ï Optical storage stores data as microscopic light and dark spots on the disk surface –  CD, DVD, and Blu-ray storage technologiesChapter 2: Computer Hardware 33
  • 34. 2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology ï Today’s DVD drives typically have 24X speeds for a data transfer rate of 3600 KBps ï Three categories of optical technologies –  Read-only (ROM) –  Recordable (R) –  Rewritable (RW)Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 34
  • 35. 2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray Technology ï CD-DA ï DVD-Video ï CD-ROM ï DVD-ROM ï CD-R ï DVD+R or DVD-R ï CD-RW ï DVD+RW or DVD-RW ï BD-ROM, BD-R, and BD-REChapter 2: Computer Hardware 35
  • 36. 2 CD, DVD, and Blu-ray TechnologyChapter 2: Computer Hardware 36
  • 37. 2 Solid State Storage ï Solid state storage technology stores data in an erasable, rewritable circuitry ï Non-volatile ï Card reader may be required to read data on solid state storageChapter 2: Computer Hardware 37
  • 38. 2 Solid State Storage ï A USB flash drive is a portable storage device that plugs directly into a computer’s system unit using a built-in connector ï Files stored on a USB flash drive can be opened, edited, deleted, and run just as though those files were on magnetic or optical mediaChapter 2: Computer Hardware 38
  • 39. 2 Storage Wrap-upChapter 2: Computer Hardware 39
  • 40. 2 Storage Wrap-upChapter 2: Computer Hardware 40
  • 41. 2 SECTION D Input and Output Devices ï Basic Input Devices ï Display Devices ï Printers ï Installing Peripheral DevicesChapter 2: Computer Hardware 41
  • 42. 2 Question ï 022400 Computer owners usually want to add various peripheral devices to their computers. Suppose you have a notebook computer and you want to add an external hard drive, but you’ve run out of USB ports. What can you do? –  A. Use the HDMI port instead. –  B. Plug directly into the expansion bus. –  C. Swap in a USB hub for one of the currently connected peripherals. –  D. Use an Ethernet-to-USB converter.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 42
  • 43. 2 Basic Input Devices ï Keyboard ï Pointing device –  Mice –  Trackball –  Joystick –  Trackpad ï Touch screenChapter 2: Computer Hardware 43
  • 44. 2 Display Devices ï An LCD display produces an image by filtering light through a layer of liquid crystal cells ï Gradually, CCFL backlighting technology is being replaced by low- power light-emitting diodes (LEDs) –  LED displayChapter 2: Computer Hardware 44
  • 45. 2 Display Devices ï Screen size ï Dot pitch ï Viewing angle width ï Response rate ï Color depth ï Screen resolution –  VGA, SVGA, XGA, SXGA, UXGA, WUXGA, and WQXGAChapter 2: Computer Hardware 45
  • 46. 2 Display DevicesChapter 2: Computer Hardware 46
  • 47. 2 Display Devices ï Graphics circuitry generates the signals for displaying an image on the screen –  Integrated graphics –  Graphics card –  Graphics processing unit (GPU)Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 47
  • 48. 2 Printers ï An ink-jet printer has a nozzle-like print head that sprays ink onto paper ï A laser printer works like a photocopierChapter 2: Computer Hardware 48
  • 49. 2 Printers Laser printers electrostatically collect toner on a drum, then the toner is transferred onto paper.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 49
  • 50. 2 Printers ï Dot matrix printers produce characters and graphics by using a grid of fine wires –  The wires strike a ribbon and the paperChapter 2: Computer Hardware 50
  • 51. 2 Printers ï Printer features –  Resolution –  Duplex capability –  Print speed –  Memory –  Duty cycle –  Networkability –  Operating costsChapter 2: Computer Hardware 51
  • 52. 2 Installing Peripheral Devices ï  The data bus moves data between RAM and the microprocessor ï  The segment of the data bus to which peripheral devices connect is called the expansion bus ï  An expansion slot is a long, narrow socket on the system board into which you can plug an expansion card ï  Expansion cards are small circuit boards that give the computer additional capabilities –  Expansion portChapter 2: Computer Hardware 52
  • 53. 2 Installing Peripheral Devices An expansion card simply slides into an expansion slot. Before you install an expansion card, make sure you unplug the computer and ground yourself— that’s technical jargon for releasing static electricity by using a special grounding wristband or by touching both hands to a metal object.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 53
  • 54. 2 Installing Peripheral Devices ï An expansion port passes data in and out of a computer or peripheral deviceChapter 2: Computer Hardware 54
  • 55. 2 Installing Peripheral Devices ï Most peripherals connect to an external USB port ï You can easily add USB ports to your computer by using a USB hubChapter 2: Computer Hardware 55
  • 56. 2 Installing Peripheral Devices ï Other kinds of ports ï Plug and Play automatically configures your computer to accommodate new peripheral devices you addChapter 2: Computer Hardware 56
  • 57. 2 SECTION E Hardware Security ï Anti-theft Devices ï Surge Protection and Battery Backup ï Basic Maintenance ï Troubleshooting and RepairChapter 2: Computer Hardware 57
  • 58. 2 Question ï 022500 When you treat your computer carefully and perform basic maintenance, you can avoid many hardware problems, However, if you encounter the blue screen of death, what has gone wrong? –  A. The operating system has encountered an error from which it cannot recover. –  B. Your computer has contracted a virus. –  C. Your hard disk is full. –  D. Your display device has malfunctioned.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 58
  • 59. 2 Anti-Theft DevicesChapter 2: Computer Hardware 59
  • 60. 2 Surge Protection and Battery Backup ï A power surge is a sudden increase in electrical energy, affecting the current that flows to electrical outlets ï A surge strip is a device that contains electrical outlets protected by circuitry that blocks surges ï A UPS is a device that not only provides surge protection, but also furnishes your computer with battery backup power during a power outageChapter 2: Computer Hardware 60
  • 61. 2 Surge Protection and Battery BackupChapter 2: Computer Hardware 61
  • 62. 2 Basic Maintenance ï Computer component failures can be caused by manufacturing defects and other circumstances beyond your control ï Keep the keyboard clean ï Clean your computer screen on a regular basis ï Keep the area clean around your computer ï Make sure fans are free of dustChapter 2: Computer Hardware 62
  • 63. 2 Basic Maintenance Carefully use a cotton swab and a can of compressed air or a vacuum cleaner to remove dust and debris from your keyboard. Sticky liquids are difficult to remove. That can of pop? Better to keep it away from your keyboard.Chapter 2: Computer Hardware 63
  • 64. 2 Troubleshooting and Repair ï There are several telltale signs that your computer is in trouble –  Failure to power up –  Loud beep –  Blank screens and/or error messages –  Blue screen of death ï Windows troubleshooter ï Safe ModeChapter 2: Computer Hardware 64
  • 65. 2 Troubleshooting and RepairChapter 2: Computer Hardware 65
  • 66. 2 What Do You Think? ï 023100 Have you ever thrown away an old computer or other electronic device? –  A. Yes B. No C. Not sure ï  203200 Are you aware of any options for recycling electronic equipment in your local area? –  A. Yes B. No C. Not sure ï 023300 Would it be fair for consumers to pay a recycling tax on any electronic equipment that they purchase? –  A. Yes B. No C. Not sureChapter 2: Computer Hardware 66
  • 67. Chapter 2 CompleteComputer Concepts 2012